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Artemisia annua

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756212/optimization-of-artemisinin-extraction-from-artemisia-annua-l-with-supercritical-carbon-dioxide-ethanol-using-response-surface-methodology
#1
Ozan Nazim Ciftci, Jessica Cahyadi, Selma E Guigard, Marleny D A Saldaña
Malaria is a high priority life-threatening public health concern in developing countries, and therefore there is a growing interest to obtain artemisinin for the production of artemisinin-based combination therapy products. In this study, artemisinin was extracted from the Artemisia annua L. plant using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 ) modified with ethanol. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed to investigate and optimize the extraction conditions of pressure (9...
May 13, 2018: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746932/prevention-of-carcinogenesis-and-metastasis-by-artemisinin-type-drugs
#2
Mohammed L Abba, Nitin Patil, Jörg Hendrik Leupold, Mohamed E M Saeed, Thomas Efferth, Heike Allgayer
Artemisia annua (sweet wormwood, qinhao) is an ancient Chinese herbal remedy for pyrexia. Nowadays, artemisinin (qinghaosu) and its derivatives belong to the standard therapies against malaria worldwide, and its discovery has led to the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine to Youyou Tu in 2015. While most attention has been paid to the treatment of malaria, there is increasing evidence that Artemisinin-type drugs bear a considerable potential to treat and prevent cancer. Rather than reporting on therapy of cancer, this review gives a comprehensive and timely overview on the chemopreventive effects of artemisinin and its derivatives against carcinogenesis and metastasis formation, following the multistage model of carcinogenesis (initiation, promotion, progression)...
May 7, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740482/dihydroartemisinin-sensitizes-lewis-lung-carcinoma-cells-to-carboplatin-therapy-via-p38-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-activation
#3
Bicheng Zhang, Zhimin Zhang, Jun Wang, Bo Yang, Yong Zhao, Zhiguo Rao, Jianfei Gao
Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Artemisia annua , is an effective novel antimalarial agent. Studies have suggested that it also exhibits anticancer effects when administered alone or in combination with conventional chemotherapeutic agents. The present study investigated the therapeutic effect of DHA combined with carboplatin (CBP) on Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells and the possible underlying molecular mechanisms. MTT and clonogenic assays demonstrated that the proliferation activity of LLC cells was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by DHA combined with CBP...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706981/increase-in-artemisia-annua-plant-biomass-artemisinin-content-and-guaiacol-peroxidase-activity-using-the-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungus-rhizophagus-irregularis
#4
Erzsébet Domokos, László Jakab-Farkas, Béla Darkó, Béla Bíró-Janka, Gyöngyvér Mara, Csilla Albert, Adalbert Balog
The main objective of this study was to investigate Artemisia annua plant property variations in terms of plant biomass, glandular trichome numbers, artemisinin production and Guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX) activity when plants are in mutualism with AMF. According to the results, A. annua mutualism with AMF significantly increased the most important and pharmaceutically relevant factors of fresh and dry plant biomass. This increase, especially in the biomass of plant herba (leaves), was 30% higher during the vegetation period and remained high (29% higher than for control) when plants were harvested at the end of the vegetation period...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703893/artemether-attenuates-lps-induced-inflammatory-bone-loss-by-inhibiting-osteoclastogenesis-and-bone-resorption-via-suppression-of-mapk-signaling-pathway
#5
Haobo Wu, Bin Hu, Xiaopeng Zhou, Chenhe Zhou, Jiahong Meng, Yute Yang, Xiang Zhao, Zhongli Shi, Shigui Yan
Osteolysis is an osteolytic lesion featured by enhanced osteoclast formation and potent bone erosion. Lacking of effective regimen for treatment of the pathological process highlights the importance of identifying agents that can suppress the differentiation and function of osteoclast. Artemether is a natural compound derived from Artemisia annua L. and it is popularized for the treatment of malaria. In present study, we demonstrated that artemether could suppress RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and expression of osteoclast marker genes such as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinase 9, nuclear factor of activated T-cell cytoplasmic 1, and dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein...
