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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877137/an-extreme-mountain-ultra-marathon-decreases-the-cost-of-uphill-walking-and-running
#1
Gianluca Vernillo, Aldo Savoldelli, Spyros Skafidas, Andrea Zignoli, Antonio La Torre, Barbara Pellegrini, Guido Giardini, Pietro Trabucchi, Grégoire P Millet, Federico Schena
Purpose: To examine the effects of the world's most challenging mountain ultramarathon (MUM, 330 km, cumulative elevation gain of +24,000 m) on the energy cost and kinematics of different uphill gaits. Methods: Before (PRE) and immediately after (POST) the competition, 19 male athletes performed three submaximal 5-min treadmill exercise trials in a randomized order: walking at 5 km·h(-1), +20%; running at 6 km·h(-1), +15%; and running at 8 km·h(-1), +10%. During the three trials, energy cost was assessed using an indirect calorimetry system and spatiotemporal gait parameters were acquired with a floor-level high-density photoelectric cells system...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812406/pacing-during-an-ultramarathon-running-event-in-hilly-terrain
#2
Hugo A Kerhervé, Tom Cole-Hunter, Aaron N Wiegand, Colin Solomon
PURPOSE: The dynamics of speed selection as a function of distance, or pacing, are used in recreational, competitive, and scientific research situations as an indirect measure of the psycho-physiological status of an individual. The purpose of this study was to determine pacing on level, uphill and downhill sections of participants in a long (>80 km) ultramarathon performed on trails in hilly terrain. METHODS: Fifteen ultramarathon runners competed in a  173 km event (five finished at  103 km) carrying a Global-Positioning System (GPS) device...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747851/sodium-intake-during-an-ultramarathon-does-not-prevent-muscle-cramping-dehydration-hyponatremia-or-nausea
#3
Martin D Hoffman, Kristin J Stuempfle, Taylor Valentino
BACKGROUND: Ultramarathon runners commonly believe that sodium replacement is important for prevention of muscle cramping, dehydration, hyponatremia, and nausea during prolonged continuous exercise. The purpose of this study was to measure total sodium intake to determine if these beliefs are supported. METHODS: Participants of a 161-km ultramarathon (air temperature reaching 39 °C) provided full dietary information during the race, underwent body weight measurements before and after the race, completed a post-race questionnaire about muscle cramping and nausea or vomiting during the race, and had post-race plasma sodium concentration measured...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747772/the-impact-of-gastrointestinal-symptoms-and-dermatological-injuries-on-nutritional-intake-and-hydration-status-during-ultramarathon-events
#4
Ricardo J S Costa, Rhiannon Snipe, Vera Camões-Costa, Volker Scheer, Andrew Murray
BACKGROUND: Debilitating gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) and dermatological injuries (DI) are common during and after endurance events and have been linked to performance decrements, event withdrawal, and issues requiring medical attention. The study aimed to determine whether GIS and DI affect food and fluid intake, and nutritional and hydration status, of ultramarathon runners during multi-stage (MSUM) and 24-h continuous (24 h) ultramarathons. METHODS: Ad libitum food and fluid intakes of ultramarathon runners (MSUM n = 54; 24 h n = 22) were recorded throughout both events and analysed by dietary analysis software...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722979/accurate-measurement-of-cross-sectional-area-of-femoral-artery-on-mri-sequences-of-transcontinental-ultramarathon-runners-using-optimal-parameters-selection
#5
Da-Chuan Cheng, Jhu-Fong Wu, Yi-Hsuan Kao, Chun-Hung Su, Shing-Hong Liu
In clinics an accurate vessel segmentation method is important to quantize the vessel volume change with respect to time for artery elasticity measurement. This study proposes a modified version on 3D-expanded dynamic programming to find an optimal surface in a 3D matrix. The aim of this study is to discover the robustness against noises in measuring the cross-sectional area of the femoral artery on MRI datasets of ultra-endurance runners as accurately as possible. To do this, we use phantom images with different added noises and different image contrasts to find out the optimal parameters using grid search...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718487/procalcitonin-variation-before-and-after-100-km-ultramarathon
#6
Li-Hua Li, Chung-Ting Chen, Wei-Fong Kao, Yu-Hui Chiu, Chen Meng, Cheng-Chin Hsu, Chorng-Kuang How
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 8, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689132/insulin-like-growth-factor-1-and-selected-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-concentrations-during-an-ultramarathon-sled-dog-race
#7
Matthew W Brunke, Christopher W Frye, Corri B Levine, Cristina Hansen, Joseph J Wakshlag
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of running a 1000-mile (1600 km) endurance sled dog race on serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins 1 and 3 (IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3). Serum was examined from 12 sled dogs prior to the race, at midrace (approximately 690 km), and again at the finish. IGF-1, IGFBP-1, and IGFBP-3 were assessed using radioimmunoassay or enzyme linked immune-absorbance assays. Mean prerace concentrations were significantly higher than midrace and end-race concentrations at 215...
