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Hemorrhagic Fever viruses

Anna Papa, Elpida Papadopoulou, Katerina Tsioka, Anastasia Kontana, Styliani Pappa, Ageliki Melidou, Nektarios D Giadinis
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was isolated from a pool of two adult Rhipicephalus bursa ticks removed from a goat in 2015 in Greece. The strain clusters into lineage Europe 2 representing the second available whole-genome sequenced isolate of this lineage. CCHFV IgG antibodies were detected in 8 of 19 goats of the farm. Currently CCHFV is not associated with disease in mammals other than humans. Studies in animal models are needed to investigate the pathogenicity level of lineage Europe 2 and compare it with that of other lineages...
March 1, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Abulimiti Moming, Xihong Yue, Shu Shen, Chenchen Chang, Cheng Wang, Tao Luo, Yanfang Zhang, Rong Guo, Zhihong Hu, Yujiang Zhang, Fei Deng, Surong Sun
The Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a member of the genus Orthonairovirus and family Nairoviridae, is transmitted by ticks and causes severe hemorrhagic disease in humans. To study the epidemiology of CCHFV in different ecosystems in Xinjiang, China, a total of 58,932 ticks were collected from Tarim Basin, Junggar Basin, Tianshan Mountain, and Altai Mountain from 2014 to 2017. Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum was the dominant tick species in Tarim and Junggar basins, whereas Dermacentor nuttalli and Hyalomma detritum were found in Tianshan Mountain and Altai Mountain, respectively...
March 9, 2018: Virologica Sinica
Ryan Nikin-Beers, Julie C Blackwood, Lauren M Childs, Stanca M Ciupe
Dengue virus causes worldwide concern with nearly 100 million infected cases reported annually. The within-host dynamics differ between primary and secondary infections, where secondary infections with a different virus serotype typically last longer, produce higher viral loads, and induce more severe disease. We build upon the variable within-host virus dynamics during infections resulting in mild dengue fever and severe dengue hemorrhagic fever. We couple these within-host virus dynamics to a population-level model through a system of partial differential equations creating an immuno-epidemiological model...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Yanfang Zhang, Shu Shen, Yaohui Fang, Jinliang Liu, Zhengyuan Su, Jinhao Liang, Zhong Zhang, Qiaoli Wu, Cheng Wang, Abulikemu Abudurexiti, Zhihong Hu, Yujiang Zhang, Fei Deng
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) caused by the CCHF virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne natural focal disease with a mortality rate of approximately 50%. CCHFV is widely prevalent in Africa, southern Asia, the Middle East, and southeast Europe. CCHF outbreaks have been reported previously in Xinjiang province, China, especially in its southern region. Epidemiological surveys conducted on ticks and animals have revealed the presence of CCHFV strains in ticks, rodents, and infected individuals from cities and counties in southern Xinjiang...
March 8, 2018: Virologica Sinica
Bouchra Kitab, Michinori Kohara, Kyoko Tsukiyama-Kohara
Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease in humans and leads to significant morbidity and socioeconomic burden in tropical and subtropical areas. Dengue is caused by infection with any of the four closely related serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4) and usually manifests as a mild febrile illness, but may develop into fatal dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome. There are no specific antiviral therapies against dengue because understanding of DENV biology is limited. A tetravalent chimeric dengue vaccine, Dengvaxia, has finally been licensed for use, but its efficacy was significantly lower against DENV-2 infections and in dengue-naïve individuals...
