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Ebola vaccine

Samuel A Olowookere, Emmanuel A Abioye-Kuteyi, O Adekanle
BACKGROUND: Ebola viral disease (EVD) epidemic need to be contained through means which include vaccination of susceptible population. Vaccination has eradicated major killer diseases. OBJECTIVE: The study determined the health workers willingness to participate in EVD vaccine clinical trials and receive EVD vaccine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study design involving 370 consenting health workers of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife that completed a self administered semi-structured questionnaire...
October 14, 2016: Vaccine
Abdelrahman Ibrahim Abushouk, Ahmed Negida, Hussien Ahmed
The current outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) in South America is one of the most serious public health emergencies since the Ebola outbreak of West Africa [2014]. ZIKV belongs to the flaviviridae family and has two lineages (Asian and African). The virus was first discovered in Uganda [1947] and the first human infection was identified in Nigeria [1952]. The current epidemic is the third of its type after that of Yap Island, Micronesia [2007] and French Polynesia [2013]. Phylogenetic studies revealed that the current strain shares about 99...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Yong Yang, Han Cheng, Hui Yan, Peng-Zhan Wang, Rong Rong, Ying-Ying Zhang, Cheng-Bo Zhang, Rui-Kun Du, Li-Jun Rong
Emerging viruses such as Ebola virus (EBOV), Lassa virus (LASV), and avian influenza virus H5N1 (AIV) are global health concerns. Since there is very limited options (either vaccine or specific therapy) approved for humans against these viruses, there is an urgent need to develop prophylactic and therapeutic treatments. Previously we reported a high-throughput screening (HTS) protocol to identify entry inhibitors for three highly pathogenic viruses (EBOV, LASV, and AIV) using a human immunodeficiency virus-based pseudotyping platform which allows us to perform the screening in a BSL-2 facility...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Byron Kiiza Yafesi Bitanihirwe
Infectious disease continues to have dramatic effects on morbidity and mortality around the world. Few events could cause such loss of life and damage to livelihoods. As witnessed with the recent West African Ebola outbreak, raising alerts and identifying the outbreak in the community took too long. As a consequence local health systems were quickly overwhelmed. In addition, response at the international level proved slow and poorly coordinated. Rapid diagnostics, effective therapeutics, protective equipment, and a vaccine were all lacking...
July 2016: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
A M Moulin
Vaccine trials against Ebola virus have been conceived and organized, in August 2014, after the epidemic started in three countries of West Africa. If the preparedness had been missing, the planners tried to anticipate the resistance to vaccination, in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia. This article offers a retrospective view on the resistances to vaccination throughout its history, from smallpox inoculation to anti-polio vaccine. Resistances have been linked to the political contexts and the rejection of an oppressive power, either local or foreign, as well as mistakes and scientific uncertainties...
September 29, 2016: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
Rohan Keshwara, Reed F Johnson, Matthias J Schnell
Long-term control of viral outbreaks requires the use of vaccines to impart acquired resistance and ensuing protection. In the wake of an epidemic, established immunity against a particular disease can limit spread and significantly decrease mortality. Creation of a safe and efficacious vaccine against Ebola virus (EBOV) has proven elusive so far, but various inventive strategies are now being employed to counteract the threat of outbreaks caused by EBOV and related filoviruses. Here, we present a current overview of progress in the field of Ebola virus vaccine development...
September 28, 2016: Annual Review of Medicine
A L Moekotte, M A M Huson, A J van der Ende, S T Agnandji, E Huizenga, A Goorhuis, M P Grobusch
To date, the management of patients with suspected or confirmed Ebolavirus disease (EVD) depends on quarantine, symptomatic management and supportive care, as there are no approved vaccines or treatments available for human use. However, accelerated by the recent large outbreak in West Africa, significant progress has been made towards vaccine development but also towards specific treatment with convalescent plasma and monoclonal antibodies. Areas covered: We describe recent developments in monoclonal antibody treatment for EVD, encompassing mAb114 and the MB-003, ZMAb, ZMapp™ and MIL-77E cocktails...
October 8, 2016: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Aliya Hisam, Mariam Nadeem Rana, Mahmood-Ur-Rahman
OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge and attitude regarding Ebola virus disease (EVD) among medical students of Rawalpindi. METHODS: A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in a medical college of Rawalpindi from September 2014-November 2014. About 400 students were inducted with 77% (n=308) response rate. After taking informed verbal consent from students and administration, a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was circulated among students of third, fourth and final year MBBS as well as third and fourth year BDS...
July 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
P Buchy
The Ebola epidemic that occurred in West Africa between 2013-2016 significantly accelerated the research and development of Ebola vaccines. Few dozens of clinical trials have been recently conducted leading to opportunities to test several new vaccine candidates. Other vaccines are still in early development phases (table 1). This paper provides an overview of the new developments in that area.
September 19, 2016: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
Marissa Balmith, Mbuso Faya, Mahmoud E S Soliman
The Ebola virus (EboV), formally known as the Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is an acute viral syndrome causing sporadic outbreaks that have ravaged West Africa. Due to its extreme virulence and highly transmissible nature, Ebola has been classified as a category A bioweapon organism. Only recently have vaccine or drug regimens for the EboV been developed, including Zmapp and peptides. In addition existing drugs which have been repurposed towards anti-EboV activity have been re-examined and are seen to be promising candidates towards combating Ebola...
