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Ebola vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922082/combinatorial-peptide-based-epitope-mapping-from-ebola-virus-dna-vaccines-and-infections-reveals-residue-level-determinants-of-antibody-binding
#1
Daniel R Ripoll, Daniel A J Mitchell, Lesley C Dupuy, Anders Wallqvist, Connie Schmaljohn, Sidhartha Chaudhury
Ebola virus (EBOV) infection is highly lethal and results in severe febrile bleeding disorders that affect humans and non-human primates. One of the therapeutic approaches for treating EBOV infection focus largely on cocktails of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind to specific regions of the EBOV glycoprotein (GP) and neutralize the virus. Recent structural studies using cryo-electron microscopy have identified key epitopes for several EBOV mAbs. While such information has yielded deep insights into antibody binding, limitations on resolution of these structures often preclude a residue-level analysis of EBOV epitopes...
September 18, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918539/accelerating-vaccine-development-during-the-2013-2016-west-african-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak
#2
Elizabeth S Higgs, Sheri A Dubey, Beth A G Coller, Jakub K Simon, Laura Bollinger, Robert A Sorenson, Barthalomew Wilson, Martha C Nason, Lisa E Hensley
The Ebola virus disease outbreak that began in Western Africa in December 2013 was unprecedented in both scope and spread, and the global response was slower and less coherent than was optimal given the scale and pace of the epidemic. Past experience with limited localized outbreaks, lack of licensed medical countermeasures, reluctance by first responders to direct scarce resources to clinical research, community resistance to outside interventions, and lack of local infrastructure were among the factors delaying clinical research during the outbreak...
September 17, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917841/graphene-vp40-interactions-and-potential-disruption-of-the-ebola-virus-matrix-filaments
#3
Jeevan B Gc, Rudramani Pokhrel, Nisha Bhattarai, Kristen A Johnson, Bernard S Gerstman, Robert V Stahelin, Prem P Chapagain
Ebola virus infections cause hemorrhagic fever that often results in very high fatality rates. In addition to exploring vaccines, development of drugs is also essential for treating the disease and preventing the spread of the infection. The Ebola virus matrix protein VP40 exists in various conformational and oligomeric forms and is a potential pharmacological target for disrupting the virus life-cycle. Here we explored graphene-VP40 interactions using molecular dynamics simulations and graphene pelleting assays...
September 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893277/development-of-an-hiv-vaccine-using-a-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-vector-expressing-designer-hiv-1-envelope-glycoproteins-to-enhance-humoral-responses
#4
REVIEW
Trina Racine, Gary P Kobinger, Eric J Arts
Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), like many other Rhabdoviruses, have become the focus of intense research over the past couple of decades based on their suitability as vaccine vectors, transient gene delivery systems, and as oncolytic viruses for cancer therapy. VSV as a vaccine vector platform has multiple advantages over more traditional viral vectors including low level, non-pathogenic replication in diverse cell types, ability to induce both humoral and cell-mediate immune responses, and the remarkable expression of foreign proteins cloned into multiple intergenic sites in the VSV genome...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890191/considerations-for-use-of-ebola-vaccine-during-an-emergency-response
#5
REVIEW
Jenny A Walldorf, Emily A Cloessner, Terri B Hyde, Adam MacNeil
Vaccination against Ebola virus disease is a tool that may limit disease transmission and deaths in future outbreaks, integrated within traditional Ebola outbreak prevention and control measures. Although a licensed Ebolavirus vaccine (EV) is not yet available, the 2014-2016 West African Ebola outbreak has accelerated EV clinical trials and given public health authorities in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone experience with implementation of emergency ring vaccination. As evidence supporting the use of EV during an outbreak response has become available, public health authorities in at-risk countries are considering how to integrate EV into future emergency Ebola responses and for prevention in high-risk groups, such as healthcare workers and frontline workers (HCW/FLWs), even before an EV is licensed...
