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Ebola vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910805/ebola-virus-vaccines-where-do-we-stand
#1
REVIEW
Vincent Pavot
The recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa has led to more than 11,000 deaths, with a peak in mortality from August through December of 2014. A meeting convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) in September 2014, concluded that an urgent unmet need exists for efficacy and safety testing of the Ebola virus vaccine candidates and that clinical trials should be expedited. These vaccines could be used both in an outbreak setting and to provide long-term protection in populations at risk of sporadic outbreaks...
October 28, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909582/ebola-research-funding-a-systematic-analysis-1997-2015
#2
Joseph Ra Fitchett, Amos Lichtman, Damilola T Soyode, Ariel Low, Jimena Villar de Onis, Michael G Head, Rifat Atun
BACKGROUND: The latest outbreak of Ebola in West Africa overwhelmed the affected countries, with the impact on health extending far beyond Ebola-related deaths that have exceeded 11 000. The need to promptly mobilise resources to control emerging infections is widely recognized. Yet, data on research funding for emerging infections remains inadequately documented. METHODS: We defined research investment as all funding flows for Ebola and/or Marburg virus from 1997 to April 2015 whose primary purpose was to advance knowledge and new technologies to prevent or cure disease...
December 2016: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893999/ebola-virus-disease-an-update-on-current-prevention-and-management-strategies
#3
REVIEW
M A Trad, W Naughton, A Yeung, L Mazlin, M O'sullivan, N Gilroy, D A Fisher, R L Stuart
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is characterised by systemic viral replication, immuno-suppression, abnormal inflammatory responses, large volume fluid and electrolyte losses, and high mortality in under-resourced settings. There are various therapeutic strategies targeting EVD including vaccines utilizing different antigen delivery methods, antibody-based therapies and antiviral drugs. These therapies remain experimental, but received attention following their use particularly in cases treated outside West Africa during the 2014-15 outbreak, in which 20 (80%) out of 25 patients survived...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884478/vaccine-provision-delivering-sustained-widespread-use
#4
Scott Preiss, Nathalie Garçon, Anthony L Cunningham, Richard Strugnell, Leonard R Friedland
The administration of a vaccine to a recipient is the final step in a development and production process that may have begun several decades earlier. Here we describe the scale and complexity of the processes that brings a candidate vaccine through clinical development to the recipient. These challenges include ensuring vaccine quality (between 100 and 500 different Quality Control tests are performed during production to continually assess safety, potency and purity); making decisions about optimal vaccine presentation (pre-filled syringes versus multi-dose vials) that affect capacity and supply; and the importance of maintaining the vaccine cold chain (most vaccines have stringent storage temperature requirements necessary to maintain activity and potency)...
November 21, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881138/bohv-4-based-vector-delivering-ebola-virus-surface-glycoprotein
#5
Alfonso Rosamilia, Sarah Jacca, Giulia Tebaldi, Silvia Tiberti, Valentina Franceschi, Francesca Macchi, Sandro Cavirani, Gary Kobinger, Donald P Knowles, Gaetano Donofrio
BACKGROUND: Ebola virus (EBOV) is a Category A pathogen that is a member of Filoviridae family that causes hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates. Unpredictable and devastating outbreaks of disease have recently occurred in Africa and current immunoprophylaxis and therapies are limited. The main limitation of working with pathogens like EBOV is the need for costly containment. To potentiate further and wider opportunity for EBOV prophylactics and therapies development, innovative approaches are necessary...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870907/national-survey-indicates-that-individual-vaccination-decisions-respond-positively-to-community-vaccination-rates
#6
John Romley, Prodyumna Goutam, Neeraj Sood
Some models of vaccination behavior imply that an individual's willingness to vaccinate could be negatively correlated with the vaccination rate in her community. The rationale is that a higher community vaccination rate reduces the risk of contracting the vaccine-preventable disease and thus reduces the individual's incentive to vaccinate. At the same time, as for many health-related behaviors, individuals may want to conform to the vaccination behavior of peers, counteracting a reduced incentive to vaccinate due to herd immunity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855644/febrile-illness-diagnostics-and-the-malaria-industrial-complex-a-socio-environmental-perspective
#7
Justin Stoler, Gordon A Awandare
BACKGROUND: Global prioritization of single-disease eradication programs over improvements to basic diagnostic capacity in the Global South have left the world unprepared for epidemics of chikungunya, Ebola, Zika, and whatever lies on the horizon. The medical establishment is slowly realizing that in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), particularly urban areas, up to a third of patients suffering from acute fever do not receive a correct diagnosis of their infection. MAIN BODY: Malaria is the most common diagnosis for febrile patients in low-resource health care settings, and malaria misdiagnosis has soared due to the institutionalization of malaria as the primary febrile illness of SSA by international development organizations and national malaria control programs...
