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clinical practice neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150890/suspended-animation-the-past-present-and-future-of-major-cardiothoracic-trauma
#1
REVIEW
Syed Mohiyaddin, Prakash Nanjaiah, Ahmed O Saad, Metesh N Acharya, Tanveer A Khan, Rhodri H Davies, Saeed Ashraf
About 50% of the trauma victims die at the scene mostly because of exsanguinating haemorrhage. Most trials of resuscitation fail in face of the ongoing bleeding. Ongoing research/studies to save these victims by inducing rapid hypothermia using cardiopulmonary bypass as an emergency initial measure along with delayed resuscitation show improved outcomes. A comprehensive review of this research and analysis of studies showed that rapid induction of hypothermia within 5 min of cardiac arrest is associated with better survival and improved neurological outcome...
November 18, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146031/avian-ganglioneuritis-in-clinical-practice
#2
REVIEW
Giacomo Rossi, Robert D Dahlhausen, Livio Galosi, Susan E Orosz
Avian ganglioneuritis (AG) comprises one of the most intricate pathologies in avian medicine and is researched worldwide. Avian bornavirus (ABV) has been shown to be a causative agent of proventricular dilatation disease in birds. The avian Bornaviridae represent a genetically diverse group of viruses that are widely distributed in captive and wild populations around the world. ABV and other infective agents are implicated as a cause of the autoimmune pathology that leads to AG, similar to human Guillain Barrè syndrome...
January 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145693/early-erythropoiesis-stimulating-agents-in-preterm-or-low-birth-weight-infants
#3
REVIEW
Arne Ohlsson, Sanjay M Aher
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants have low plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO), providing a rationale for the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) to prevent or treat anaemia and to provide neuro protection and protection against necrotising enterocolitis (NEC). Darbepoetin (Darbe) and EPO are currently available ESAs. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of ESAs (erythropoietin (EPO) and/or Darbe) initiated early (before eight days after birth) compared with placebo or no intervention in reducing red blood cell (RBC) transfusions, adverse neurological outcomes, and feeding intolerance including necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm and/or low birth weight infants...
November 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145275/asymptomatic-syringomyelia-accompanied-with-metastatic-cerebellar-and-spinal-intramedullary-lymphoma-a-case-report
#4
Jia-Jia Zhou, Jin-Feng Xu, Xu-Ning Zheng, Guo-Ping Peng
RATIONALE: Asympotamic syringomyelia accompanied with metastatic cerebellar and thoracic spinal intramedullary lymphoma is rare in clinical practice. If the intramedullary lymphoma is large enough, the patient will rapidly develop neurologic signs of spinal injury. The prognosis of this type of complication is always bad. PATIENT CONCERNS: Rapid and correct diagnosis and treatment is important for metastatic extranodal lymphoma with B cell of origin. DIAGNOSES: Syringomyelia accompanied with metastatic cerebellar and thoracic spinal intramedullary lymphoma...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141532/seizures-and-antiepileptic-drugs-from-pathophysiology-to-clinical-practice
#5
Nihan CarCaka, Cigdem Ozkara
Recurrent, spontaneous seizure activity caused by abnormal neuronal firing in the brain is a hallmark of epilepsy, a common chronic neurological disorder. Recent research that has expanded the knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that modulate neuronal excitability and network activity in the brain provides the development and discovery of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). AED therapy starts with the selection of the most appropriate drug for individual patient on the basis of strategic decision of the risk-benefit ratio...
November 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135640/neuromechanical-considerations-for-postconcussion-musculoskeletal-injury-risk-management
#6
Gary B Wilkerson, Dustin R Grooms, Shellie N Acocello
Recent epidemiological studies have documented increased susceptibility to musculoskeletal injury after sport-related concussion, which raises questions about the adequacy of current clinical practices to ensure safe return to sport. A growing body of evidence derived from advanced neuroimaging and neurological assessment methods strongly suggests that mild traumatic brain injury has long-lasting adverse effects that persist beyond resolution of clinical symptoms. Plausible interrelationships among postconcussion changes in brain structure and function support the rationale for specific methods of clinical assessment and training to target the interaction of cognitive and motor function for reduction of musculoskeletal injury risk after concussion...