September 7, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878087/novel-stable-ebola-virus-minigenome-replicon-reveals-remarkable-stability-of-the-viral-genome
#6
Wanyin Tao, Tianyu Gan, Mingzhe Guo, Yongfen Xu, Jin Zhong
Ebola virus (EBOV) causes severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and other primates with a high case fatality rate. No approved drug or vaccine of EBOV is available, which necessitates better understanding of the virus life cycle. Studies on EBOV have been hampered because experimentations involving live virus are restricted to biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) laboratories. EBOV minigenome system has provided researchers with the opportunity to study EBOV under BSL-2 conditions. Here, we developed a novel EBOV minigenome replicon which, to our knowledge, is the first EBOV cell culture system that can stably replicate and transcribe EBOV minigenome...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878074/cooperation-of-the-ebola-proteins-vp40-and-gp1-2-with-bst2-to-activate-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BA%C3%AE-independently-of-virus-like-particle-trapping
#7
Maryan G Rizk, Christopher F Basler, John Guatelli
BST2 is a host protein with dual functions in response to viral infections: it traps newly assembled enveloped virions at the plasma membrane of infected cells, and it induces NF-κβ activity, especially in the context of retroviral assembly. In this study, we examined whether Ebola virus proteins affect BST2-mediated induction of NF-κβ. We found that the Ebola matrix protein, VP40, and envelope glycoprotein, GP, each cooperate with BST2 to induce NF-κβ activity, with maximal activity when all three proteins are expressed...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861075/ebola-virus-glycoprotein-induces-an-innate-immune-response-in-vivo-via-tlr4
#8
Chih-Yun Lai, Daniel P Strange, Teri Ann S Wong, Axel T Lehrer, Saguna Verma
Ebola virus (EBOV), a member of the Filoviridae family, causes the most severe form of viral hemorrhagic fever. Although no FDA licensed vaccine or treatment against Ebola virus disease (EVD) is currently available, Ebola virus glycoprotein (GP) is the major antigen used in all candidate Ebola vaccines. Recent reports of protection as quickly as within 6 days of administration of the rVSV-based vaccine expressing EBOV GP before robust humoral responses were generated suggests that the innate immune responses elicited early after vaccination may contribute to the protection...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855898/quantitative-analysis-of-repertoire-scale-immunoglobulin-properties-in-vaccine-induced-b-cell-responses
#9
Ilja V Khavrutskii, Sidhartha Chaudhury, Sabrina M Stronsky, Donald W Lee, Jacqueline G Benko, Anders Wallqvist, Sina Bavari, Christopher L Cooper
Recent advances in the next-generation sequencing of B-cell receptors (BCRs) enable the characterization of humoral responses at a repertoire-wide scale and provide the capability for identifying unique features of immune repertoires in response to disease, vaccination, or infection. Immunosequencing now readily generates 10(3)-10(5) sequences per sample; however, statistical analysis of these repertoires is challenging because of the high genetic diversity of BCRs and the elaborate clonal relationships among them...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854372/systems-vaccinology-identifies-an-early-innate-immune-signature-as-a-correlate-of-antibody-responses-to-the-ebola-vaccine-rvsv-zebov
#10
Anne Rechtien, Laura Richert, Hadrien Lorenzo, Gloria Martrus, Boris Hejblum, Christine Dahlke, Rahel Kasonta, Madeleine Zinser, Hans Stubbe, Urte Matschl, Ansgar Lohse, Verena Krähling, Markus Eickmann, Stephan Becker, Rodolphe Thiébaut, Marcus Altfeld, Marylyn Addo
Predicting vaccine efficacy remains a challenge. We used a systems vaccinology approach to identify early innate immune correlates of antibody induction in humans receiving the Ebola vaccine rVSV-ZEBOV. Blood samples from days 0, 1, 3, 7, and 14 were analyzed for changes in cytokine levels, innate immune cell subsets, and gene expression. Integrative statistical analyses with cross-validation identified a signature of 5 early innate markers correlating with antibody titers on day 28 and beyond. Among those, IP-10 on day 3 and MFI of CXCR6 on NK cells on day 1 were independent correlates...
