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semiology neurology

Joao Paulo Silva Cunha, Ana Patricia Rocha, Hugo Miguel Pereira Choupina, Jose Maria Fernandes, Maria Jose Rosas, Rui Vaz, Felix Achilles, Anna Mira Loesch, Christian Vollmar, Elisabeth Hartl, Soheyl Noachtar, Joao Paulo Silva Cunha, Ana Patricia Rocha, Hugo Miguel Pereira Choupina, Jose Maria Fernandes, Maria Jose Rosas, Rui Vaz, Felix Achilles, Anna Mira Loesch, Christian Vollmar, Elisabeth Hartl, Soheyl Noachtar, Christian Vollmar, Ana Patricia Rocha, Elisabeth Hartl, Rui Vaz, Hugo Miguel Pereira Choupina, Soheyl Noachtar, Felix Achilles, Anna Mira Loesch, Jose Maria Fernandes, Joao Paulo Silva Cunha, Maria Jose Rosas
Many neurological diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and epilepsy, can significantly impair the motor function of the patients, often leading to a dramatic loss of their quality of life. Human motion analysis is regarded as fundamental towards an early diagnosis and enhanced follow-up in this type of diseases. In this contribution, we present NeuroKinect, a novel system designed for motion analysis in neurological diseases. This system includes an RGB-D camera (Microsoft Kinect) and two integrated software applications, KiT (KinecTracker) and KiMA (Kinect Motion Analyzer)...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Lori L Billinghurst, Lauren A Beslow, Nicholas S Abend, Michael Uohara, Laura Jastrzab, Daniel J Licht, Rebecca N Ichord
OBJECTIVE: To determine the cumulative incidence and clinical predictors of remote symptomatic seizures and epilepsy after pediatric arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 218 participants with neonatal AIS (NAIS), presumed perinatal AIS (PPAIS), and childhood AIS (CAIS) from a single-center prospective consecutive cohort enrolled from 2006 to 2014. Medical records were reviewed for timing, semiology, and treatment of acute symptomatic seizures, remote symptomatic seizures (RSS), and epilepsy...
January 13, 2017: Neurology
Cristea I, Popa C
The study aimed to evaluate the correlations between the clinical and paraclinical data in the lateral bulbar infarction, benefiting from the access to the semiologic characteristics of a group studied and the MRI angiography, without a contrast agent, through the 3D TOF technique combined with MIP, as an imaging technique for the evaluation of the arterial lesion. The study group included 20 patients with lateral bulbar infarction, 14 men, and 6 women aged between 21 and 80 years, the mean age being 56, 9 years, who were enrolled in the study in the period 2012 and 2014, following the admission in the National Institute of Neurology and Neurovascular Diseases...
July 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
Robert C Doss, W Curt LaFrance
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are diagnosed in at least 10-40% of the patients seen for long-term monitoring of epilepsy, and it is no surprise that patients with PNES are often treated for epilepsy. Given the substantial economic costs and mental health burden of misdiagnosis, it is imperative to establish early identification, correct diagnosis, and effective treatment of PNES in order to provide the greatest opportunity for remission of events, improved psychological functioning, and social-vocational outcome...
December 1, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Jocelyn Y Cheng
INTRODUCTION: Status epilepticus (SE) is a life-threatening neurologic emergency. Despite advances in management, in-hospital mortality remains unchanged. This is partly due to the pharmacoresistance which develops the longer that seizures persist. Therefore, rapid antiseizure medication (ASM) administration may represent a beneficial treatment option. The purpose of this study was to determine: 1) whether in-hospital mortality is reduced with shorter latencies to initial treatment of SE with an ASM (LTSE); and 2) the critical time frame during which LTSE is associated with reduced in-hospital mortality...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Aude Paquet, Bertrand Olliac, Manuel-Pierre Bouvard, Bernard Golse, Laurence Vaivre-Douret
BACKGROUND: Altered motor performance has been described in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) with disturbances in walking; posture, coordination, or arm movements, but some individuals with ASD show no impairment of motor skills. The neuro-developmental processes that underpin the performance of neuro-psychomotor functions have not been widely explored, nor is it clear whether there are neuro-psychomotor functions specifically affected in ASD. Our objective was to focus on the semiology of motor disorders among children with ASD using a neuro-developmental assessment tool...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Vibhangini S Wasade, Indranil Balki, Susan M Bowyer, Shaila Gaddam, Ali-Reza Mohammadi-Nejad, Mohammad-Reza Nazem-Zadeh, Hamid Soltanian-Zadeh, Andrew Zillgitt, Marianna Spanaki-Varelas
Excessive yawning was described in some neurological conditions as part of periictal or ictal manifestations of epilepsy, most commonly temporal lobe. We present the first case of controllable yawning as a primary seizure semiology with dominant frontal lobe involvement in a 20-year-old man. Video electroencephalography recorded 8 yawning episodes accompanied with right arm movement correlating with rhythmic diffuse theta range activity with left hemispheric predominance. Magnetoencephalography coherence source imaging was consistent with persistent neuronal networks with areas of high coherence reliably present over the left lateral orbitofrontal region...