April 27, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703587/the-genome-of-artemisia-annua-provides-insight-into-the-evolution-of-asteraceae-family-and-artemisinin-biosynthesis
#6
Qian Shen, Lida Zhang, Zhihua Liao, Shengyue Wang, Tingxiang Yan, Pu Shi, Meng Liu, Xueqing Fu, Qifang Pan, Yuliang Wang, Zongyou Lv, Xu Lu, Fangyuan Zhang, Weimin Jiang, Yanan Ma, Minghui Chen, Xiaolong Hao, Ling Li, Yueli Tang, Gang Lv, Yan Zhou, Xiaofen Sun, Peter E Brodelius, Jocelyn K C Rose, Kexuan Tang
Artemisia annua, commonly known as sweet wormwood or Qinghao, is a shrub native to China and has long been used for medicinal purposes. A. annua is now cultivated globally as the only natural source of a potent anti-malarial compound, artemisinin. Here, we report a high-quality draft assembly of the 1.74-gigabase genome of A. annua, which is highly heterozygous, rich in repetitive sequences, and contains 63 226 protein-coding genes, one of the largest numbers among the sequenced plant species. We found that, as one of a few sequenced genomes in the Asteraceae, the A...
April 20, 2018: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693549/lack-of-impact-of-dietary-inclusion-of-dried-artemisia-annua-leaves-for-cattle-on-infestation-by-rhipicephalus-boophilus-microplus-ticks
#7
Ives Charlie-Silva, Rodrigo Giglioti, Pedro M Magalhães, Ilza M O Sousa, Mary Ann Foglio, Márcia C S Oliveira, Ana Carolina S Chagas
The present study evaluated whether a natural dietary additive, dried Artemisia annua leaves, may be useful to control Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus on naturally infested cattle. Twenty heifers of the Canchim breed, weighing around 250 kg, were divided into two equally sized experimental groups: 1) control animals and 2) animals receiving 200 g/day of dried A. annua leaves for two months. Before treatment began, the animals were homogeneously distributed in control and treatment groups based on their pre-treatment weight and tick infestation level...
April 11, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692251/the-anti-malarial-drug-artesunate-blocks-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-and-inhibits-growth-migration-and-invasion-of-uveal-melanoma-cells
#8
Lei Zheng, Jingxuan Pan
BACKGROUND: Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults. So far, there have been no effective targeted therapeutic agents in patients with uveal melanoma. Artesunate is a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin extracted from traditional Chinese medicine Artemisia annua L for treatment of severe and multidrug-resistant malaria. Besides its anti-malarial activity, artesunate is identified as an anti-cancer drug due to the inhibition of Wnt/b-catenin pathway in multiple types of cancer...
April 25, 2018: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681192/in-vitro-assessment-of-cytotoxic-genotoxic-and-mutagenic-effects-of-antimalarial-drugs-artemisinin-and-artemether-in-human-lymphocytes
#9
Plínio Cerqueira Dos Santos Cardoso, Carlos Alberto Machado da Rocha, Tatiane Cristina Mota, Marcelo de Oliveira Bahia, Regianne Maciel Dos Santos Correa, Lorena Monteiro Gomes, Diego Di Felipe Avila Alcântara, Taíssa Maíra Thomaz Araújo, Leopoldo Silva de Moraes, Rommel Burbano
Artemisinin is a substance extracted from the Chinese plant Artemisia annua L. widely used in natural medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Artemether is a substance synthesized from artemisinin, and both drugs are commonly administered in the treatment of malaria. Although considered effective antimalarial drugs, very little is known about the genotoxic, cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of these drugs. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the genotoxic, mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of artemisinin (12...