March 8, 2018: Archives of Virology
Adrián Lázaro-Frías, Sergio Gómez-Medina, Lucas Sánchez-Sampedro, Karl Ljungberg, Mart Ustav, Peter Liljeström, César Muñoz-Fontela, Mariano Esteban, Juan García-Arriaza
Zaire and Sudan ebolavirus species cause a severe disease in humans and non-human primates (NHPs) characterized by high mortality rate. There are no licensed therapies or vaccines against Ebola virus disease (EVD), and the recent 2013-2016 outbreak in West Africa highlighted the need of EVD-specific medical countermeasures. Here, we have generated and characterized head-to-head the immunogenicity and efficacy of five vaccine candidates against Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) and Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV) based on the highly attenuated poxvirus vector modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), expressing either the virus glycoprotein (GP) or GP together with the virus protein 40 (VP40) forming virus-like particles (VLPs)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Virology
Vinayakumar Siragam, Gary Wong, Xiang-Guo Qiu
The family Filoviridae , which includes the genera Marburgvirus and Ebolavirus , contains some of the most pathogenic viruses in humans and non-human primates (NHPs), causing severe hemorrhagic fevers with high fatality rates. Small animal models against filoviruses using mice, guinea pigs, hamsters, and ferrets have been developed with the goal of screening candidate vaccines and antivirals, before testing in the gold standard NHP models. In this review, we summarize the different animal models used to understand filovirus pathogenesis, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each model with respect to filovirus disease research...
January 18, 2018: Zoological Research
Hee Jung Ahn, Jong-Hoon Chung, Dong-Min Kim, Na-Ra Yoon, Choon-Mee Kim
Central diabetes insipidus (DI) was detected in a patient with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) who had been molecularly and serologically diagnosed with Hantaan virus infection. We recommend that clinicians differentiate central DI in HFRS patients with a persistent diuretic phase even when pituitary MRI findings are normal.
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Yang Ji, Yuan Lu, Yishu Yan, Xinxin Liu, Nan Su, Chong Zhang, Shengli Bi, Xin-Hui Xing
The Ebola hemorrhagic fever caused by Ebola virus is an extremely dangerous disease, and effective therapeutic agents are still lacking. Platforms for the efficient production of vaccines are crucial to ensure quick response against an Ebola virus outbreak. Ebolavirus glycoprotein (EbolaGP) on the virion surface is responsible for membrane binding and virus entry, thus becoming the key target for vaccine development. However, heterologous expression of this protein still faces engineering challenges such as low production levels and insoluble aggregation...
March 3, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
Dickson Kinyanyi, George Obiero, George F O Obiero, Peris Amwayi, Stephen Mwaniki, Mark Wamalwa
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the etiological agent of ASF, a fatal hemorrhagic fever that affects domestic pigs. There is currently no vaccine against ASFV, making it a significant threat to the pork industry. The ASFV genome sequence has been published; however, about half of ASFV open reading frames have not been characterized in terms of their structure and function despite being essential for our understanding of ASFV pathogenicity. The present study reports the three-dimensional structure and function of uncharacterized protein, pB263R (NP_042780...
2018: PeerJ
Jo Ee Sam, Teak Sheng Gee, Nasser Abdul Wahab
Dengue fever has been a major cause of morbidity and mortality in subtropical and tropical countries. We report a rare case of severe dengue with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage. A search of literature through PubMed revealed that the largest series analyzed so far only included five cases. A 47-year-old man presented with 7 days history of fever, headache, myalgia, and vomiting with hematemesis. On the day of presentation, he had reduced consciousness and an episode of generalized tonic-clonic seizure...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Kenta Shimizu, Kumiko Yoshimatsu, Midori Taruishi, Yoshimi Tsuda, Jiro Arikawa
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is caused by hantavirus infection. Although host immunity is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of HFRS, the mechanism remains to be elucidated. A mouse model of HFRS, which showed renal hemorrhage similar to that seen in patients, has been developed previously. In this study, we aimed to clarify whether CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are involved in the development of renal hemorrhage in the mouse model. At 2 days before virus inoculation, CD4+ or CD8+ T cells in 6-week-old BALB/c mice were depleted by administration of antibodies...
February 27, 2018: Archives of Virology
Emily N Gallichotte, Thomas J Baric, Boyd L Yount, Douglas G Widman, Anna Durbin, Steve Whitehead, Ralph S Baric, Aravinda M de Silva
Dengue virus (DENV) infection causes dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. It is estimated that a third of the world's population is at risk for infection, with an estimated 390 million infections annually. Dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV2) causes severe epidemics, and the leading tetravalent dengue vaccine has lower efficacy against DENV2 compared to the other 3 serotypes. In natural DENV2 infections, strongly neutralizing type-specific antibodies provide protection against subsequent DENV2 infection...
