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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781359/rhabdoviruses-as-vaccine-platforms-for-infectious-disease-and-cancer
#1
Franz Zemp, Jahanara Rajwani, Douglas J Mahoney
The family Rhabdoviridae (RV) comprises a large, genetically diverse collection of single-stranded, negative sense RNA viruses from the order Mononegavirales. Several RV members are being developed as live-attenuated vaccine vectors for the prevention or treatment of infectious disease and cancer. These include the prototype recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (rVSV) and the more recently developed recombinant Maraba Virus, both species within the genus Vesiculoviridae. A relatively strong safety profile in humans, robust immunogenicity and genetic malleability are key features that make the RV family attractive vaccine platforms...
May 21, 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779454/vaccinia-based-vaccines-to-biothreat-and-emerging-viruses
#2
Les P Nagata, Chad R Irwin, Wei-Gang Hu, David H Evans
The past few years have seen a rash of emerging viral diseases, including the Ebola crisis in West Africa, the pandemic spread of chikungunya, and the recent explosion of Zika in South America. Vaccination is the most reliable and cost-effective method of control of infectious diseases, however, there is often a long delay in production and approval in getting new vaccines to market. Vaccinia was the first vaccine developed for the successful eradication of smallpox and has properties that make it attractive as a universal vaccine vector...
May 21, 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775667/identification-of-novel-hla-a11-restricted-t-cell-epitopes-in-the-ebola-virus-nucleoprotein
#3
Dan Li, Pei Li, Nianping Song, Yuting Jiang, Yang Zeng, Guangyu Zhao, Yunzhi Fa, Huahu Ye, Yuchun Lone, Yusen Zhou, Shihui Sun, Lin Zeng
The Ebola virus (EBOV) is a very contagious virus that is highly fatal in humans and animals. The largest epidemic was in West Africa in 2014, in which over 11,000 people died. However, to date, there are no licensed vaccines against it. Studies show that CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses, especially cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses, play key roles in protecting individuals from EBOV infection. Since HLA-restricted epitope vaccines are likely to be effective and safe immunization strategies for infectious diseases, the present study screened for CTL epitopes in the EBOV-nucleoprotein that are restricted by HLA-A11 (a common allele in Chinese people)...
May 15, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773723/vaccine-trial-launched-to-stop-ebola
#4
Jon Cohen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773540/experimental-vaccine-ready-for-use-in-congo-s-ebola-outbreak
#5
Owen Dyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757706/the-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-based-ebola-virus-vaccine-from-concept-to-clinical-trials
#6
Ellen Suder, Wakako Furuyama, Heinz Feldmann, Andrea Marzi, Emmie de Wit
The devastating Ebola virus (EBOV) epidemic in West Africa in 2013-2016 accelerated the progress of several vaccines and antivirals through clinical trials, including the replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccine expressing the EBOV glycoprotein (VSV-EBOV). Extensive preclinical testing in animal models demonstrated the prophylactic and post-exposure efficacy of this vaccine, identified the mechanism of protection, and suggested it was safe for human use. Based on these data, VSV-EBOV was extensively tested in phase 1-3 clinical trials in North America, Europe and Africa...
May 14, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736037/broadly-neutralizing-antibodies-from-human-survivors-target-a-conserved-site-in-the-ebola-virus-glycoprotein-hr2-mper-region
#7
Andrew I Flyak, Natalia Kuzmina, Charles D Murin, Christopher Bryan, Edgar Davidson, Pavlo Gilchuk, Christopher P Gulka, Philipp A Ilinykh, Xiaoli Shen, Kai Huang, Palaniappan Ramanathan, Hannah Turner, Marnie L Fusco, Rebecca Lampley, Nurgun Kose, Hannah King, Gopal Sapparapu, Benjamin J Doranz, Thomas G Ksiazek, David W Wright, Erica Ollmann Saphire, Andrew B Ward, Alexander Bukreyev, James E Crowe
Ebola virus (EBOV) in humans causes a severe illness with high mortality rates. Several strategies have been developed in the past to treat EBOV infection, including the antibody cocktail ZMapp, which has been shown to be effective in nonhuman primate models of infection 1 and has been used under compassionate-treatment protocols in humans 2 . ZMapp is a mixture of three chimerized murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs)3-6 that target EBOV-specific epitopes on the surface glycoprotein7,8 . However, ZMapp mAbs do not neutralize other species from the genus Ebolavirus, such as Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Reston virus (RESTV) or Sudan virus (SUDV)...
