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neurologic assessment

Kavi Devraj, Sylvaine Guérit, Jakranka Macas, Yvonne Reiss
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a specialized barrier that protects the brain microenvironment from toxins and pathogens in the circulation and maintains brain homeostasis. The principal sites of the barrier are endothelial cells of the brain capillaries whose barrier function results from tight intercellular junctions and efflux transporters expressed on the plasma membrane. This function is regulated by pericytes and astrocytes that together form the neurovascular unit (NVU). Several neurological diseases such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease (AD), brain tumors are associated with an impaired BBB function...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ángela Grillo Pizarro, Eduardo Achú Peralta, María Teresa Muñoz-Quezada, Boris Lucero Mondaca
OBJECTIVE: Organophosphate pesticides (OP) are used massively for their low cost and for their low environmental persistence and their high effectiveness in insect pest control, however, agricultural workers, when exposed to OP, have negative consequences on their health mainly neurological. For the first time, a research is reported in a Latin American population that studied the association between labor exposure to OP and the presence of peripheral polyneuropathy in agricultural workers...
March 22, 2018: Revista Española de Salud Pública
Ying Han, Yangmin Zheng, Jingpu Zhang, Changqin Hu
Most third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, such as cefotaxime, cefmenoxime, cefepime, and cefpirome, contain an aminothiazoyl ring at the C-7 position. Drug impurity, which may be produced either during synthesis or upon degradation, can induce adverse effects. Various reports have indicated that neurotoxicity is a side effect of cephalosporin. In this study, we developed methods for assessing the free-swimming activities and behaviors in zebrafish larvae in response to continuous darkness and stimulation of light-to-dark photoperiod transition by chemical treatments...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Le Kang, Mingsan Miao
Objective: To observe the intervention effect of total flavonoid of ilex pubesceus on animal models of cerebral ischemic tolerance. Methods: A rat model of global-focal cerebral ischemic tolerance was established by blocking bilateral common carotid artery blood flow and occluding left middle cerebral artery using thread-occlusion method. After the first operation, the Ginaton group and large-dosage, medium-dosage and small-dosage groups of total flavonoid of ilex pubesceus were given intragastric administration of corresponding drugs...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Pierpaolo Cerullo, Paola Brancaccio, Serenella Anzilotti, Antonio Vinciguerra, Ornella Cuomo, Ferdinando Fiorino, Beatrice Severino, Paola Di Vaio, Gianfranco Di Renzo, Lucio Annunziato, Giuseppe Pignataro
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HI) accounts for the majority of developmental, motor and cognitive deficits in children, leading to life-long neurological impairments. Since the plasmamembrane sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX) plays a fundamental role in maintaining ionic homeostasis during adult brain ischemia, in the present work we aimed to demonstrate (1)the involvement of NCX in the pathophysiology of neonatal HI and (2)a possible NCX-based pharmacological intervention. HI was induced in neonatal mice at postnatal day 7(P7) by unilateral cut of the right common carotid artery, followed by 60 min exposure to 8%O2 ...
March 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Elan D Louis, James H Meyers, Ashley D Cristal, Ruby Hickman, Pam Factor-Litvak
BACKGROUND: Endophenotypes are measurable clinical characteristics that may be present in individuals with increased risk for disease (e.g., unaffected family members). Endophenotypes are useful; they may clarify diagnosis in genetic studies and foster the development of animal models. In recent years, problems with balance and mild gait ataxia have been associated with essential tremor (ET). We compared gait and balance of first-degree relatives of ET cases (FD-ET) to that of age-matched controls (Co)...
March 13, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Yangyang R Yu, Jennifer L Carpenter, Annalyn S DeMello, Sundeep G Keswani, Darrell L Cass, Oluyinka O Olutoye, Adam M Vogel, James A Thomas, Cole Burgman, Caraciolo J Fernandes, Timothy C Lee
PURPOSE: This study assesses the impact of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) associated morbidities on long-term quality of life (QOL) outcomes. METHODS: A single center, retrospective review of neonatal and pediatric non-cardiac ECMO survivors from 1/2005-7/2016 was performed. The 2012 Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™) survey was administered. Clinical outcomes and QOL scores between groups were compared. RESULTS: Of 74 patients eligible, 64% (35 NICU, 12 PICU) completed the survey...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Carolien Zwiers, Mirjam Ea Scheffer-Rath, Enrico Lopriore, Masja de Haas, Helen G Liley
BACKGROUND: Exchange transfusion and phototherapy have traditionally been used to treat jaundice and avoid the associated neurological complications. Because of the risks and burdens of exchange transfusion, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) has been suggested as an alternative therapy for alloimmune hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) to reduce the need for exchange transfusion. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect and complications of IVIg in newborn infants with alloimmune HDN on the need for and number of exchange transfusions...
