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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432758/specificity-and-sensitivity-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-in-the-diagnosis-of-progressive-supranuclear-palsy
#1
REVIEW
Stephen Bacchi, Ivana Chim, Sandy Patel
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neurodegenerative condition that can only be diagnosed conclusively on pathological examination. Currently, the diagnosis is based upon the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the Society for PSP criteria. These criteria consist of purely clinical findings. Elements of brain MRI that are being investigated for this role include identifying structural features on conventional MRI, volume changes, signal abnormalities and diffusion changes. The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic search to identify which MRI findings have evidence to support their sensitivity/specificity/accuracy in the diagnosis of PSP...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431030/using-multivariate-base-rates-to-interpret-low-scores-on-an-abbreviated-battery-of-the-delis-kaplan-executive-function-system
#2
Justin E Karr, Mauricio A Garcia-Barrera, James A Holdnack, Grant L Iverson
Objective: Executive function consists of multiple cognitive processes that operate as an interactive system to produce volitional goal-oriented behavior, governed in large part by frontal microstructural and physiological networks. Identification of deficits in executive function in those with neurological or psychiatric conditions can be difficult because the normal variation in executive function test scores, in healthy adults when multiple tests are used, is largely unknown. This study addresses that gap in the literature by examining the prevalence of low scores on a brief battery of executive function tests...
May 1, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430672/lamotrigine-uses-in-psychiatric-practice-beyond-bipolar-prophylaxis-a-hope-or-hype
#3
Ahmed Naguy, Najah Al-Enezi
BACKGROUND: Lamotrigine (LAM), an antiepileptic, with panoply of indications and uses in neurology, is FDA approved, in psychiatry, for bipolar prophylaxis. Apart from this indication, trend of its use in psychiatry is on the rise addressing a multitude of disorders. STUDY QUESTION: LAM remains one of only few psychotropic drugs with antiglutamate activity. This might render LAM a potential therapeutic option in treatment-resistant major psychiatric disorders. We reviewed LAM pharmacology and its diverse indications while examining the extant evidence...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430293/three-cases-of-ectopic-sphenoid-sinus-pituitary-adenoma
#4
Ernest Jan Bobeff, Karol Wiśniewski, Wielisław Papierz, Ludomir Stefańczyk, Dariusz Jan Jaskólski
<i><b>Introduction</b>: Ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma is a rare tumour originating from embryologic remnants of Rathke's pouch. Although it is considered a clinically benign neoplasm, necrosis is encountered in 25% of cases and it can invade adjacent bone structures. <b>Aims</b>: To establish clinical, radiological and histopathological features of ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma. <b>Material and methods: </b> Analysis of three cases: two females and one man, aged 61-70...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430292/failure-of-the-vascular-hypothesis-of-multiple-sclerosis-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-cerebrospinal-venous-insufficiency
#5
Maha M A Zakaria, Shahira Y Mikhael, Azza K Abu Hussein, Rania A Salah El-Din, Hany W Abd El-Malak, Iman H Hewedi, Hany S Nadim
<i>Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) is a series of stenotic malformations in the cerebrospinal venous outflow routes, which is postulated to cause multiple sclerosis (MS). The hypotheses assumed that CCSVI leads to iron deposition which triggers inflammation and demyelination in MS. Invasive endovascular treatment of CCSVI was initiated based on the previous theory. The present study was designed to validate this hypothesis using a rat model of CCSVI. Bilateral jugular vein ligation (JVL) was performed on female albino rats (n = 15), and sham-operated rats (n = 15) were used as a control group...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429801/the-dizzy-patient-don-t-forget-disorders-of-the-central-vestibular-system
#6
REVIEW
Thomas Brandt, Marianne Dieterich
Vertigo and dizziness are among the most common complaints in neurology clinics, and they account for about 13% of the patients entering emergency units. In this Review, we focus on central vestibular disorders, which are mostly attributable to acute unilateral lesions of the bilateral vestibular circuitry in the brain. In a tertiary interdisciplinary outpatient dizziness unit, central vestibular disorders, including vestibular migraine, comprise about 25% of the established diagnoses. The signs and symptoms of these disorders can mimic those of peripheral vestibular disorders with sustained rotational vertigo...
April 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429638/an-unusual-presentation-of-a-cervical-paraspinal-leiomyoma-in-an-adolescent-female
#7
Jeffrey A Swarz, Arayamparambil C Anilkumar, Douglas C Miller, N Scott Litofsky, Tomoko Tanaka
Objective We describe an apparently unique case of an extra-uterine leiomyoma in the cervical paraspinus including its evaluation and management. Methods A 14-year-old girl was referred to the neurology clinic for an abnormal head CT following a concussion. MRI revealed a homogenously enhancing left cervical paraspinal mass. The patient underwent complete resection and subsequent genetic testing and counseling were obtained to determine the presence of Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS) or Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer (HLRCC) mutations...