August 29, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854140/community-engagement-in-liberia-routine-immunization-post-ebola
#11
Juliet Bedford, Ketan Chitnis, Nance Webber, Phil Dixon, Ken Limwame, Rania Elessawi, Rafael Obregon
A national integrated polio, measles, and deworming campaign was implemented across Liberia May 8-14, 2015. The community engagement and social mobilization component of the campaign was based on structures that had been invested in during the Ebola response. This article provides an overview of the community engagement and social mobilization activities that were conducted and reports the key findings of a rapid qualitative assessment conducted immediately after the campaign that focused on community perceptions of routine immunization in the post-Ebola context...
2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832434/perceived-facilitators-and-barriers-to-local-health-department-workers-participation-in-infectious-disease-emergency-responses
#12
Lainie Rutkow, Amy Paul, Holly A Taylor, Daniel J Barnett
CONTEXT: Local health departments play a key role in emergency preparedness and respond to a wide range of threats including infectious diseases such as seasonal influenza, tuberculosis, H1N1, Ebola virus disease, and Zika virus disease. To successfully respond to an infectious disease outbreak, local health departments depend upon the participation of their workforce; yet, studies indicate that sizable numbers of workers would not participate in such a response. The reasons why local health department workers participate, or fail to participate, in infectious disease responses are not well understood...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827623/windows-of-opportunity-for-ebola-virus-infection-treatment-and-vaccination
#13
Van Kinh Nguyen, Esteban A Hernandez-Vargas
Ebola virus (EBOV) infection causes a high death toll, killing a high proportion of EBOV-infected patients within 7 days. Comprehensive data on EBOV infection are fragmented, hampering efforts in developing therapeutics and vaccines against EBOV. Under this circumstance, mathematical models become valuable resources to explore potential controlling strategies. In this paper, we employed experimental data of EBOV-infected nonhuman primates (NHPs) to construct a mathematical framework for determining windows of opportunity for treatment and vaccination...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822816/genetically-modified-rabies-virus-vectored-ebola-virus-disease-vaccines-are-safe-and-induce-efficacious-immune-responses-in-mice-and-dogs
#14
Lei Shuai, Xijun Wang, Zhiyuan Wen, Jinying Ge, Jinliang Wang, Dandan Zhao, Zhigao Bu
Ebola viruses (EBOVs) are zoonotic pathogens that cause EBOV disease (EVD) with high case fatality in humans. Currently, EVD vaccines are still under development in several countries. Here, we generated two recombinant rabies viruses (RABVs), rERAG333E/ZGP and rERAG333E/SGP, expressing the Zaire EBOV glycoprotein (ZGP) or Sudan EBOV glycoprotein (SGP) gene based on a modified ERA vaccine strain (rERAG333E) vector platform. The recombinant RABVs retained growth properties similar to those of the vector virus in BSR cell culture and efficiently expressed ZGP or SGP...
August 16, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813542/the-african-cholera-surveillance-network-africhol-consortium-meeting-10-11-june-2015-lom%C3%A3-togo
#15
Aline Munier, Berthe-Marie Njanpop-Lafourcade, Delphine Sauvageot, Raymond B Mhlanga, Léonard Heyerdahl, Johara Nadri, Richard Wood, Issaka Ouedraogo, Alexandre Blake, Laurent Akilimali Mukelenge, Jean-Claude B Anné, Abiba Banla Kere, Lucienne Dempouo, Sakoba Keita, José P M Langa, Issa Makumbi, Elibariki R Mwakapeje, Ian J Njeru, Olubunmi E Ojo, Isaac Phiri, Lorenzo Pezzoli, Bradford D Gessner, Martin Mengel
The fifth annual meeting of the African cholera surveillance network (Africhol) took place on 10-11 June 2015 in Lomé, Togo. Together with international partners, representatives from the 11 member countries -Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Guinea, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zimbabwe- and an invited country (Malawi) shared their experience. The meeting featured three sessions: i) cholera surveillance, prevention and control in participating countries, ii) cholera surveillance methodology, such as cholera mapping, cost-effectiveness studies and the issue of overlapping epidemics from different diseases, iii) cholera laboratory diagnostics tools and capacity building...