February 26, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Reema Bansal, Sahil Jain, Vishali Gupta, Aman Sharma, Amanjit Bal, Sanjay Jain
A 30-year-old male with bilateral acute visual loss presented with retinal edema in the posterior pole and peripapillary region with extensive retinal hemorrhages. Fluorescein angiography revealed delayed arterial filling in the right eye and absent arterial filling in the left eye, suggesting bilateral central retinal artery occlusion. Systemic evaluation revealed a history of chronic low-grade fever and generalized lymphadenopathy. HIV (ELISA) was positive, and other systemic comorbidities were ruled out...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
M A Sargsyan, H E Voskanyan, E M Karalova, L H Hakobyan, Z A Karalyan
Aim: First cases of clinically uncommon African swine fever (ASF), caused by virus genotype II are described in this article. These cases occurred in Armenia, Tavush region, Dilijan municipality in 2011. The aim of this study was to identify and describe the new pathogenic forms of ASF in Armenia. Materials and Methods: The isolation and identification of ASF virus (ASFV) were carried out using conventional techniques. Clinical signs of infection were recorded daily...
January 2018: Veterinary World
Jeffrey M Grabowski, Danielle K Offerdahl, Marshall E Bloom
Each year there are more than 15 000 cases of human disease caused by infections with tick-borne viruses (TBVs). These illnesses occur worldwide and can range from very mild illness to severe encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever. Although TBVs are currently identified as neglected vector-borne pathogens and receive less attention than mosquito-borne viruses, TBVs are expanding into new regions, and infection rates are increasing. Furthermore, effective vaccines, diagnostic tools, and other countermeasures are limited...
February 23, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Hossein Fahimi, Mahshid Mohammadipour, Hamed Haddad Kashani, Farshid Parvini, Majid Sadeghizadeh
Dengue viruses are emerging mosquito-borne pathogens belonging to Flaviviridae family which are transmitted to humans via the bites of infected mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Because of the wide distribution of these mosquito vectors, more than 2.5 billion people are approximately at risk of dengue infection. Dengue viruses cause dengue fever and severe life-threatening illnesses as well as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. All four serotypes of dengue virus can cause dengue diseases, but the manifestations are nearly different depending on type of the virus in consequent infections...
February 22, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Elizabeth J Mateer, Cheng Huang, Nathan Y Shehu, Slobodan Paessler
Although an association between Lassa fever (LF) and sudden-onset sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) was confirmed clinically in 1990, the prevalence of LF-induced SNHL in endemic countries is still underestimated. LF, a viral hemorrhagic fever disease caused by Lassa virus (LASV), is endemic in West Africa, causing an estimated 500,000 cases and 5,000 deaths per year. Sudden-onset SNHL, one complication of LF, occurs in approximately one-third of survivors and constitutes a neglected public health and social burden...
February 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Alois Jungbauer
New approaches for vaccination must be developed in order to meet the grand challenges for emerging infectious diseases. Exosomes now enter vaccine development and these are strategies are meeting these global challenges, as demonstrated by Anticoli et al, in this issue of Biotechnology Journal [1] Using exosome vaccines has been now been demonstrated in-vivo for several viruses such as Ebola Virus VP24, VP40 and NP, Influenza Virus NP, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever NP, West Nile Virus NS3, and Hepatitis C Virus NS3...
February 22, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
Masaharu Iwasaki, Petra Minder, Yíngyún Caì, Jens H Kuhn, John R Yates, Bruce E Torbett, Juan C de la Torre
Several mammalian arenaviruses (mammarenaviruses) cause hemorrhagic fevers in humans and pose serious public health concerns in their endemic regions. Additionally, mounting evidence indicates that the worldwide-distributed, prototypic mammarenavirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), is a neglected human pathogen of clinical significance. Concerns about human-pathogenic mammarenaviruses are exacerbated by of the lack of licensed vaccines, and current anti-mammarenavirus therapy is limited to off-label use of ribavirin that is only partially effective...
February 20, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
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