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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043500/optimal-pacing-and-carbohydrate-intake-strategies-for-ultramarathons
#1
Kristopher A Pruitt, Justin M Hill
PURPOSE: The purpose of this research is to determine the pacing and nutrition strategies which minimize completion time and carbohydrate intake for athletes competing in ultramarathon races. METHODS: We present the formulation of a two-phase optimization model. The first-phase mixed-integer nonlinear program (MINLP) determines the minimum completion time subject to the altitude, terrain, and distance of the race, as well as the mass and cardiovascular fitness of the athlete...
December 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038746/influence-of-exercise-duration-on-cardiorespiratory-responses-energy-cost-and-tissue-oxygenation-within-a-6-hour-treadmill-run
#2
Hugo A Kerhervé, Scott McLean, Karen Birkenhead, David Parr, Colin Solomon
PURPOSE: The physiological mechanisms for alterations in oxygen utilization ([Formula: see text]) and the energy cost of running (Cr ) during prolonged running are not completely understood, and could be linked with alterations in muscle and cerebral tissue oxygenation. METHODS: Eight trained ultramarathon runners (three women; mean ± SD; age 37 ± 7 yr; maximum [Formula: see text] 60 ± 15 mL min(-1) kg(-1)) completed a 6 hr treadmill run (6TR), which consisted of four modules, including periods of moderate (3 min at 10 km h(-1), 10-CR) and heavy exercise intensities (6 min at 70% of maximum [Formula: see text], HILL), separated by three, 100 min periods of self-paced running (SP)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994489/short-term-resource-allocation-during-extensive-athletic-competition
#3
Daniel P Longman, Sean P Prall, Eric C Shattuck, Ian D Stephen, Jay T Stock, Jonathan C K Wells, Michael P Muehlenbein
OBJECTIVES: Following predictions from life history theory, we sought to identify acute trade-offs between reproductive effort (as measured by psychological arousal) and somatic maintenance (via functional measures of innate immunity) during conditions of severe energetic imbalance. METHODS: Sixty-six male ultramarathon runners (ages 20 to 37 years) were sampled before and after a lengthy race. Saliva and sera were collected for testosterone and immunological analyses (hemolytic complement activity and bacterial killing ability)...
October 10, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991044/mountain-cycling-ultramarathon-impacts-in-inflammatory-and-hemoglobin-responses
#4
Isanete Alonso, Andreia Matos, Ricardo Ribeiro, Ângela Gil, Carlos Cardoso, Luís B Sardinha, Manuel Bicho
PURPOSE: To analyze the cumulative physiological burden of repetitive, strenuous exercise held during mountain cycling ultramarathon on regulatory mechanisms of hemoglobin degradation. METHODS: Fifty-five non-professional athletes (mean age 44.8±7.1 years old) participating in a 9-consecutive-day mountain cycling ultramarathon (TransPortugal), underwent anthropometric, hematological and biochemical assessments before and immediately after the race. Participants were further stratified as completers (9 courses) or non-completers, and divided according to the time they took to complete the race...
October 3, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895063/considerations-in-the-use-of-body-mass-change-to-estimate-change-in-hydration-status-during-a-161-kilometer-ultramarathon-running-competition
#5
Martin D Hoffman, Eric D B Goulet, Ronald J Maughan
Hydration guidelines found in the scientific and popular literature typically advise that body mass losses beyond 2% should be avoided during exercise. In this work, we demonstrate that these guidelines are not applicable to prolonged exercise of several hours where body mass loss does not reflect an equivalent loss of body water due to the effects of body mass change from substrate use, release of water bound with muscle and liver glycogen, and production of water during substrate metabolism. These effects on the body mass loss required to maintain body water balance are shown for a 161-km mountain ultramarathon running competition participant utilizing published data for the total energy cost, exogenous energy consumption and percentage from each fuel source, average participant body mass, and the extent of soft tissue fluid accumulation during an ultramarathon...