November 17, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853993/the-roles-of-ebolavirus-glycoproteins-in-viral-pathogenesis
#8
REVIEW
Yun-Jia Ning, Fei Deng, Zhihong Hu, Hualin Wang
Ebolaviruses are highly dangerous pathogens exhibiting extreme virulence in humans and nonhuman primates. The majority of ebolavirus species, most notably Zaire ebolavirus, can cause Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, in humans. EVD is associated with case-fatality rates as high as 90%, and there is currently no specific treatment or licensed vaccine available against EVD. Understanding the molecular biology and pathogenesis of ebolaviruses is important for the development of antiviral therapeutics...
November 14, 2016: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821112/power-fairness-and-trust-understanding-and-engaging-with-vaccine-trial-participants-and-communities-in-the-setting-up-the-ebovac-salone-vaccine-trial-in-sierra-leone
#9
Luisa Enria, Shelley Lees, Elizabeth Smout, Thomas Mooney, Angus F Tengbeh, Bailah Leigh, Brian Greenwood, Deborah Watson-Jones, Heidi Larson
BACKGROUND: This paper discusses the establishment of a clinical trial of an Ebola vaccine candidate in Kambia District, Northern Sierra Leone during the epidemic, and analyses the role of social science research in ensuring that lessons from the socio-political context, the recent experience of the Ebola outbreak, and learning from previous clinical trials were incorporated in the development of community engagement strategies. The paper aims to provide a case study of an integrated social science and communications system in the start-up phase of the clinical trial...
November 8, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818362/impact-of-infectious-disease-epidemics-on-tuberculosis-diagnostic-management-and-prevention-services-experiences-and-lessons-from-the-2014-2015-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak-in-west-africa
#10
Rashid Ansumana, Samuel Keitell, Gregory M T Roberts, Francine Ntoumi, Eskild Petersen, Giuseppe Ippolito, Alimuddin Zumla
The World Health Organization (WHO) annual TB report states twenty-eight percent of the world's 9.6 million new tuberculosis (TB) cases are in the WHO Africa Region. The Mano River Union (MRU) countries of West Africa, Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia, have over the past two decades made incremental sustained investments into TB control programs. The devastating 2014-2015 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa impacted significantly on all sectors of the healthcare systems in the MRU countries, including the TB prevention and control programs...
November 3, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807241/one-health-a-safe-efficient-dual-use-vaccine-for-humans-and-animals-against-mers-cov-and-rabies-virus
#11
Christoph Wirblich, Christopher M Coleman, Drishya Kurup, Tara S Abraham, John G Bernbaum, Peter B Jahrling, Lisa E Hensley, Reed F Johnson, Matthew B Frieman, Matthias J Schnell
: The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in 2012 and is a highly pathogenic respiratory virus. No treatment options against MERS-CoV exist for humans or animals and there are no large-scale clinical trials for therapies against MERS-CoV. To address this need, we developed an inactivated rabies virus (RABV) that contains the MERS-CoV Spike (S) protein expressed on its surface. Our initial recombinant vaccine, BNSP333-S, expresses a full-length wildtype MERS-CoV S protein however it showed significantly reduced viral titers compared to the parental RABV strain and only low incorporation of full-length MERS-CoV spike (S) into RABV particles...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806049/containing-ebola-at-the-source-with-ring-vaccination
#12
Stefano Merler, Marco Ajelli, Laura Fumanelli, Stefano Parlamento, Ana Pastore Y Piontti, Natalie E Dean, Giovanni Putoto, Dante Carraro, Ira M Longini, M Elizabeth Halloran, Alessandro Vespignani
Interim results from the Guinea Ebola ring vaccination trial suggest high efficacy of the rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine. These findings open the door to the use of ring vaccination strategies in which the contacts and contacts of contacts of each index case are promptly vaccinated to contain future Ebola virus disease outbreaks. To provide a numerical estimate of the effectiveness of ring vaccination strategies we introduce a spatially explicit agent-based model to simulate Ebola outbreaks in the Pujehun district, Sierra Leone, structurally similar to previous modelling approaches...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798615/human-antibody-repertoire-after-vsv-ebola-vaccination-identifies-novel-targets-and-virus-neutralizing-igm-antibodies
#13
Surender Khurana, Sandra Fuentes, Elizabeth M Coyle, Supriya Ravichandran, Richard T Davey, John H Beigel
Development of an effective vaccine against Ebola virus is of high priority. However, knowledge about potential correlates of protection and the durability of immune response after vaccination is limited. Here, we elucidate the human antibody repertoire after administration of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-Ebola vaccine at 3 million, 20 million and 100 million plaque-forming units (PFU) and homologous VSV-Ebola vaccine boost in healthy adult volunteers. Whole genome-fragment phage display libraries, expressing linear and conformational epitopes of Ebola glycoprotein (GP), showed higher diversity of antibody epitopes in individuals vaccinated with 20 million PFU than in those vaccinated with 3 million or 100 million PFU...