January 1, 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429143/how-to-treat-lumbar-disc-herniation-in-pregnancy-a-systematic-review-on-current-standards
#8
REVIEW
Alberto Di Martino, Fabrizio Russo, Luca Denaro, Vincenzo Denaro
PURPOSE: In this systematic review, we aim to illustrate the current and safe concepts in the assessment, diagnosis and management of herniated lumbar disc (HLD) during pregnancy. METHODS: A systematic review and reporting on the diagnosis, treatment and clinical results of HLD during pregnancy is performed. RESULTS: The MRI represents the first level and safest diagnostic tool for pregnant women affected by spinal problems allowing for a noninvasive and detailed radiological examination of the spine...
April 20, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429077/-implementation-of-the-german-s3-guidelines-on-dementia-in-clinical-practice-wish-or-reality
#9
H Lohmann, F Kulessa, H Holling, A Johnen, S Reul, G Lueg, T Duning
BACKGROUND: Published in 2009, the German S3 guidelines on dementia define a milestone in quality improvement of the diagnostics and treatment of dementia. In clinical practice patients suffering from dementia are primarily treated by physicians in private practice; therefore, this study examined how the guidelines are implemented in outpatient clinical settings. Furthermore, it aimed at the identification of behavioral determinants that govern the actual diagnostic and therapeutic approach in clinical practice...
April 20, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428166/vascular-cognitive-impairment-in-a-memory-clinic-population-rationale-and-design-of-the-utrecht-amsterdam-clinical-features-and-prognosis-in-vascular-cognitive-impairment-trace-vci-study
#10
EDITORIAL
Jooske Marije Funke Boomsma, Lieza Geertje Exalto, Frederik Barkhof, Esther van den Berg, Jeroen de Bresser, Rutger Heinen, Huiberdina Lena Koek, Niels Daniël Prins, Philip Scheltens, Henry Chanoch Weinstein, Wiesje Maria van der Flier, Geert Jan Biessels
BACKGROUND: Vascular Cognitive Impairment (VCI) refers to cognitive dysfunction due to vascular brain injury, as a single cause or in combination with other, often neurodegenerative, etiologies. VCI is a broad construct that captures a heterogeneous patient population both in terms of cognitive and noncognitive symptoms and in terms of etiology and prognosis. This provides a challenge when applying this construct in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: This paper presents the rationale and design of the TRACE-VCI study, which investigates the clinical features and prognosis of VCI in a memory clinic setting...
April 19, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427970/structured-evaluation-of-glioma-patients-by-an-occupational-therapist-is-our-clinical-examination-enough
#11
Christian Franz Freyschlag, Johannes Kerschbaumer, Daniel Pinggera, Gabriele Bacher, Claudius Thomé
BACKGROUND: Preservation of neurological function is mandatory when offering a surgical intervention to patients with low-grade gliomas (LGG), given that the goal of any treatment is the patient's return to their normal everyday life. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a structured evaluation by an occupational therapist can reveal deficits that might be overseen in routine clinical examination of patients with a surgically treated LGG. METHODS: 20 patients with radiographically suspected LGG have been examined in a standardized fashion at three stages: pre-, postoperatively and three months thereafter...
April 17, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427358/cortical-laminar-necrosis-in-dengue-encephalitis-a-case-report
#12
Ravindra Kumar Garg, Imran Rizvi, Rajan Ingole, Amita Jain, Hardeep Singh Malhotra, Neeraj Kumar, Dhruv Batra
BACKGROUND: Dengue encephalitis is a rare neurological manifestation of dengue fever. Its clinical presentation is similar to other viral encephalitides and encephalopathy. No single specific finding on magnetic resonance imaging of dengue encephalitis has yet been documented. They are highly variable and atypical. CASE PRESENTATION: A 15-year boy presented with fever, the headache and altered sensorium of 12-day duration. On neurological examination, his Glasgow Coma Scale score was 10 (E3M4V3)...
April 20, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426417/neuropathological-lesions-of-clinical-and-sub-clinical-coenurosis-coenurus-cerebralis-in-organized-goat-farms-in-india
#13
Nayakwadi Shivasharanappa, Nitika Sharma, Dinesh Kumar Sharma, Rajveer Singh Pawaiya, Beena Vamadevan, Anil Kumar Mishra, Souvik Paul
Clinical and sub clinical cases of Coenurosis due to Coenurus cerebralis in goats were documented based on clinical, post mortem examination, identification of parasitic stages, gross and histopathological lesions in brain of animals died due to abnormal neurological symptoms. The most prominent site of predilection of coenuri cysts in brain was cerebral hemispheres and multiple cysts were found in majority of the cases. Generalized congestion, thinning of brain parenchyma due to pressure atrophy, gliosis, neuronal degeneration, protoscolices in brain parenchyma and inflammatory cell reactions predominantly comprised of lymphocytes and macrophages were prominent neuropathological lesions observed in brain...