May 7, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719780/establishment-of-pseudovirus-infection-mouse-models-for-in-vivo-pharmacodynamics-evaluation-of-filovirus-entry-inhibitors
#8
Qing Chen, Ke Tang, Xiaoyu Zhang, Panpan Chen, Ying Guo
Filoviruses cause severe and fatal viral hemorrhagic fever in humans. Filovirus research has been extensive since the 2014 Ebola outbreak. Due to their high pathogenicity and mortality, live filoviruses require Biosafety Level-4 (BSL-4) facilities, which have restricted the development of anti-filovirus vaccines and drugs. An HIV-based pseudovirus cell infection assay is widely used for viral entry studies in BSL-2 conditions. Here, we successfully constructed nine in vitro pseudo-filovirus models covering all filovirus genera and three in vivo pseudo-filovirus-infection mouse models using Ebola virus, Marburg virus, and Lloviu virus as representative viruses...
March 2018: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707974/mass-spectrometric-analysis-of-glycosylated-viral-proteins
#9
David J Harvey
Viral diseases contribute much to human and animal suffering and enormous efforts are directed at developing appropriate vaccines for protection. Glycoproteins constitute much of the viral surfaces and are obvious targets for such vaccine development. This review describes mass spectrometric methods used for the structural determination of these compounds. Areas covered: The review describes the structures of the N- and O-linked glycans found on glycoproteins and mass spectrometric methods for their ionization and fragmentation...
April 30, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649187/surveillance-to-track-progress-toward-polio-eradication-worldwide-2016-2017
#10
Tracie J Gardner, Ousmane M Diop, Jaume Jorba, Smita Chavan, Jamal Ahmed, Abhijeet Anand
Global efforts to eradicate polio began in 1988, and four of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions currently have achieved poliofree certification. Within the remaining two regions with endemic poliomyelitis (African and Eastern Mediterranean), Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan have never interrupted transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV). The primary means of detecting poliovirus transmission is surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) among children aged <15 years, combined with collection and testing of stool specimens for detection of WPV and vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs)* in WHO-accredited laboratories within the Global Polio Laboratory Network (GPLN) (1,2)...
April 13, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627147/determinants-of-antibody-persistence-across-doses-and-continents-after-single-dose-rvsv-zebov-vaccination-for-ebola-virus-disease-an-observational-cohort-study
#11
Angela Huttner, Selidji Todagbe Agnandji, Christophe Combescure, José F Fernandes, Emmanuel Bache Bache, Lumeka Kabwende, Francis Maina Ndungu, Jessica Brosnahan, Thomas P Monath, Barbara Lemaître, Stéphane Grillet, Miriam Botto, Olivier Engler, Jasmine Portmann, Denise Siegrist, Philip Bejon, Peter Silvera, Peter Kremsner, Claire-Anne Siegrist
BACKGROUND: The recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) vaccine expressing the Zaire Ebola virus (ZEBOV) glycoprotein is efficacious in the weeks following single-dose injection, but duration of immunity is unknown. We aimed to assess antibody persistence at 1 and 2 years in volunteers who received single-dose rVSV-ZEBOV in three previous trials. METHODS: In this observational cohort study, we prospectively followed-up participants from the African and European phase 1 rVSV-ZEBOV trials, who were vaccinated once in 2014-15 with 300 000 (low dose) or 10-50 million (high dose) plaque-forming units (pfu) of rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine to assess ZEBOV glycoprotein (IgG) antibody persistence...
April 4, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627146/ebola-virus-vaccination-and-the-longevity-of-total-versus-neutralising-antibody-response-is-it-enough
#12
Zachary A Bornholdt, Steven B Bradfute
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 4, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621257/safeguarding-against-ebola-vaccines-and-therapeutics-to-be-stockpiled-for-future-outbreaks
#13
Eric M Espeland, Chia-Wei Tsai, Joseph Larsen, Gary L Disbrow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616631/revisiting-ebola-a-quiet-river-in-the-heart-of-africa
#14
J P Gonzalez, N Wauquier, T Vincent
In 1995, 20 years after the first known Ebola outbreak, one of us (JPG) wrote an editorial about Ebola Virus Disease that captured the knowledge and attitudes toward viral diseases of that time and discussed the future of viruses in our world. Now, 21 years later, in the wake of the West African Ebola pandemic of 2013-2016, and after 22 other Ebola outbreaks, we revisit the article to determine if knowledge, attitudes, and practices have changed. We conclude that the necessary infrastructures (surveillance, financial, treatment/preventative health) have improved with each outbreak, and knowledge of the virus (vaccines, therapies, diagnostics) has increased...