December 2016: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798376/leveraging-contact-network-structure-in-the-design-of-cluster-randomized-trials
#14
Guy Harling, Rui Wang, Jukka-Pekka Onnela, Victor De Gruttola
BACKGROUND: In settings like the Ebola epidemic, where proof-of-principle trials have provided evidence of efficacy but questions remain about the effectiveness of different possible modes of implementation, it may be useful to conduct trials that not only generate information about intervention effects but also themselves provide public health benefit. Cluster randomized trials are of particular value for infectious disease prevention research by virtue of their ability to capture both direct and indirect effects of intervention, the latter of which depends heavily on the nature of contact networks within and across clusters...
October 24, 2016: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792169/integrated-computational-approach-for-virtual-hit-identification-against-ebola-viral-proteins-vp35-and-vp40
#15
Muhammad Usman Mirza, Nazia Ikram
The Ebola virus (EBOV) has been recognised for nearly 40 years, with the most recent EBOV outbreak being in West Africa, where it created a humanitarian crisis. Mortalities reported up to 30 March 2016 totalled 11,307. However, up until now, EBOV drugs have been far from achieving regulatory (FDA) approval. It is therefore essential to identify parent compounds that have the potential to be developed into effective drugs. Studies on Ebola viral proteins have shown that some can elicit an immunological response in mice, and these are now considered essential components of a vaccine designed to protect against Ebola haemorrhagic fever...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788396/in-silico-analysis-of-hepatitis-c-virus-hcv-polyprotein-domains-and-their-comparison-with-other-pathogens-and-allergens-to-gain-insight-on-pathogenicity-mechanisms
#16
Seema Patel
Hepatitis C (HCV) is a deadly virus from family Flaviviridae, causing acute or chronic liver inflammation. Given its lethality and no known vaccine to curb it, understanding its pathogenic mechanism is critical. By analyzing the domains in its protein sequence, a plethora can be learnt about its immune manipulation strategies. In this regard, current in silico study compares publicly-available HCV polyprotein sequences and their domain profiles. Apart from using UniProt sequences and SMART (Simple modular architecture research tool) platform for domain profiling, a set of customized scripts were developed to extract the patterns of protein domain distribution...
October 15, 2016: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777926/effects-of-the-west-africa-ebola-virus-disease-on-health-care-utilization-a-systematic-review
#17
Kim J Brolin Ribacke, Dell D Saulnier, Anneli Eriksson, Johan von Schreeb
Significant efforts were invested in halting the recent Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa. Now, studies are emerging on the magnitude of the indirect health effects of the outbreak in the affected countries, and the aim of this study is to systematically assess the results of these publications. The methodology for this review adhered to the Prisma guidelines for systematic reviews. A total of 3354 articles were identified for screening, and while 117 articles were read in full, 22 studies were included in the final review...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771389/lassa-and-ebola-virus-inhibitors-identified-using-minigenome-and-recombinant-virus-reporter-systems
#18
Stephen R Welch, Lisa Wiggleton Guerrero, Ayan K Chakrabarti, Laura K McMullan, Mike Flint, Gregory R Bluemling, George R Painter, Stuart T Nichol, Christina F Spiropoulou, César G Albariño
Lassa virus (LASV) and Ebola virus (EBOV) infections are important global health issues resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. While several promising drug and vaccine trials for EBOV are ongoing, options for LASV infection are currently limited to ribavirin treatment. A major factor impeding the development of antiviral compounds to treat these infections is the need to manipulate the virus under BSL-4 containment, limiting research to a few institutes worldwide. Here we describe the development of a novel LASV minigenome assay based on the ambisense LASV S segment genome, with authentic terminal untranslated regions flanking a ZsGreen (ZsG) fluorescent reporter protein and a Gaussia princeps luciferase (gLuc) reporter gene...
October 19, 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769596/vaccine-development-from-concept-to-early-clinical-testing
#19
Anthony L Cunningham, Nathalie Garçon, Oberdan Leo, Leonard R Friedland, Richard Strugnell, Béatrice Laupèze, Mark Doherty, Peter Stern
In the 21st century, an array of microbiological and molecular allow antigens for new vaccines to be specifically identified, designed, produced and delivered with the aim of optimising the induction of a protective immune response against a well-defined immunogen. New knowledge about the functioning of the immune system and host pathogen interactions has stimulated the rational design of vaccines. The design toolbox includes vaccines made from whole pathogens, protein subunits, polysaccharides, pathogen-like particles, use of viral/bacterial vectors, plus adjuvants and conjugation technology to increase and broaden the immune response...
October 18, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764560/ebola-vaccines-in-clinical-trial-the-promising-candidates
#20
Yuxiao Wang, Jingxin Li, Yuemei Hu, Qi Liang, Mingwei Wei, Fengcai Zhu
Ebola virus disease (EVD) has become a great threat to humans across the world in recent years. The 2014 Ebola epidemic in West Africa caused numerous deaths and attracted worldwide attentions. Since no specific drugs and treatments against EVD was available, vaccination was considered as the most promising and effective method of controlling this epidemic. So far, 7 vaccine candidates had been developed and evaluated through clinical trials. Among them, the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccine (rVSV-EBOV) is the most promising candidate, which demonstrated a significant protection against EVD in phase III clinical trial...
October 20, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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