September 11, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859414/physiological-and-biomechanical-mechanisms-of-distance-specific-human-running-performance
#6
M A Thompson
Running events range from 60-m sprints to ultra-marathons covering 100 miles or more, which presents an interesting diversity in terms of the parameters for successful performance. Here, we review the physiological and biomechanical variations underlying elite human running performance in sprint to ultramarathon distances. Maximal running speeds observed in sprint disciplines are achieved by high vertical ground reaction forces applied over short contact times. To create this high force output, sprint events rely heavily on anaerobic metabolism, as well as a high number and large cross-sectional area of type II fibers in the leg muscles...
August 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799161/performance-factors-in-a-mountain-ultramarathon
#7
Pascal Balducci, Michel Clémençon, Robin Trama, Yoann Blache, Christophe Hautier
This study aimed to determine mountain ultra-marathon (MUM) performance factors in a large group of endurance mountain runners. Maximal aerobic speed (MAS) was assessed one week prior to the MUM. The level and graded (10%) energy cost of running, stiffness, knee extensors force (KEf), and jump height on a counter movement jump (CMJ) were measured in 24 male ultra runners before (pre) and immediately after (post) the Interlacs Trail (75 km and 3 930/3 700 m d+/d-). Performance time was correlated with MAS (r=- 0...
October 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781178/exercise-associated-hyponatremia-hypernatremia-and-hydration-status-in-multistage-ultramarathons
#8
Brian J Krabak, Grant S Lipman, Brandee L Waite, Sean D Rundell
OBJECTIVE: Dysnatremia and altered hydration status are potentially serious conditions that have not been well studied in multistage ultramarathons. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence and prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) (Na(+) <135 mmol·L(-1)) and hypernatremia (Na(+) >145 mmol·L(-1)) and hydration status during a multistage ultramarathon. METHODS: This study involved a prospective observational cohort study of runners competing in a 250-km (155-mile) multistage ultramarathon (in the Jordan, Atacama, or Gobi Desert)...
August 3, 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731980/running-performance-nationality-sex-and-age-in-the-10-km-half-marathon-marathon-and-the-100-km-ultramarathon-iaaf-1999-2015
#9
Pantelis T Nikolaidis, Vincent O Onywera, Beat Knechtle
Nikolaidis PT, Onywera VO, and Knechtle B. Running performance, nationality, sex, and age in the 10-km, half-marathon, marathon, and the 100-km ultramarathon IAAF 1999-2015. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2189-2207, 2017-The aim of this study was to examine the performance of the world's best runners in the 10-km, half-marathon, marathon, and 100-km races by age, sex, and nationality during 1999-2015, using data from the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF). A total of 38,895 runners (17,136 women and 21,759 men) were evaluated, with 2,594 (1,360 women and 1,234 men) in the 10-km; 11,595 (5,225 women and 6,370 men) in the half-marathon; 23,973 (10,208 women and 13,765 men) in the marathon; and 733 (343 women and 390 men) in 100-km events...
August 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704885/submaximal-markers-of-fatigue-and-overreaching-implications-for-monitoring-athletes
#10
André Siegl, Elisa M Kösel, Nicholas Tam, Susanne Koschnick, Nelleke G Langerak, Sabrina Skorski, Tim Meyer, Robert P Lamberts
The regular monitoring of athletes is important to fine-tune training and detect early symptoms of overreaching. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine if a noninvasive submaximal running test could reflect a state of overreaching. 14 trained runners completed a noninvasive Lamberts Submaximal Running Test, one week before and 2 days after finishing an ultramarathon, and delayed onset of muscle soreness and the daily analysis of life demands for athletes questionnaire were also captured. After the ultramarathon, submaximal heart rate was lower at 70% (-3 beats) and 85% of peak treadmill running speed (P<0...