April 22, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675029/aaein3-mediates-the-downregulation-of-artemisinin-biosynthesis-by-ethylene-signaling-through-promoting-leaf-senescence-in-artemisia-annua
#10
Yueli Tang, Ling Li, Tingxiang Yan, Xueqing Fu, Pu Shi, Qian Shen, Xiaofen Sun, Kexuan Tang
Artemisinin is an important drug for malaria treatment, which is exclusively produced in Artemisia annua . It's important to dissect the regulatory mechanism of artemisinin biosynthesis by diverse plant hormones and transcription factors. Our study shows ethylene, a plant hormone which accelerates flower and leaf senescence and fruit ripening, suppressed the expression of genes encoding three key enzymes ADS, DBR2, CYP71AV1, and a positive regulator AaORA involved in artemisinin biosynthesis. Then we isolated the gene encoding ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3), a key transcription factor in ethylene signaling pathway, by screening the transcriptome and genome database from Artemisia annua , named AaEIN3 ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665557/negative-effects-of-artemisinin-on-phosphorus-solubilizing-bacteria-in-vitro
#11
Huiwen Zeng, Ling Yuan, Jianguo Huang
The anti-malarial drug artemisinin is extracted from the leaves of Artemisia annua L. Due to toxicity to some microorganisms, the release of artemisinin from this medicinal plant in commercial cultivation might produce a potential risk for phosphorus (P) solubilizing bacteria (PSB). Therefore, the growth, P mobilization, and proton and organic acid efflux by two PSB isolates, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens, obtained from the soil without growing A. annua L. in history in the region for growing A...
April 14, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657004/artemisinin-and-artemisia-annua-leaves-alleviate-eimeria-tenella-infection-by-facilitating-apoptosis-of-host-cells-and-suppressing-inflammatory-response
#12
JinYing Jiao, YunQiao Yang, MingJiang Liu, JinGui Li, Yi Cui, ShaoJie Yin, JianPing Tao
Evasion strategies of intracellular parasites by hijacking cellular pathways, are necessary to ensure successful survival and replication. Eimeria tenella (E. tenella) has the ability to circumvent apoptosis of infected cells through increased expression of the transcriptional factor NF-κB and the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-xL during the development of second generation schizonts. Artemisinin (ART) and its original plant, the dried leaves of Artemisia annua (LAA) have been shown to be effective against avian coccidiosis, however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear...
April 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656410/combination-of-artemisinin-based-natural-compounds-from-artemisia-annua-l-for-the-treatment-of-malaria-pharmacodynamic-and-pharmacokinetic-studies
#13
Jing Li, Chao Zhang, Muxin Gong, Manyuan Wang
Currently, the most effective antimalarial is artemisinin, which is extracted from the leaves of medicinal herb Artemisia annua L. (A. annua). Previous studies showed that the complex chemical matrix of A. annua could enhance both the bioavailability and efficacy of artemisinin. The present study aims to evaluate the efficacy and pharmacokinetic properties of a combination therapy based on artemisinin and 3 components from A. annua with high content (arteannuin B, arteannuic acid, and scopoletin). In vivo antimalarial activity was assessed following a 4-day treatment in murine malaria models (Plasmodium yoelii and Plasmodium berghei)...
April 15, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607928/mechanisms-of-the-ph-and-oxygen-dependent-oxidation-activities-of-artesunate
#14
Katsunori Tsuda, Licht Miyamoto, Shuichi Hamano, Yuri Morimoto, Yumi Kangawa, Chika Fukue, Yoko Kagawa, Yuya Horinouchi, Wenting Xu, Yasumasa Ikeda, Toshiaki Tamaki, Koichiro Tsuchiya
Artemisinin was discovered in 1971 as a constituent of the wormwood genus plant (Artemisia annua). This plant has been used as an herbal medicine to treat malaria since ancient times. The compound artemisinin has a sesquiterpene lactone bearing a peroxide group that offers its biological activity. In addition to anti-malarial activity, artemisinin derivatives have been reported to exert antitumor activity in cancer cells, and have attracted attention as potential anti-cancer drugs. Mechanisms that might explain the antitumor activities of artemisinin derivatives reportedly induction of apoptosis, angiogenesis inhibitory effects, inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) activation, and direct DNA injury...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547095/flavobacterium-artemisiae-sp-nov-isolated-from-the-rhizosphere-of-artemisia-annua-l-and-emended-descriptions-of-flavobacterium-compostarboris-and-flavobacterium-procerum
#15
Jian-Chao Zhao, Juan Cheng, Qi Zhang, Zi-Wei Gao, Meng-Yue Zhang, Yi-Xuan Zhang
A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, yellow-coloured, motile by gliding and elongated rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated SYP-B1015T , was isolated from the rhizosphere of Artemisia annua L. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain SYP-B1015T belonged to the genus Flavobacterium and had highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Flavobacterium compostarboris JCM 16527T (98.1 %) and Flavobacterium procerum JCM 30113T (97.2 %). The predominant respiratory quinone for the strain was MK-6, and the major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525443/the-artemisia-annua-flowering-locus-t-homolog-2-aaft2-is-a-key-regulator-of-flowering-time
#16
Zongyou Lv, Lei Zhang, Lingxian Chen, Fangyuan Zhang, Kexuan Tang
Artemisia annua is a typical short-day photoperiod (SD) and belongs to Asteraceae family. FLOWERING LOCUS T Homolog genes play important roles in regulation of flowering time. Two FT-like genes AaFT1 and AaFT2 were isolated from cDNA libraries constructed from leaves of A. annua. The gene expression analysis revealed that AaFT1 and AaFT2 mRNAs were expressed predominantly in leaves and could be induced by GA3. Subcellular localization results indicated that AaFT1 and AaFT2 proteins were both localized to the nuclei and cytoplasm...
