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Artemisia annua

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526743/systematic-identification-of-functional-residues-of-artemisia-annua-amorpha-4-11-diene-synthase
#1
Xin Fang, Jian-Xu Li, Jin-Quan Huang, You-Li Xiao, Peng Zhang, Xiao-Ya Chen
Terpene synthases (TPSs) are responsible for the extremely diversified and complex structure of terpenoids. Amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS) has a high (90%) fidelity in generating the sesquiterpene precursor for biosynthesis of artemisinin, an antimalarial drug, however, little is known about how active site residues of ADS involved in the carbocation rearrangement and cyclization reactions. Here, we identify seven residues that are key to most of the catalytic steps in ADS. By structural modeling and amino acid sequence alignments of ADS with two functionally relevant sesquiterpene synthases from Artemisia annua, we performed site-directed mutagenesis and found that a single substitution, T296V, impaired the ring closure activity almost completely, and tetra-substitutions (L374Y/L404V/L405I/G439S) led to an enzyme generating 80% monocyclic bisabolyl-type sesquiterpenes, whereas a double mutant (T399L/T447G) showed compromised activity in regioselective deprotonation to yield 34...
May 19, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477002/biosynthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-using-artemisia-annua-callus-for-inhibiting-stem-end-bacteria-in-cut-carnation-flowers
#2
Qian Hua Xia, Li Ping Zheng, Pei Fei Zhao, Jian Wen Wang
A biological method for synthesising silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was developed using the callus extracts from Artemisia annua L. under sunlight at 25,000 lx. The AgNPs were characterised using transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscope, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The AgNPs were mostly spherical with the size of 2.1 to 45.2 nm (average 10.9 nm). Pulse treatments of AgNPs at 125, 250 and 500 mg/l for 1 h extended vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus cv...
March 2017: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454566/apoptosis-induced-effects-of-extract-from-artemisia-annua-linn%C3%A3-by-modulating-pten-p53-pdk1-akt-signal-pathways-through-pten-p53-independent-manner-in-hct116-colon-cancer-cells
#3
Eun Ji Kim, Guen Tae Kim, Bo Min Kim, Eun Gyeong Lim, Sang-Yong Kim, Young Min Kim
BACKGROUND: The extracts from Artemisia annua Linné (AAE) has been known to possess various functions including anti-bacterial, anti-virus and anti-oxidant effects. However, the mechanism of those effects of AAE is not well known. Pursuantly, we determined the apoptotic effects of extract of AAE in HCT116 cell. In this study, we suggested that AAE may exert cancer cell apoptosis through PTEN/PDK1/Akt/p53signal pathway and mitochondria-mediated apoptotic proteins. METHODS: We measured 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, Hoechst 33342 staining, Annexin V-PI staining, Mitopotential assay, immunofluorescence (IF) and Western blotting...
April 28, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440881/overexpression-of-a-type-i-isopentenyl-pyrophosphate-isomerase-of-artemisia-annua-in-the-cytosol-leads-to-high-arteannuin-b-production-and-artemisinin-increase
#4
Dongming Ma, Gui Li, Fatima Alejos-Gonzalez, Yue Zhu, Zhen Xue, Aimin Wang, Hui Zhang, Xing Li, Hechun Ye, Hong Wang, Benye Liu, De-Yu Xie
We recently characterized a gene-terpene network that is associated with artemisinin biosynthesis in self-pollinated (SP) Artemisia annua, an effective antimalarial plant. We hypothesize that an alteration of gene expression in the network may improve the production of artemisinin and its precursors. In this study, we cloned an isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase (IPPI) cDNA, AaIPPI1, from Artemisia annua (Aa). The full-length cDNA encodes a type I IPPI containing a plastid transit peptide (PTP) at its amino terminus...