March 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Zhiquan Lv, Chong Liu, Meili Zhai, Qian Zhang, Jun Li, Fang Zheng, Mingqing Peng
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) pretreatment has a strong neuroprotective effect on cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), but the mechanism has not been fully elucidated to date. This study investigated the effect of LPS pretreatment on the pathway mediated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein- homologous protein (CHOP) and the role of this pathway on cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced inflammation and apoptosis. METHODS: Healthy male BALB/c mice were randomised into four groups as follows: sham operation group (sham group, n=30); LPS group (BALB/c mice treated with LPS, n=30); ischaemia/reperfusion group (I/R group, n=30) and I/R+LPS group (BALB/c mice treated with LPS before ischaemia, n=30)...
March 10, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Fidaa Jablawi, Gerrit Alexander Schubert, Franz-Josef Hans, Michael Mull
OBJECT: Effectiveness and safety of anticoagulation therapy (AC) after treatment of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (sdAVF) are still inadequately discussed in the literature and are the aim of this study. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed our medical database for sdAVF patients treated in our institution between 2006 and 2016. Neurological status at time of admission, discharge and last follow-up was assessed via Aminoff-Logue disability score. Patient cohorts were dichotomized as group A: postoperative effective heparinization, and group B: routine thromboembolic prophylaxis with low-dose heparin...
March 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Fabian Wenzel, Carsten Meyer, Thomas Stehle, Jochen Peters, Susanne Siemonsen, Christian Thaler, Lyubomir Zagorchev
This work presents a novel approach for the rapid segmentation of clinically relevant subcortical brain structures in T1-weighted MRI by utilizing a shape-constrained deformable surface model. In contrast to other approaches for segmenting brain structures, its design allows for parallel segmentation of individual brain structures within a flexible and robust hierarchical framework such that accurate adaptation and volume computation can be achieved within a minute of processing time. Furthermore, adaptation is driven by local and not global contrast, potentially relaxing requirements with respect to preprocessing steps such as bias-field correction...
March 9, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
Xiaoqin Zhang, Yiping Zhang, Songqi Tang, Lishuang Yu, Youqin Zhao, Qiangqiang Ren, Xiaoqiang Huang, Wen Xu, Mingqing Huang, Jun Peng
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pien-Tze-Huang (PZH) is a famous formula of traditional Chinese medicine used to treating stroke. However, the protective effect of PZH and its mechanisms in acute ischemic stroke remain to be explored. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the protective effect of PZH on neuronal apoptosis in acute cerebral ischemic injury rats and explore its underlying mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of PZH were studied in acute ischemic stroke rats induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, and the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic proteins including cytochrome C (Cyt C), Bax, Bcl-xl, P53, caspase-3, and caspase-9 as well as AKT and glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β) were assessed...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
J Hansen, L Zhang, A Eaton, R Baxter, C A Robertson, M D Decker, D P Greenberg, E Bassily, N P Klein
BACKGROUND: Menactra® vaccine (MenACWY-D) was licensed in the United States in 2005 for persons 11-55 years of age, in 2007 for children 2-10 years of age, and in 2011 for infants/toddlers 9-23 months of age. We conducted two studies at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC), an integrated health care organization, to assess the safety of MenACWY-D in 2-10-year-olds and 9-23-month-olds receiving the vaccine during routine clinical care. METHODS: We conducted observational, retrospective studies of MenACWY-D in 2-10-year-olds (October 2007-October 2010) and in 9-23-month-olds (June 2011-June 2014)...
March 14, 2018: Vaccine
Vickie R Walker, Abee L Boyles, Katherine E Pelch, Stephanie D Holmgren, Andrew J Shapiro, Chad R Blystone, Michael J Devito, Retha R Newbold, Robyn Blain, Pamela Hartman, Kristina A Thayer, Andrew A Rooney
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of reports suggest early life exposures result in adverse effects in offspring who were never directly exposed; this phenomenon is termed "transgenerational inheritance." Given concern for public health implications for potential effects of exposures transmitted to subsequent generations, it is critical to determine how widespread and robust this phenomenon is and to identify the range of exposures and possible outcomes. OBJECTIVES: This scoping report examines the evidence for transgenerational inheritance associated with exposure to a wide range of stressors in humans and animals to identify areas of consistency, uncertainty, data gaps, and to evaluate general risk of bias issues for the transgenerational study design...