2017: BMC Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810165/human-immune-system-mouse-models-of-ebola-virus-infection
#16
REVIEW
Jessica R Spengler, Joseph Prescott, Heinz Feldmann, Christina F Spiropoulou
Human immune system (HIS) mice, immunodeficient mice engrafted with human cells (with or without donor-matched tissue), offer a unique opportunity to study pathogens that cause disease predominantly or exclusively in humans. Several HIS mouse models have recently been used to study Ebola virus (EBOV) infection and disease. The results of these studies are encouraging and support further development and use of these models in Ebola research. HIS mice provide a small animal model to study EBOV isolates, investigate early viral interactions with human immune cells, screen vaccines and therapeutics that modulate the immune system, and investigate sequelae in survivors...
August 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807685/an-rna-polymerase-ii-driven-ebola-virus-minigenome-system-as-an-advanced-tool-for-antiviral-drug-screening
#17
Emily V Nelson, Jennifer R Pacheco, Adam J Hume, Tessa N Cressey, Laure R Deflubé, John B Ruedas, John H Connor, Hideki Ebihara, Elke Mühlberger
Ebola virus (EBOV) causes a severe disease in humans with the potential for significant international public health consequences. Currently, treatments are limited to experimental vaccines and therapeutics. Therefore, research into prophylaxis and antiviral strategies to combat EBOV infections is of utmost importance. The requirement for high containment laboratories to study EBOV infection is a limiting factor for conducting EBOV research. To overcome this issue, minigenome systems have been used as valuable tools to study EBOV replication and transcription mechanisms and to screen for antiviral compounds at biosafety level 2...
August 12, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795602/immunogenicity-of-the-recombinant-adenovirus-type-5-vector-based-ebola-vaccine-ad5-ebov-expressing-the-glycoprotein-of-the-2014-epidemic-strain-in-mice
#18
Ling Wang, Jing Jing Liu, Yan Kong, Li Hua Hou, Yu Hua Li
The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa has brought great threat to the public health worldwide. Development of Ebola vaccine is urgent. A novel recombinant adenovirus type-5 vector-based Ebola vaccine (Ad5-EBOV) based on the 2014 Zaire Guinea epidemic strain was developed in China. A good safety profile and robust immune response elicited by Ad5-EBOV were confirmed in Phase I and Phase II clinical trial. However, clinical studies of Ebola vaccine are still at an early stage and no solid efficacy data for human beings yet...
August 10, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791241/ebola-virus-disease-essential-clinical-knowledge
#19
REVIEW
Mahmoud Tawfik Khalafallah, Omar Ali Aboshady, Shaban Ahmed Moawed, Menna Said Ramadan
Since its initial outbreak in 1976, Ebola virus disease (EVD) has affected thousands of people, causing severe illness with high mortality rates. In the absence of a vaccine or effective specific treatment, as well as the lack of early diagnostic and detective methods, the EVD outbreak has generated a significant worldwide health concern. Insufficient health-care system resources, deficient infection control measures, and the shortage of appropriate personal protective equipment acted as amplifiers of the outbreak extension, especially in poorly resourced and unprepared communities...
July 2017: Avicenna Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780120/vaccines-against-ebola-virus
#20
Navin Venkatraman, Daniel Silman, Pedro M Folegatti, Adrian V S Hill
We have just witnessed the largest and most devastating outbreak of Ebola virus disease, which highlighted the urgent need for development of an efficacious vaccine that could be used to curtail future outbreaks. Prior to 2014, there had been limited impetus worldwide to develop a vaccine since the virus was first discovered in 1976. Though too many lives were lost during this outbreak, it resulted in the significantly accelerated clinical development of a number of candidate vaccines through an extraordinary collaborative global effort coordinated by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and involving a number of companies, trial centres, funders, global stakeholders and agencies...
August 2, 2017: Vaccine
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