April 25, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381803/artesunate-suppresses-the-growth-of-prostatic-cancer-cells-through-inhibiting-androgen-receptor
#5
Zhenzhong Wang, Chao Wang, Ziyu Wu, Jun Xue, Baixin Shen, Wei Zuo, Zengjun Wang, Shou-Lin Wang
Prostatic cancer (PCa) is a leading cause of cancer related death in males and is often regarded as a kind of androgen-sensitive cancer. Artesunate (ART), a semi-synthetic derivative of the Chinese herb Artemisia annua, is such an anti-cancer agent. However, the effects and mechanism of ART on PCa cells remains unclear. The study aims to elaborate the mechanism of the involvement of androgen receptor (AR) in anti-prostatic cancer (PCa) of artesunate (ART). PCa cells 22rvl were used in vivo and in vitro, and the viability and apoptosis were conducted using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, respectively...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366726/cancer-combination-therapies-with-artemisinin-type-drugs
#6
REVIEW
Thomas Efferth
Artemisia annua L. is a Chinese medicinal plant, which is used throughout Asia and Africa as tea or press juice to treat malaria. The bioactivity of its chemical constituent, artemisinin is, however, much broader. We and others found that artemisinin and its derivatives also exert profound activity against tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Should artemisinin-type drugs be applied routinely in clinical oncology in the future, then it should probably be as part of combination therapy regimens rather than as monotherapy...
March 31, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352954/dietary-enzymatically-treated-artemisia-annua-l-supplementation-alleviates-liver-oxidative-injury-of-broilers-reared-under-high-ambient-temperature
#7
Xiaoli Wan, Jingfei Zhang, Jintian He, Kaiwen Bai, Lili Zhang, Tian Wang
Heat stress induced by high ambient temperature is a major concern in commercial broiler production. To evaluate the effects of dietary enzymatically treated Artemisia annua L. (EA) supplementation on growth performance and liver oxidative injury of broilers reared under heat stress, a total of 320 22-day-old male broilers were randomly allotted into five groups with eight replicates of eight birds each. Broilers in the control group were housed at 22 ± 1 °C and fed the basal diet. Broilers in the HS, HS-EA1, HS-EA2, and HS-EA3 groups were fed basal diet supplemented with 0, 0...
March 29, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327802/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-antileishmanial-activity-of-artemisia-annua-l-leaf-powder-and-its-potential-usefulness-in-the-treatment-of-uncomplicated-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-humans
#8
Luz Estella Mesa, Daniel Vasquez, Pierre Lutgen, Iván Darío Vélez, Adriana María Restrepo, Isabel Ortiz, Sara María Robledo
INTRODUCTION: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a tropical disease that affects millions of individuals worldwide. The current drugs for CL may be effective but have serious side effects; hence, alternatives are urgently needed. Although plant-derived materials are used for the treatment of various diseases in 80% of the global population, the validation of these products is essential. Gelatin capsules containing dried Artemisia annua leaf powder were recently developed as a new herbal formulation (totum) for the oral treatment of malaria and other parasitic diseases...
January 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294491/an-efficient-chemoenzymatic-synthesis-of-dihydroartemisinic-aldehyde
#9
Melodi Demiray, Xiaoping Tang, Thomas Wirth, Juan A Faraldos, Rudolf K Allemann
Artemisinin from the plant Artemisia annua is the most potent pharmaceutical for the treatment of malaria. In the plant, the sesquiterpene cyclase amorphadiene synthase, a cytochrome-dependent CYP450, and an aldehyde reductase convert farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) into dihydroartemisinic aldehyde (DHAAl), which is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of artemisinin and a semisynthetic precursor for its chemical synthesis. Here, we report a chemoenzymatic process that is able to deliver DHAAl using only the sesquiterpene synthase from a carefully designed hydroxylated FDP derivative...