February 1, 2018: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607098/developing-a-multisectoral-national-action-plan-for-health-security-naphs-to-implement-the-international-health-regulations-ihr-2005-in-tanzania
#15
REVIEW
Janneth M Mghamba, Ambrose O Talisuna, Ludy Suryantoro, Grace Elizabeth Saguti, Martin Muita, Muhammad Bakari, Neema Rusibamayila, Mohamed Ally, Jubilate Bernard, Richard Banda, Maximillian Mapunda, Rachel Eidex, Rajesh Sreedharan, Karen Sliter, Simo Nikkari, Sohel Saikat, Glenn P M Lolong, Paul Verboom, Ali Ahmed Yahaya, Stella Chungong, Guenael Rodier, Ibrahima Soce Fall
The Ebola outbreak in West Africa precipitated a renewed momentum to ensure global health security through the expedited and full implementation of the International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005) in all WHO member states. The updated IHR (2005) Monitoring and Evaluation Framework was shared with Member States in 2015 with one mandatory component, that is, States Parties annual reporting to the World Health Assembly (WHA) on compliance and three voluntary components: Joint External Evaluation (JEE), After Action Reviews and Simulation Exercises...
2018: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606991/design-of-vaccine-trials-during-outbreaks-with-and-without-a-delayed-vaccination-comparator
#16
Natalie E Dean, M Elizabeth Halloran, Ira M Longini
Conducting vaccine efficacy trials during outbreaks of emerging pathogens poses particular challenges. The "Ebola ça suffit" trial in Guinea used a novel ring vaccination cluster randomized design to target populations at highest risk of infection. Another key feature of the trial was the use of a delayed vaccination arm as a comparator, in which clusters were randomized to immediate vaccination or vaccination 21 days later. This approach, chosen to improve ethical acceptability of the trial, complicates the statistical analysis as participants in the comparison arm are eventually protected by vaccine...
March 2018: Annals of Applied Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606141/-researchers-have-love-for-life-opportunities-and-barriers-to-engage-pregnant-women-in-malaria-research-in-post-ebola-liberia
#17
Guillermo Martínez Pérez, Christine K Tarr-Attia, Bondey Breeze-Barry, Adelaida Sarukhan, Dawoh Peter Lansana, Ana Meyer García-Sípido, Anna Rosés, María Maixenchs, Quique Bassat, Alfredo Mayor
BACKGROUND: Adoption of prevention and therapeutic innovations to ensure that National Malaria Control Programmes meet their incidence reduction targets is highly dependent on the conduct of rigorous clinical trials. In Liberia, malaria control virtually halted during the recent Ebola epidemic, and could enormously benefit from innovations to protect its most vulnerable populations, including pregnant women, against malaria. Health policy-planners could feel more inclined to adopt novel interventions with demonstrated safety and efficacy when trialled among their women population...
April 2, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584652/identification-of-ellagic-acid-from-plant-rhodiola-rosea-l-as-an-anti-ebola-virus-entry-inhibitor
#18
Qinghua Cui, Ruikun Du, Manu Anantpadma, Adam Schafer, Lin Hou, Jingzhen Tian, Robert A Davey, Han Cheng, Lijun Rong
The recent 2014-2016 West African Ebola virus epidemic underscores the need for the development of novel anti-Ebola therapeutics, due to the high mortality rates of Ebola virus infections and the lack of FDA-approved vaccine or therapy that is available for the prevention and treatment. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) represent a huge reservoir of bioactive chemicals and many TCMs have been shown to have antiviral activities. 373 extracts from 128 TCMs were evaluated using a high throughput assay to screen for inhibitors of Ebola virus cell entry...
March 27, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573259/transmission-human-population-and-pathogenicity-the-ebola-case-in-point
#19
Rafael Delgado, Fernando Simón
The 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa has been the largest ever of a known disease in a new context that produced an unprecedented impact and is changing the international approach to responding to public health emergencies. The unprecedented scale of the outbreak, the use of advanced technology for detecting and characterizing the infectious agent, along with the opportunity to treat patients in modern facilities have greatly increased our knowledge of the disease and its transmission. Also, for the first time, an important international effort has been deployed to control the spread of the epidemic by providing care to patients and by adopting basic measures of public health control...
March 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555345/rapid-response-to-an-emerging-infectious-disease-lessons-learned-from-development-of-a-synthetic-dna-vaccine-targeting-zika-virus
#20
Sagar B Kudchodkar, Hyeree Choi, Emma L Reuschel, Rianne Esquivel, Jackie Jin-Ah Kwon, Moonsup Jeong, Joel N Maslow, Charles C Reed, Scott White, J Joseph Kim, Gary P Kobinger, Pablo Tebas, David B Weiner, Kar Muthumani
Vaccines are considered one of the greatest advances in modern medicine. The global burden of numerous infectious diseases has been significantly reduced, and in some cases, effectively eradicated through the deployment of specific vaccines. However, efforts to develop effective vaccines against infectious pathogens such as influenza, HIV, dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Ebola virus, and Zika virus (ZIKV) have proven challenging. Zika virus is a mosquito-vectored flavivirus responsible for periodic outbreaks of disease in Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands dating back over 50 years...
March 16, 2018: Microbes and Infection
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