2016: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
J Lloyd Holder, Michael M Quach
OBJECTIVE: The coincidence of autism with epilepsy is 27% in those individuals with intellectual disability.(1) Individuals with loss-of-function mutations in SHANK3 have intellectual disability, autism, and variably, epilepsy.(2-5) The spectrum of seizure semiologies and electroencephalography (EEG) abnormalities has never been investigated in detail. With the recent report that SHANK3 mutations are present in approximately 2% of individuals with moderate to severe intellectual disabilities and 1% of individuals with autism, determining the spectrum of seizure semiologies and electrographic abnormalities will be critical for medical practitioners to appropriately counsel the families of patients with SHANK3 mutations...
October 2016: Epilepsia
Sara Matricardi, Alberto Spalice, Vincenzo Salpietro, Gabriella Di Rosa, Maria Cristina Balistreri, Salvatore Grosso, Pasquale Parisi, Maurizio Elia, Pasquale Striano, Patrizia Accorsi, Raffaella Cusmai, Nicola Specchio, Giangennaro Coppola, Salvatore Savasta, Marco Carotenuto, Elisabetta Tozzi, Pietro Ferrara, Martino Ruggieri, Alberto Verrotti
This paper reports on the clinical aspects, electroencephalographic (EEG) features, and neuroimaging findings in children with full trisomy 18 and associated epilepsy, and compares the evolution and outcome of their neurological phenotype. We retrospectively studied 18 patients (10 males and 8 females; aged 14 months to 9 years) with full trisomy 18 and epilepsy. All patients underwent comprehensive assessment including neuroimaging studies of the brain. We divided patients into two groups according to neuroimaging findings: (Group 1) 10 patients harboring structural brain malformations, and (Group 2) 8 patients with normal brain images...
September 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
Alexander G Weil, Ngoc Minh D Le, Prasanna Jayakar, Trevor Resnick, Ian Miller, Aria Fallah, Michael Duchowny, Sanjiv Bhatia
OBJECTIVE Seizure onset in the insular cortex as a cause of refractory epilepsy is underrepresented in the pediatric population, possibly due to difficulties localizing seizure onset in deep anatomical structures and limited surgical access to the insula, a complex anatomical structure with a rich overlying vascular network. Insular seizure semiology may mimic frontal, temporal, or parietal lobe semiology, resulting in false localization, incomplete resection, and poor outcome. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of all pediatric patients who underwent insular cortical resections for intractable epilepsy at Miami Children's Hospital from 2009 to 2015...
November 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Kristin M Knudsen-Baas, Kjersti N Power, Bernt A Engelsen, Stig Erik Hegrestad, Nils Erik Gilhus, Anette M Storstein
PURPOSE: Epilepsy is common in glioma patients, but clinical data on the course of status epilepticus (SE) in this group are sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of SE to tumor grading, seizure semiology, trigger factors, treatment response, recurrence and outcome of SE in patients with glioma. METHODS: Adult patients with SE and glioma WHO grade II-IV were identified from a prospective clinical study at two neurological departments...
August 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Benjamin D Wissel, Alok K Dwivedi, Tyler E Gaston, Federico J Rodriguez-Porcel, Danah Aljaafari, Jennifer L Hopp, Allan Krumholz, Sandra M A van der Salm, Danielle M Andrade, Felippe Borlot, Brian D Moseley, Jennifer L Cavitt, Stevie Williams, Jon Stone, W Curt LaFrance, Jerzy P Szaflarski, Alberto J Espay
OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine the clinical and electrographic differences between patients with combined epileptic (ES) and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) and age- and gender-matched patients with ES-only and PNES-only. METHODS: Data from 138 patients (105 women [77%]), including 46 with PNES/ES (39±12years), 46 with PNES-only (39±11years), and 46 with ES-only (39±11years), were compared using logistic regression analysis after adjusting for clustering effect...