May 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495461/artemisinin-and-its-synthetic-derivatives-as-a-possible-therapy-for-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Enrique Konstat-Korzenny, Jorge Alberto Ascencio-Aragón, Sebastian Niezen-Lugo, Rosalino Vázquez-López
To assess the possibility of using the antimalarial drug artemisinin and its synthetic derivatives as antineoplastic drugs. A Pubmed and Google Scholar (1983-2018) search was performed using the terms artemisinin, cancer, artesunate and Artemisia annua. Case reports and original research articles, review articles, and clinical trials in both humans and animals were evaluated. Both in vitro and in vivo clinical trials and case reports have shown promising activity of the artemisinin drug derivatives in treating certain types of cancer...
February 27, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476116/hmg-coa-reductase-from-camphor-tulsi-ocimum-kilimandscharicum-regulated-mva-dependent-biosynthesis-of-diverse-terpenoids-in-homologous-and-heterologous-plant-systems
#18
Shilpi Bansal, Lokesh Kumar Narnoliya, Bhawana Mishra, Muktesh Chandra, Ritesh Kumar Yadav, Neelam Singh Sangwan
Ocimum kilimandscharicum is unique in possessing terpenoids whereas other Ocimum species are renowned for phenylpropanoids as major constituents of essential oil. The key enzyme of MVA/terpenoid metabolic pathway viz 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Co-A reductase (OkHMGR) of 1.7-Kb ORF encoding ~60-kDa protein was cloned from O. kilimandscharicum and its kinetic characteristics revealed the availability of HMG-CoA as a control point of MVA-pathway. Transcript profiling of the OkHMGR elucidated tissue-specific functions of the gene in flower and leaf tissues in accumulation of terpenoidal essential oil...
February 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467423/transcriptome-changes-induced-by-abiotic-stresses-in-artemisia-annua
#19
Divya Vashisth, Ritesh Kumar, Shubhra Rastogi, Vikas Kumar Patel, Alok Kalra, Madan Mohan Gupta, Anil Kumar Gupta, Ajit Kumar Shasany
Artemisia annua is known to be the source of artemisinin worldwide which is an antimalarial compound but is synthesised in very limited amount in the plant. Most research laid emphasis on the methods of enhancing artemisinin but our study has been planned in a way that it may simultaneously address two problems encountered by the plant. Firstly, to know the effect on the artemisinin content in the era of climate change because the secondary metabolites tend to increase under stress. Secondly, to identify some of the stress responsive genes that could help in stress tolerance of the plant under abiotic stress...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465820/literally-green-chemical-synthesis-of-artemisinin-from-plant-extracts
#20
Susann Triemer, Kerry Gilmore, Giang T Vu, Peter H Seeberger, Andreas Seidel-Morgenstern
Active pharmaceutical ingredients are either extracted from biological sources-where they are synthesized in complex, dynamic environments-or prepared in stepwise chemical syntheses by reacting pure reagents and catalysts under controlled conditions. A combination of these two approaches, where plant extracts containing reagents and catalysts are utilized in intensified chemical syntheses, creates expedient and sustainable processes. We illustrate this principle by reacting crude plant extract, oxygen, acid, and light to produce artemisinin, a key active pharmaceutical ingredient of the most powerful antimalarial drugs...
May 4, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
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