April 3, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286732/water-deficit-induced-oxidative-stress-affects-artemisinin-content-and-expression-of-proline-metabolic-genes-in-artemisia-annua-l
#10
Priyanka Soni, Malik Z Abdin
Water stress is one of the most critical abiotic stresses that restricts growth, development, and alters physiological and biochemical mechanisms of plant. The effects of long-term water shortage-induced oxidative stress on morphophysiological parameters, proline metabolic genes, and artemisinin content were studied in Artemisia annua L. under greenhouse conditions. Plant growth, biomass accumulation, relative water content, and chlorophyll content were reduced under drought. Leaf water potential ranged from -0...
March 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267260/comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-of-key-genes-involved-in-flavonoid-biosynthetic-pathway-and-identification-of-a-flavonol-synthase-from-artemisia-annua-l
#11
Shuoqian Liu, Liping Liu, Yuwei Tang, Shuo Xiong, Jinhua Long, Zhonghua Liu, Na Tian
(1) The regulation mechanism of flavonoids, which were found to synergize anti-malarial and anti-cancer compounds in Artemisia annua, is still unclear. (2) In this study, an anthocyanidin-accumulating mutant callus was induced from A. annua, and then comparative transcriptomic analysis of the wild-type and mutant calli was performed, based on the next-generation Illumina/Solexa sequencing platform and de novo assembly. (3) As a result, a total of 82,393 unigenes were obtained and 34,764 unigenes were annotated in the public database...
March 7, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254675/from-ancient-herb-to-modern-drug-artemisia-annua-and-artemisinin-for-cancer-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Thomas Efferth
Artemisia annua L. is used throughout Asia and Africa as tea and press juice to treat malaria and related symptomes (fever, chills). Its active ingredient, artemisinin (ARS), has been developed as antimalarial drug and is used worldwide. Interestingly, the bioactivity is not restricted to malaria treatment. We and others found that ARS-type drugs also reveal anticancer in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we give a systematic overview of the literature published over the past two decades until the end of 2016...
February 28, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209917/artesunate-suppresses-the-viability-and-mobility-of-prostate-cancer-cells-through-uca1-the-sponge-of-mir-184
#13
Yan Zhou, Xiuju Wang, Jianjun Zhang, Aina He, Ya Ling Wang, Kun Han, Yang Su, Junyi Yin, Xiaobin Lv, Haiyan Hu
Artesunate (ART) is a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from the leafy portions of the Chinese herb Artemisia annua. Here, we evaluated the effect of ART on the prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines DU145 and LNCaP and explored its potential mechanisms. ART inhibited the viability and mobility of DU145 and LNCaP cells. Mechanistically, we found that UCA1, one of the most important lncRNAs in malignancies of the urinary system, may be a potential mediator contributing to the tumor suppressor function of ART. First, the UCA1 level was reduced significantly after being exposed to ART...
March 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207974/aamyb1-and-its-orthologue-atmyb61-affect-terpene-metabolism-and-trichome-development-in-artemisia-annua-and-arabidopsis-thaliana
#14
Luis Matías-Hernández, Weimin Jiang, Ke Yang, Kexuan Tang, Peter E Brodelius, Soraya Pelaz
The effective anti-malarial drug artemisinin (AN) isolated from Artemisia annua is relatively expensive due to the low AN content in the plant as AN is only synthesized within the glandular trichomes. Therefore, genetic engineering of A. annua is one of the most promising approaches for improving the yield of AN. In this work, the AaMYB1 transcription factor has been identified and characterized. When AaMYB1 is overexpressed in A. annua, either exclusively in trichomes or in the whole plant, essential AN biosynthetic genes are also overexpressed and consequently the amount of AN is significantly increased...