August 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
S Santos-Lasaosa, P R Vinueza-Buitron, A Velazquez-Benito, C Iniguez-Martinez, P Larrode-Pellicer, L J Lopez Del Val, J A Mauri-Llerda, S Sanchez-Valiente, J L Millan-Morales
INTRODUCTION: Headache as a symptom is a very common disease and one of the main reasons for consultation in primary care. AIM: To analyze the characteristics of patients referred from primary care to general neurology whose chief complaint was headache and/or neuralgia and diagnostic agreement. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study of all patients referred from primary care; demographic/clinical variables were collected and diagnostic hypothesis by primary care and general neurology were compared by determining their agreement...
June 16, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
Sara Baldassari, Laura Licchetta, Paolo Tinuper, Francesca Bisulli, Tommaso Pippucci
The mammalian or mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway has multiple roles in regulating physiology of the whole body and, particularly, the brain. Deregulation of mTOR signalling has been associated to various neurological conditions, including epilepsy. Mutations in genes encoding components of Gap Activity TOward Rags 1 (GATOR1) (DEPDC5, NPRL2 and NPRL3), a complex involved in the inhibition of the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), have been recently implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide spectrum of focal epilepsies (FEs), both lesional and non-lesional...
August 2016: Journal of Medical Genetics
Esra Gurkas, Ayse Serdaroglu, Tugba Hirfanoglu, Ayse Kartal, Unsal Yılmaz, Erhan Bilir
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurologic disorders. Daily periodicity of epileptic seizures has been known for over a century. The diurnal patterns of epileptic seizures have also been observed in studies. AIM: To investigate the sleep/wake cycle, day/night, and 24-h periodicity of various seizure subtypes and seizure onset localizations in children. METHODS: We analyzed the clinical seizures of 170 consecutive epilepsy patients who underwent video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring over the last 5 years...
July 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
E Roze, C Flamand-Roze, A Méneret, M Ruiz, H Le Liepvre, A Duguet, M-C Renaud, S Alamowitch, O Steichen
INTRODUCTION: Neurological disorders are frequently being managed by general practitioners. It is therefore critical that future physicians become comfortable with neurological examination and physical diagnosis. Graduating medical students often consider neurological examination as one of the clinical skills they are least comfortable with, and they even tend to be neurophobic. One way to improve the learning of neurological semiology is to design innovative learner-friendly educational methods, including simulation training...
April 2016: Revue Neurologique
David L Perez, W Curt LaFrance
Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are a functional neurological disorder/conversion disorder subtype, which are neurobehavioral conditions at the interface of neurology and psychiatry. Significant advancements over the past decade have been made in the diagnosis, management, and neurobiological understanding of PNES. This article reviews published PNES research focusing on semiologic features that distinguish PNES from epileptic seizures, consensus diagnostic criteria, the intersection of PNES and other comorbidities, neurobiological studies, evidence-based treatment interventions, and outcome studies...
June 2016: CNS Spectrums
João Paulo Silva Cunha, Hugo Miguel Pereira Choupina, Ana Patrícia Rocha, José Maria Fernandes, Felix Achilles, Anna Mira Loesch, Christian Vollmar, Elisabeth Hartl, Soheyl Noachtar
Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder which affects 0.5-1% of the world population. Its diagnosis relies both on Electroencephalogram (EEG) findings and characteristic seizure-induced body movements--called seizure semiology. Thus, synchronous EEG and (2D)video recording systems (known as Video-EEG) are the most accurate tools for epilepsy diagnosis. Despite the establishment of several quantitative methods for EEG analysis, seizure semiology is still analyzed by visual inspection, based on epileptologists' subjective interpretation of the movements of interest (MOIs) that occur during recorded seizures...
2016: PloS One
Avriel Linane, Andre H Lagrange, Cary Fu, Bassel Abou-Khalil
PURPOSE: We report clinical and electrographic features of generalized onset seizures with focal evolution (GOFE) and present arguments for the inclusion of this seizure type in the seizure classification. METHODS: The adult and pediatric Epilepsy Monitoring Unit databases at Vanderbilt Medical Center and Children's Hospital were screened to identify generalized onset seizures with focal evolution. We reviewed medical records for epilepsy characteristics, epilepsy risk factors, MRI abnormalities, neurologic examination, antiepileptic medications before and after diagnosis, and response to medications...
January 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Hitoshi Nakano, Atsushi Otsuka, Masako Kinoshita
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is known to cause severe intractable epilepsy and mental retardation; however, diagnosis can be delayed in milder cases. We report a 26-year-old right-handed female patient who started having convulsions at age 7 days. She had several focal seizures per year that were intractable to treatment with carbamazepine or phenytoin. Her two sisters had several episodes of suspected epileptic seizures but had no symptoms related to TSC. Seizure semiology of the patient comprised of visual hallucination, loss of consciousness, and convulsive movements predominantly on the right...
2015: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
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