2016: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618658/pacing-strategy-during-24-hour-ultramarathon-distance-running
#8
Arthur H Bossi, Guilherme G Matta, Guillaume Y Millet, Pedro Lima, Leonardo C Pertence, Jorge P de Lima, James G Hopker
PURPOSE: To describe pacing strategy in a 24-h running race and its interaction with sex, age group, athletes' performance group and race edition. METHODS: Data from 398 male and 103 female participants of 5 editions were obtained based on a minimum 19.2-h effective-running cut-off. Mean running speed from each hour was normalised to the 24-h mean speed for analyses. RESULTS: Mean overall performance was 135.6 ± 33.0 km with a mean effective-running time of 22...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27518889/changes-in-blood-morphology-and-chosen-biochemical-parameters-in-ultra-marathon-runners-during-a-100-km-run-in-relation-to-the-age-and-speed-of-runners
#9
Zbigniew Jastrzębski, Małgorzata Żychowska, Maria Jastrzębska, Krzysztof Prusik, Katarzyna Prusik, Jakub Kortas, Wojciech Ratkowski, Anna Konieczna, Łukasz Radzimiński
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to reveal morphology, electrolyte and chosen biochemical parameters in terms of health risk in runners in reference to their age and running speed in the case of running a distance of 100 km, which occur after 12 h or 24 h of recovery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fourteen experienced, male, amateur, ultra-marathon runners, divided into two age and two speed groups took part in the 100-km run. Blood samples for analyses indexes were collected from the ulnar vein just before the run, after 25 km, 50 km, 75 km and 100 km, as well as 12 h and 24 h after termination of the run...
2016: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418990/anti-vegf-in-a-marathon-runner-s-retinopathy-case
#10
Alexander Kahjun Soon, Paulo Ricardo Chaves de Oliveira, David Robert Chow
Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is one of the most common retinal vascular disorders. Intense exercise associated CRVO have been described in otherwise healthy young patients. We describe a case of a young male ultramarathoner who presented with a CRVO, presumably associated with dehydration, making part of a marathon runner's retinopathy. Resolution of macular edema and subretinal fluid, with visual acuity improvement, was observed after 3 monthly injections of ranibizumab. Our case suggests that dehydration could be involved in the mechanism of CRVO in healthy young patients and ranibizumab may be an effective treatment option for marathon runner's retinopathy...
2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27373587/alterations-in-cardiac-mechanics-following-ultra-endurance-exercise-insights-from-left-and-right-ventricular-area-deformation-loops
#11
Rachel Lord, Keith George, John Somauroo, Mike Stembridge, Nikhil Jain, Martin D Hoffman, Rob Shave, Francois Haddad, Euan Ashley, Helen Jones, David Oxborough
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to use novel area-deformation (ε) loops to interrogate the interaction between the right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) mechanics following a 100-mile endurance run. METHODS: Fifteen participants (mean body mass, 70.1 ± 8.8 kg; mean age, 40 ± 8 years) were recruited for the study. Echocardiography was performed before the race, after the race, and 6 hours into recovery. RV and LV area and longitudinal ε were assessed using standard and speckle-tracking echocardiography...
September 2016: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27361110/ultramarathon-runner-with-right-hip-pain-2474-june-3-9-50-am-10-10-am
#12
McKennan J Thurston, Tamara Huff, George G A Pujalte
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27360594/electrocardiographic-analysis-of-runners-before-during-and-after-an-ultramarathon-1675-board-328-june-2-8-00-am-9-30-am
#13
Jeff S Lynn, Brock Jensen, Steven Verba, Allan Shook, Joyan Urda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27258701/the-influence-of-hydration-state-on-thermoregulation-during-a-161-km-ultramarathon
#14
Taylor R Valentino, Kristin J Stuempfle, Marialice Kern, Martin D Hoffman
It is advised that individuals should avoid losing >2% of their body mass during exercise in order to prevent hyperthermia. This study sought to assess whether a loss of >2% body mass leads to elevations in core temperature during an ultramarathon. Thirty runners agreed to take part in the study. Body mass and core temperature were measured at the start, at three locations during the race and the finish. Core temperature was not correlated with percent body mass change (p = 0.19) or finish time (p = 0...
July 2016: Research in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27196469/comparison-of-changes-in-biochemical-markers-for-skeletal-muscles-hepatic-metabolism-and-renal-function-after-three-types-of-long-distance-running-observational-study
#15
Kyung-A Shin, Ki Deok Park, Jaeki Ahn, Yongbum Park, Young-Joo Kim
The purpose of this study is to compare changes in biochemical markers for the skeletal muscles, hepatic metabolism, and renal function based on extreme long-distance running.Among healthy amateur endurance athletes who participated in a marathon, 100 km-, or 308 km ultramarathon, 15 athletes with similar physical and demographic characteristics were chosen to be the subjects in this study, upon completion of each course. The subjects' blood was collected before and after the course to identify biochemical markers for the skeletal muscles, hepatic metabolism, and renal function...