May 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197158/overexpression-and-suppression-of-artemisia-annua-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl-diphosphate-reductase-1-gene-aahdr1-differentially-regulate-artemisinin-and-terpenoid-biosynthesis
#15
Dongming Ma, Gui Li, Yue Zhu, De-Yu Xie
4-Hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase (HDR) catalyzes the last step of the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4- phosphate (MEP) pathway to synthesize isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). To date, little is known regarding effects of an increase or a decrease of a HDR expression on terpenoid and other metabolite profiles in plants. In our study, an Artemisia annua HDR cDNA (namely AaHDR1) was cloned from leaves. Expression profiling showed that it was highly expressed in leaves, roots, stems, and flowers with different levels...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193253/artemisia-spp-essential-oils-against-the-disease-carrying-blowfly-calliphora-vomitoria
#16
Stefano Bedini, Guido Flamini, Francesca Cosci, Roberta Ascrizzi, Maria Cristina Echeverria, Lucia Guidi, Marco Landi, Andrea Lucchi, Barbara Conti
BACKGROUND: Synanthropic flies play a considerable role in the transmission of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms. In this work, the essential oil (EO) of two aromatic plants, Artemisia annua and Artemisia dracunculus, were evaluated for their abilities to control the blowfly Calliphora vomitoria. Artemisia annua and A. dracunculus EOs were extracted, analysed and tested in laboratory bioassays. Besides, the physiology of EOs toxicity and the EOs antibacterial and antifungal properties were evaluated...
February 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115979/application-of-3d-printing-to-prototype-and-develop-novel-plant-tissue-culture-systems
#17
Mukund R Shukla, Amritpal S Singh, Kevin Piunno, Praveen K Saxena, A Maxwell P Jones
BACKGROUND: Due to the complex process of designing and manufacturing new plant tissue culture vessels through conventional means there have been limited efforts to innovate improved designs. Further, development and availability of low cost, energy efficient LEDs of various spectra has made it a promising light source for plant growth in controlled environments. However, direct replacement of conventional lighting sources with LEDs does not address problems with uniformity, spectral control, or the challenges in conducting statistically valid experiments to assess the effects of light...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052518/effects-of-enzymatically-treated-artemisia-annua-l-on-growth-performance-and-some-blood-parameters-of-broilers-exposed-to-heat-stress
#18
Xiaoli Wan, Luyi Jiang, Haoran Zhong, Yufang Lu, Lili Zhang, Tian Wang
To evaluate the effects of enzymatically treated Artemisia annua L. (EA) on growth performance and some blood parameters of broilers exposed to heat stress (HS), 320 22-day-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly allotted into five groups with eight replicates of eight birds each. Broilers in the control group were housed at 22 ± 1°C and fed the basal diet. Broilers in the HS, HS-EA0.75 , HS-EA1.00 and HS-EA1.25 groups were reared under HS (34 ± 1°C for 8 h/day and 22 ± 1°C for 16 h/day), and fed basal diet with 0, 0...
January 4, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049347/strategies-to-enhance-biologically-active-secondary-metabolites-in-cell-cultures-of-artemisia-current-trends
#19
Mohammad Ali, Bilal Haider Abbasi, Nisar Ahmad, Haji Khan, Gul Shad Ali
The genus Artemisia has been utilized worldwide due to its immense potential for protection against various diseases, especially malaria. Artemisia absinthium, previously renowned for its utilization in the popular beverage absinthe, is gaining resurgence due to its extensive pharmacological activities. Like A. annua, this species exhibits strong biological activities like antimalarial, anticancer and antioxidant. Although artemisinin was found to be the major metabolite for its antimalarial effects, several flavonoids and terpenoids are considered to possess biological activities when used alone and also to synergistically boost the bioavailability of artemisinin...
January 3, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035541/effect-of-artemisia-annua-extract-on-treating-active-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Min Yang, Ming-Yang Guo, Yong Luo, Ming-Dong Yun, Jiao Yan, Tao Liu, Chang-Hong Xiao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect and safety of the complementary use of the extract of Artemisia annua L. (EAA) on treating active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: A randomized controlled clinical trial was performed. All the 159 participates with active RA were randomly assigned to the control group (80 cases) and EAA group (79 cases). In the control group, patients were medicated with leflflunomide and methotrexate for 48 weeks; and patients in the EAA group were administrated with leflflunomide, methotrexate plus EAA (30 g/d)...
December 29, 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
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