September 17, 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Krishnamurthy Konduru, Amy C Shurtleff, Steven B Bradfute, Siham Nakamura, Sina Bavari, Gerardo Kaplan
Ebola virus (EBOV), a member of the Filoviridae that can cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates, poses a significant threat to the public health. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines or therapeutics to prevent and treat EBOV infection. Several vaccines based on the EBOV glycoprotein (GP) are under development, including vectored, virus-like particles, and protein-based subunit vaccines. We previously demonstrated that a subunit vaccine containing the extracellular domain of the Ebola ebolavirus (EBOV) GP fused to the Fc fragment of human IgG1 (EBOVgp-Fc) protected mice against EBOV lethal challenge...
2016: PloS One
Michael R Hollingdale, Martha Sedegah, Keith Limbach
INTRODUCTION: Malaria remains a major threat to endemic populations and travelers, including military personnel to these areas. A malaria vaccine is feasible, as radiation attenuated sporozoites induce nearly 100% efficacy. AREAS COVERED: This review covers current malaria clinical trials using adenoviruses and pre-clinical research. Heterologous prime-boost regimens, including replication-deficient human adenovirus 5 (HuAd5) carrying malaria antigens, are efficacious...
September 8, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
Marco Ajelli, Stefano Merler, Laura Fumanelli, Ana Pastore Y Piontti, Natalie E Dean, Ira M Longini, M Elizabeth Halloran, Alessandro Vespignani
BACKGROUND: Among the three countries most affected by the Ebola virus disease outbreak in 2014-2015, Guinea presents an unusual spatiotemporal epidemic pattern, with several waves and a long tail in the decay of the epidemic incidence. METHODS: Here, we develop a stochastic agent-based model at the level of a single household that integrates detailed data on Guinean demography, hospitals, Ebola treatment units, contact tracing, and safe burial interventions. The microsimulation-based model is used to assess the effect of each control strategy and the probability of elimination of the epidemic according to different intervention scenarios, including ring vaccination with the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-vectored vaccine...
2016: BMC Medicine
Lisa H Cazares, Michael D Ward, Ernst E Brueggemann, Tara Kenny, Paul Demond, Christopher R Mahone, Karen A O Martins, Jonathan E Nuss, Trevor Glaros, Sina Bavari
BACKGROUND: Ebola virus like particles (EBOV VLPs, eVLPs), are produced by expressing the viral transmembrane glycoprotein (GP) and structural matrix protein VP40 in mammalian cells. When expressed, these proteins self-assemble and bud from 'host' cells displaying morphology similar to infectious virions. Several studies have shown that rodents and non-human primates vaccinated with eVLPs are protected from lethal EBOV challenge. The mucin-like domain of envelope glycoprotein GP1 serves as the major target for a productive humoral immune response...
2016: Clinical Proteomics
Ignacio S Caballero, Anna N Honko, Stephen K Gire, Sarah M Winnicki, Marta Melé, Chiara Gerhardinger, Aaron E Lin, John L Rinn, Pardis C Sabeti, Lisa E Hensley, John H Connor
BACKGROUND: Ebola virus is the causative agent of a severe syndrome in humans with a fatality rate that can approach 90 %. During infection, the host immune response is thought to become dysregulated, but the mechanisms through which this happens are not entirely understood. In this study, we analyze RNA sequencing data to determine the host response to Ebola virus infection in circulating immune cells. RESULTS: Approximately half of the 100 genes with the strongest early increases in expression were interferon-stimulated genes, such as ISG15, OAS1, IFIT2, HERC5, MX1 and DHX58...
2016: BMC Genomics
Darja Kanduc
Two main factors can affect the development of ebolavirus immunotherapeutics: the vast peptide commonality between ebolavirus and human proteins, and the high rate of spontaneous mutation of ebolavirus within its human host. Indeed, the viral versus human peptide overlap may represent a relevant source of autoimmune crossreactions following vaccination, while ebolavirus genome mutations can limit and/or nullify a vaccine response. Aiming at defining safe and effective peptide-based vaccines to fight ebola disease, this study analyzed a recently described Ebola virus isolate (Hoenen et al...
September 2, 2016: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Andrea Rivera, Ilhem Messaoudi
Ebola viruses (EBOVs) and Marburg viruses (MARVs) are among the deadliest human viruses, as highlighted by the recent and widespread Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa, which was the largest and longest epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in history, resulting in significant loss of life and disruptions across multiple continents. Although the number of cases has nearly reached its nadir, a recent cluster of 5 cases in Guinea on March 17, 2016, has extended the enhanced surveillance period to June 15, 2016...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Nature
Lisa Henß, Simon Beck, Tatjana Weidner, Nadine Biedenkopf, Katja Sliva, Christopher Weber, Stephan Becker, Barbara S Schnierle
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes high fever, rash, and recurrent arthritis in humans. It has efficiently adapted to Aedes albopictus, which also inhabits temperate regions and currently causes large outbreaks in the Caribbean and Latin America. Ebola virus (EBOV) is a member of the filovirus family. It causes the Ebola virus disease (EDV), formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever in humans and has a mortality rate of up to 70 %. The last outbreak in Western Africa was the largest in history and has caused approximately 25,000 cases and 10,000 deaths...
2016: Virology Journal
M L Boisen, J N Hartnett, A Goba, M A Vandi, D S Grant, J S Schieffelin, R F Garry, L M Branco
The 2013-16 West African Ebola outbreak is the largest, most geographically dispersed, and deadliest on record, with 28,616 suspected cases and 11,310 deaths recorded to date in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. We provide a review of the epidemiology and management of the 2013-16 Ebola outbreak in West Africa aimed at stimulating reflection on lessons learned that may improve the response to the next international health crisis caused by a pathogen that emerges in a region of the world with a severely limited health care infrastructure...
September 29, 2016: Annual Review of Virology
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