March 14, 2018: Environment International
Alireza Mohammadi, Ali Maleki-Jamshid, Davood Sanooghi, Peiman Brouki Milan, Arash Rahmani, Farshid Sefat, Koorosh Shahpasand, Mansoureh Soleimani, Mehrdad Bakhtiari, Rafie Belali, Faezeh Faghihi, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, George Perry, Masoud Mozafari
A neurological disorder is any disorder or abnormality in the nervous system. Among different neurological disorders, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is recognized as the sixth leading cause of death globally. Considerable research has been conducted to find pioneer treatments for this devastating disorder among which cell therapy has attracted remarkable attentions over the last decade. Up to now, targeted differentiation into specific desirable cell types has remained a major obstacle to clinical application of cell therapy...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Gil Bornstein, Iris Barshack, Nira Koren-Morag, Ilan Ben-Zvi, Nadav Furie, Chagai Grossman
To investigate whether among patients with a negative temporal artery biopsy (TAB) there are clinical features that may differentiate between patients with an eventual diagnosis of giant cell arteritis (GCA) and those without arteritis, and to assess the eventual diagnoses of patients without arteritis. Retrospective analysis of patients with a negative TAB performed between 1/1/2000 and 31/12/2015. Information collected included baseline clinical and laboratory data. Patients' final diagnoses were obtained from medical records...
March 17, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Michelle A Farrar, Hooi Ling Teoh, Kate A Carey, Anita Cairns, Robin Forbes, Karen Herbert, Sandra Holland, Kristi J Jones, Manoj P Menezes, Margot Morrison, Kate Munro, Daniella Villano, Richard Webster, Ian R Woodcock, Eppie M Yiu, Hugo Sampaio, Monique M Ryan
BACKGROUND: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a devastating motor neuron disorder causing progressive muscle weakness and respiratory insufficiency. We present the initial Australian experiences implementing the expanded access programme (EAP) to enable preapproval access to nusinersen, the first disease-modifying therapy, for SMA type 1. METHODS: An Australian multicentre, open-label EAP for nusinersen enrolled patients with infantile-onset SMA type 1 from November 2016 to September 2017...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Yung Ki Park, Hyeong-Joong Yi, Kyu-Sun Choi, Young-Jun Lee, Hyoung-Joon Chun, Sae Min Kwon
OBJECTIVE: Fever is relatively common and worsens neurologic injury after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aim of this study was to display the time course of body temperature, identify predictive factors of fever after SAH, and evaluate its impact on delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and clinical outcomes. METHODS: Four hundred twelve patients with SAH and ruptured aneurysms who were treated at our institution between January 2007 and December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed...
March 13, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Martha Nowosielski, Patrick Y Wen
The identification of more effective therapies for brain tumors has been limited in part by the lack of reliable criteria for determining response and progression. Since its introduction in 1990, the MacDonald criteria have been used in neuro-oncology clinical trials to determine response, but they fail to address issues such as pseudoprogression, pseudoresponse, and nonenhancing tumor progression that have arisen with more recent therapies. The Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) working group, a multidisciplinary international group consisting of neuro-oncologists, medical oncologists, neuroradiologists, neurosurgeons, radiation oncologists, and neuropsychologists, was formed to improve response assessment and clinical trial endpoints in neuro-oncology...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Robert Foerster, B C John Cho, Daniel K Fahim, Peter C Gerszten, John C Flickinger, Inga S Grills, Maha S Jawad, C Ronald Kersh, Daniel Létourneau, Frederick Mantel, Arjun Sahgal, John H Shin, Brian A Winey, Matthias Guckenberger
BACKGROUND: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of the spine provides superior tumor control, but vertebral compression fractures are increased and the pathophysiological process underneath is not well understood. Data on histopathological changes, particularly after salvage SBRT (sSBRT) following conventional irradiation, are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To investigate surgical specimens after sSBRT and primary SBRT (pSBRT) regarding histopathological changes. METHODS: We assessed 704 patients treated with spine SBRT 2006 to 2012...
March 14, 2018: Neurosurgery
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