May 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27186145/changes-in-blood-biochemical-markers-before-during-and-after-a-2-day-ultramarathon
#16
Kazuyuki Arakawa, Akihiro Hosono, Kiyoshi Shibata, Reza Ghadimi, Mizuho Fuku, Chiho Goto, Nahomi Imaeda, Yuko Tokudome, Hideki Hoshino, Mitsuhiro Marumoto, Masaaki Kobayashi, Sadao Suzuki, Shinkan Tokudome
We studied changes in blood markers of 18 nonprofessional, middle-aged runners of a 2-day, 130 km ultramarathon. Blood was sampled at baseline, after the goals on the first and second day, and at three time points (1, 3, and 5/6 days) after the race. Blood indices showed three patterns. First pattern indices showed essentially no changes after the two goals and after the race, including red blood cell indices, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Second pattern markers, including the majority of indices, were elevated during the race (and also after the race for some parameters) and then returned to baseline afterward, including hemolysis/red blood cell destruction markers (indirect bilirubin) and an iron reservoir index (ferritin), muscle damage parameters (uric acid, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase), renal function markers (creatinine and blood urea nitrogen), liver injury index (alanine aminotransferase), lipid metabolism indices (free fatty acid), reactive oxygen species and inflammation parameters (white blood cells, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein), and energy production and catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine)...
2016: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27172078/medical-coverage-of-ultramarathons-and-its-unique-challenges
#17
Hanh Huynh Larson, Dennis Khalili-Borna, Eze Uzosike, David Sugiyama
Medical coverage of ultramarathons must take into account unique logistical, environmental, and psychological components in addition to the medical conditions that may arise. Each ultramarathon is unique and carries with it distinct specific challenges with regard to appropriate planning and organizing. The medical issues encountered with ultramarathons can overlap with those seen in other endurance events, but the extreme and protracted nature of ultramarathons also lends itself to various other medical challenges not frequently encountered in other aspects of sports medicine...
May 2016: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27167683/determinants-of-recovery-from-a-161-km-ultramarathon
#18
Martin D Hoffman, Natalie Badowski, Joseph Chin, Kristin J Stuempfle, Carol A Parise
The primary study objective was to identify determinants of short-term recovery from a 161-km ultramarathon. Participants completed 400 m runs at maximum speed before the race and on days 3 and 5 post-race, provided a post-race blood sample for plasma creatine kinase (CK) concentration, and provided lower body muscle pain and soreness ratings (soreness, 10-point scale) and overall muscular fatigue scores (fatigue, 100-point scale) pre-race and for 7 days post-race. Among 72 race finishers, soreness and fatigue had statistically returned to pre-race levels by 5 days post-race; and 400 m times at days 3 and 5 remained 26% (P = 0...
May 11, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27070112/paper-tape-prevents-foot-blisters-a-randomized-prevention-trial-assessing-paper-tape-in-endurance-distances-ii-pre-taped-ii
#19
Grant S Lipman, Louis J Sharp, Mark Christensen, Caleb Phillips, Alexandra DiTullio, Andrew Dalton, Pearlly Ng, Jennifer Shangkuan, Katherine Shea, Brian J Krabak
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether paper tape prevents foot blisters in multistage ultramarathon runners. DESIGN: Multisite prospective randomized trial. SETTING: The 2014 250-km (155-mile) 6-stage RacingThePlanet ultramarathons in Jordan, Gobi, Madagascar, and Atacama Deserts. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred twenty-eight participants were enrolled: 19 (15%) from the Jordan, 35 (27%) from Gobi, 21 (16%) from Madagascar, and 53 (41%) from the Atacama Desert...
September 2016: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27031830/effect-of-the-fatigue-induced-by-a-110-km-ultramarathon-on-tibial-impact-acceleration-and-lower-leg-kinematics
#20
Marlene Giandolini, Philippe Gimenez, John Temesi, Pierrick J Arnal, Vincent Martin, Thomas Rupp, Jean-Benoit Morin, Pierre Samozino, Guillaume Y Millet
Ultramarathon runners are exposed to a high number of impact shocks and to severe neuromuscular fatigue. Runners may manage mechanical stress and muscle fatigue by changing their running kinematics. Our purposes were to study (i) the effects of a 110-km mountain ultramarathon (MUM) on tibial shock acceleration and lower limb kinematics, and (ii) whether kinematic changes are modulated according to the severity of neuromuscular fatigue. Twenty-three runners participated in the study. Pre- and post-MUM, neuromuscular tests were performed to assess knee extensor (KE) and plantar flexor (PF) central and peripheral fatigue, and a treadmill running bouts was completed during which step frequency, peak acceleration, median frequency and impact frequency content were measured from tibial acceleration, as well as foot-to-treadmill, tibia-to-treadmill, and ankle flexion angles at initial contact, and ankle range of motion using video analysis...
2016: PloS One
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