June 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425334/remifentanil-for-sedation-of-children-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
James L Hungerford, Nicole O'Brien, Melissa Moore-Clingenpeel, Eric A Sribnick, Cheryl Sargel, Mark Hall, Jeffrey R Leonard, Joseph D Tobias
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether remifentanil would provide adequate sedation while allowing frequent and reproducible neurologic assessments in children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with traumatic brain injury (TBI) during mechanical ventilation. DESIGN: Retrospective review. SETTING: Tertiary care PICU. PATIENTS: Thirty-eight patients over a 30-month period. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Median age was 9 years (interquartile range [IQR] 2...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421205/the-preferential-impairment-of-pupil-constriction-stimulated-by-blue-light-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-without-autonomic-neuropathy
#15
Fukashi Ishibashi, Rie Kojima, Miki Taniguchi, Aiko Kosaka, Harumi Uetake, Mitra Tavakoli
The main aim of the present paper is to examine whether the pupillary light reflex (PLR) mediated by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) is impaired in type 2 diabetic patients. One hundred and three diabetic patients without diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) and 42 age-matched controls underwent a series of detailed neurological examinations. The patients were stratified into three groups: stage I, no neuropathy; stage II, asymptomatic neuropathy; stage III, symptomatic but without DAN...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420599/use-of-machine-learning-classifiers-and-sensor-data-to-detect-neurological-deficit-in-stroke-patients
#16
Eunjeong Park, Hyuk-Jae Chang, Hyo Suk Nam
BACKGROUND: The pronator drift test (PDT), a neurological examination, is widely used in clinics to measure motor weakness of stroke patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a PDT tool with machine learning classifiers to detect stroke symptoms based on quantification of proximal arm weakness using inertial sensors and signal processing. METHODS: We extracted features of drift and pronation from accelerometer signals of wearable devices on the inner wrists of 16 stroke patients and 10 healthy controls...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420537/bilateral-versus-unilateral-antegrade-cerebral-perfusion-in-total-arch-replacement-for-type-a-aortic-dissection
#17
Guang Tong, Ben Zhang, Xuan Zhou, Ye Tao, Tao Yan, Xianyue Wang, Hua Lu, Zhongchan Sun, Weida Zhang
BACKGROUND: Antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) is the most widely used cerebral protection strategy for complex aortic repair and includes unilateral (u-ACP) and bilateral (b-ACP) techniques. The superiority of b-ACP over u-ACP has been the subject of much debate. Focusing on type A aortic dissection requiring total arch replacement, we investigated the clinical effects of b-ACP versus u-ACP. METHODS: Between September 2006 and August 2014, 203 patients presenting with type A aortic dissection (median age, 51...
March 12, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419315/clinical-parameters-routine-inflammatory-markers-and-lta4h-genotype-as-predictors-of-mortality-among-608-patients-with-tuberculous-meningitis-in-indonesia
#18
Arjan van Laarhoven, Sofiati Dian, Carolien Ruesen, Ela Hayati, Michelle S M A Damen, Jessi Annisa, Lidya Chaidir, Rovina Ruslami, Tri Hanggono Achmad, Mihai G Netea, Bachti Alisjahbana, Ahmad Rizal Ganiem, Reinout van Crevel
Background.: Damaging inflammation is thought to contribute to the high morbidity and mortality of tuberculous meningitis (TBM), but the link between inflammation and outcome remains unclear. Methods.: We performed prospective clinical and routine laboratory analyses of a cohort of adult patients with TBM in Indonesia. We also examined the LTA4H promoter polymorphism, which predicted cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leukocyte count and survival of Vietnamese patients with TBM...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418336/intracranial-lesions-in-children-and-adolescents-with-morbid-obesity
#19
Ayça Törel Ergür, Sevinç Odabaşı Güneş, Sinan Tan, Ü Ayşe Tandırcıoğlu
BACKGROUND: Intracranial lesions may affect the hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis and lead to some neuro-endocrinological dysfunctions (hyperphagia, sleep disorders and hormonal dysfunctions). There is a very limited number of studies about childhood obesity and intracranial lesions. AIMS: To evaluate the incidence of intracranial lesions and its role in clinical symptoms and aetiology in cases with morbid obesity who have been admitted to the paediatric endocrinology department with this complaint...
April 5, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417614/spinal-epidural-abscess-caused-by-brucella-species-a-review-of-17-cases
#20
Qin Zhang, Xiaohui Yang, Honglin Yu, Benrang Jia, Bin Meng
BACKGROUND: Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a rarely encountered clinical entity during the course of Brucella infection. METHODS: We reported 17 patients diagnosed with Brucellar SEA for a mean follow-up of 15 months. Spinal epidural abscess was detected by magnetic resonance imaging in all cases. Brucella diagnosis was established by serological tests. Patients were administered antibiotics for duration of 6 to 16 weeks. RESULTS: SEA was localized in lumbar region in 9 patients, thoracic in 4 patients, cervical in 3 patients, both thoracic and lumbar in 1 patient...
June 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
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