November 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134535/current-status-of-cardiovascular-surgery-in-japan-2013-and-2014-a%C3%A2-report-based-on-the-japan-cardiovascular-surgery-database-2-congenital-heart-surgery
#7
Yasutaka Hirata, Norimichi Hirahara, Arata Murakami, Noboru Motomura, Hiroaki Miyata, Shinichi Takamoto
OBJECTIVES: We analyzed the mortality and morbidity of congenital heart surgery in Japan using the Japan Cardiovascular Surgery Database (JCVSD). METHODS: Data regarding congenital heart surgery performed between January 2013 and December 2014 were obtained from JCVSD. The 20 most frequent procedures were selected and the mortality rates and major morbidities were analyzed. RESULTS: The mortality rates of atrial septal defect repair and ventricular septal defect repair were less than 1%, and the mortality rates of tetralogy of Fallot repair, complete atrioventricular septal defect repair, bidirectional Glenn, and total cavopulmonary connection were less than 2%...
November 13, 2017: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134465/current-role-for-biomarkers-in-clinical-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-disease-and-frontotemporal-dementia
#8
REVIEW
Nasim Sheikh-Bahaei, Seyed Ahmad Sajjadi, Aimee L Pierce
Purpose of review Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia can often be diagnosed accurately with careful clinical history, cognitive testing, neurological examination, and structural brain MRI. However, there are certain circumstances wherein detection of specific biomarkers of neurodegeneration or underlying AD pathology will impact the clinical diagnosis or treatment plan. We will review the currently available biomarkers for AD and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and discuss their clinical importance...
November 14, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134229/decursin-and-decursinol-angelate-molecular-mechanism-and-therapeutic-potential-in-inflammatory-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Adeeb Shehzad, Sajida Parveen, Munibah Qureshi, Fazli Subhan, Young Sup Lee
Epidemiological studies have shown that inflammation plays a critical role in the development and progression of various chronic diseases, including cancers, neurological diseases, hepatic fibrosis, diabetic retinopathy, and vascular diseases. Decursin and decursinol angelate (DA) are pyranocoumarin compounds obtained from the roots of Angelica gigas. Several studies have described the anti-inflammatory effects of decursin and DA. Decursin and DA have shown potential anti-inflammatory activity by modulating growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor, transcription factors such as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, cellular enzymes including matrix metalloproteinases cyclooxygenase, and protein kinases such as extracellular receptor kinase, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, and protein kinase C...
November 13, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132771/-neonatal-herpes-epidemiology-clinical-manifestations-and-management-guidelines-for-clinical-practice-from-the-french-college-of-gynecologists-and-obstetricians-cngof
#10
L Renesme
OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology of neonatal herpes and its risk factors, clinical and paraclinic manifestations, propose guidelines for a newborn at risk of neonatal herpes, describe treatment modalities, describe post-natal transmission and its prevention. METHODS: Bibliographic search from Medline, Cochrane Library databases and research of international clinical practice guidelines. RESULTS: Neonatal herpes is rare (about 20 cases per year in France) and mainly due to HSV 1 (level of evidence LE3)...
November 10, 2017: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128371/assessments-of-neurocognitive-and-behavioral-function-in-the-mucopolysaccharidoses
#11
REVIEW
Elsa G Shapiro, Maria L Escolar, Kathleen A Delaney, John J Mitchell
The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of rare, inherited lysosomal storage disorders in which accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) leads to progressive tissue and organ dysfunction. In addition to a variety of somatic signs and symptoms, patients with rapidly progressing MPS I (Hurler), II, III, and VII can present with significant neurological manifestations, including impaired cognitive abilities, difficulties in language and speech, behavioral abnormalities, sleep problems, and/or seizures. Neurological symptoms have a substantial impact on the quality of life of MPS patients and their families...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128152/intravenous-thrombolytic-therapy-for-acute-anterior-ischemic-stroke-experience-at-the-french-military-teaching-hospital-in-toulon-from-2003-to-2014
#12
P Sahuc-Rodrigues, E Sagui, D Wybrecht, J-B Veyrières, S Gazzola, A Dagain, J Valance, P Alla, A Faivre
INTRODUCTION: Intravenous thrombolysis with rt-PA is the key treatment for acute ischemic stroke (IS), and has largely been developed at the Military Teaching Hospital in Toulon since 2003. This report is of the results of our practices compared with those in the literature, as well as our attempts to identify factors predictive of a favorable outcome after thrombolysis. METHODS: All patients treated with rt-PA for IS in the carotid territory between 2003 and 2014 were prospectively included...
November 8, 2017: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127079/effect-of-acupuncture-and-chinese-herbal-medicine-on-subacute-stroke-outcomes-a-single-centre-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Jianqiao Fang, Crystal Lynn Keeler, Lifang Chen, Ruijie Ma, Chao Wang, Shouyu Xu
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether integrative medicine, combining acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine with conventional rehabilitation during subacute stroke, is an effective comprehensive rehabilitation strategy for daily life activities, neurological deficits, motor dysfunction, cognitive impairment and depression. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial: patients were randomly assigned to a conventional rehabilitation (CR) group or an integrative medicine rehabilitation (IMR) group with CR plus acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine...
November 10, 2017: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124985/pharmacotherapy-and-motor-recovery-after-stroke
#14
Luciano Viale, Natalia Paola Catoira, Guillermo Di Girolamo, Claudio Daniel González
Stroke is one of the most prevalent neurological diseases worldwide, especially among the elderly population. There are various mechanisms that enhance motor recovery after a stroke. In clinical practice, we have the opportunity to enhance plasticity by designing specific rehabilitation programs. Areas covered: There are a variety of drugs commonly administered to people after the acute phase of a stroke. These drugs may modify motor performance. Herein reviewed is the evidence concerning motor enhancement or decline in stroke patients, produced by drugs commonly used in rehabilitation settings...
November 10, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120919/nystagmus
#15
Alexander A Tarnutzer, Dominik Straumann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The clinical and laboratory assessment of nystagmus in patients with neurologic disorders can provide crucial elements for a state-of-the-art differential diagnosis. An increasing number of publications in the fields of neuro-otology and neuro-ophthalmology have nystagmus in the center of interest, which makes frequent updates on the diagnostic and therapeutic relevance of these contributions indispensable. This review covers important clinical studies and studies in basic research relevant for the neurologist published from January 2016 to August 2017...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119462/syncope-in-pediatric-practice
#16
REVIEW
Pratibha Singhi, Arushi Gahlot Saini
Syncope is defined as a sudden, self-limited loss of consciousness and postural tone followed by spontaneous and complete recovery without any neurological sequelae. It is one of the most common paroxysmal disorders in children and adolescents. The three major causes of syncope in children are neural, cardiovascular and other non-cardiovascular causes. The common unifying mechanism is transient global hypoperfusion of the brain. The diagnosis is primarily clinical and objective laboratory investigations add little to the diagnosis in children especially in neurocardiogenic subtype...
November 9, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110777/the-use-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-biomarker-studies
#17
C E Teunissen, C Verheul, E A J Willemse
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is an extremely useful matrix for biomarker research for several purposes, such as diagnosis, prognosis, monitoring, and identification of prominent leads in pathways of neurologic diseases. Such biomarkers can be identified based on a priori hypotheses around prominent protein changes, but also by applying -omics technologies. Proteomics is widely used, but metabolomics and transcriptomics are rapidly revealing their potential for CSF studies. The basis of such studies is the availability of high-quality biobanks...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108846/predictors-of-pediatric-blunt-cerebrovascular-injury
#18
Avery C Rossidis, Sasha J Tharakan, Sourav K Bose, Karuna V Shekdar, Michael L Nance, Thane A Blinman
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) is clinically challenging because these injuries are hard to detect and can have serious neurological consequences, and optimal screening criteria have not been established for children. This study aims to determine risk factors for BCVI in pediatric patients and to evaluate screening practices in a single institutional series. METHODS: A retrospective review of all pediatric blunt trauma patients evaluated over a 10-year period was performed...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105074/common-data-elements-for-preclinical-epilepsy-research-standards-for-data-collection-and-reporting-a-task3-report-of-the-aes-ilae-translational-task-force-of-the-ilae
#19
Lauren C Harte-Hargrove, Jacqueline A French, Asla Pitkänen, Aristea S Galanopoulou, Vicky Whittemore, Helen E Scharfman
The major objective of preclinical translational epilepsy research is to advance laboratory findings toward clinical application by testing potential treatments in animal models of seizures and epilepsy. Recently there has been a focus on the failure of preclinical discoveries to translate reliably, or even to be reproduced in different laboratories. One potential cause is a lack of standardization in preclinical data collection. The resulting difficulties in comparing data across studies have led to high cost and missed opportunity, which in turn impede clinical trials and advances in medical care...
November 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104559/optimizing-the-definitions-of-stroke-transient-ischemic-attack-and-infarction-for-research-and-application-in-clinical-practice
#20
Anne L Abbott, Mauro Silvestrini, Raffi Topakian, Jonathan Golledge, Alejandro M Brunser, Gert J de Borst, Robert E Harbaugh, Fergus N Doubal, Tatjana Rundek, Ankur Thapar, Alun H Davies, Anthony Kam, Joanna M Wardlaw
Background and purpose: Until now, stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) have been clinically based terms which describe the presence and duration of characteristic neurological deficits attributable to intrinsic disorders of particular arteries supplying the brain, retina, or (sometimes) the spinal cord. Further, infarction has been pathologically defined as death of neural tissue due to reduced blood supply. Recently, it has been proposed we shift to definitions of stroke and TIA determined by neuroimaging results alone and that neuroimaging findings be equated with infarction...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
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