September 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679502/ibuprofen-versus-placebo-effect-on-acute-kidney-injury-in-ultramarathons-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#11
Grant S Lipman, Kate Shea, Mark Christensen, Caleb Phillips, Patrick Burns, Rebecca Higbee, Viktoria Koskenoja, Kurt Eifling, Brian J Krabak
BACKGROUND: Despite concerns that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) contribute to acute kidney injury (AKI), up to 75% of ultramarathon runners ingest these during competition. The effect of NSAID on AKI incidence in ultramarathon runners is unclear. METHODS: Multisite randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial in the Gobi, Atacama, Ecuador and Sri Lankan deserts to determine whether ibuprofen (400 mg every 4 hours) would be non-inferior to placebo during a 50-mile (80 km) foot race...
October 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650691/changes-in-cartilage-biomarker-levels-during-a-transcontinental-multistage-footrace-over-4486-km
#12
Annegret Mündermann, Christopher Klenk, Christian Billich, Corina Nüesch, Geert Pagenstert, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss, Uwe Schütz
BACKGROUND: Cartilage turnover and load-induced tissue changes are frequently assessed by quantifying concentrations of cartilage biomarkers in serum. To date, information on the effects of ultramarathon running on articular cartilage is scarce. HYPOTHESIS: Serum concentrations of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-3, MMP-9, COL2-3/4C long mono (C2C), procollagen type II C-terminal propeptide (CPII), and C2C:CPII will increase throughout a multistage ultramarathon...
September 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629959/glycemic-control-and-muscle-damage-in-3-athletes-with-type-1-diabetes-during-a-successful-performance-in-a-relay-ultramarathon-a-case-report
#13
Taisa Belli, Denise V de Macedo, Pedro P M Scariot, Gustavo G de Araújo, Ivan G M Dos Reis, Fernanda L Lazarim, Lázaro A S Nunes, René Brenzikofer, Claudio A Gobatto
Ultramarathon races are fairly demanding and impose substantial physiological stress on healthy athletes. These competitions may thus be considerably more challenging for individuals with diabetes. This case study aims to describe glycemic control, muscle damage, inflammation, and renal function in 3 athletes with type 1 diabetes during a successful performance in a relay ultramarathon. The team completed the race in 29 hours and 28 minutes, earning third place. The total distance covered by each athlete was 68...
June 16, 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611162/a-large-chronic-pericardial-effusion-in-an-ultramarathon-runner-with-anti-ccp-positive-rheumatoid-arthritis
#14
Thomas J McClelland, Rose Penfold, Stefan Kluzek, Navraj S Nagra
Pericardial effusions arise as an extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Pericardial effusions are often asymptomatic, particularly in the early phase, but patients are at risk of cardiac tamponade as the effusion progresses. We discuss the case of a 40-year-old male ultramarathon runner with RA who presented with mild pleuritic chest pain and exertional dyspnoea after a recent long-haul flight. Despite a relative tachycardia, his observations were otherwise unremarkable. His blood tests revealed a C-reactive protein (CRP) of 86 mg/L and an anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) titre of 360 units/mL...
June 13, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587488/running-multiple-marathons-is-not-a-risk-factor-for-premature-subclinical-vascular-impairment
#15
Axel Pressler, Christiane Suchy, Tasja Friedrichs, Sophia Dallinger, Viola Grabs, Bernhard Haller, Martin Halle, Johannes Scherr
Background In contrast to the well-accepted benefits of moderate exercise, recent research has suggested potential deleterious effects of repeated marathon running on the cardiovascular system. We thus performed a comprehensive analysis of markers of subclinical vascular damage in a cohort of runners having finished multiple marathon races successfully. Design This was a prospective, observational study. Methods A total of 97 healthy male Munich marathon participants (mean age 44 ± 10 years) underwent detailed training history, cardiopulmonary exercise testing for assessment of peak oxygen uptake, ultrasound for assessment of intima-media-thickness as well as non-invasive assessments of ankle-brachial index, augmentation index, pulse wave velocity and reactive hyperaemia index...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574286/changes-of-intima-media-thickness-in-marathon-runners-a-mid-term-follow-up
#16
Jan Müller, Valeria Dahm, Elke S Lorenz, Axel Pressler, Bernhard Haller, Viola Grabs, Martin Halle, Johannes Scherr
Objective Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is used to assess cardiovascular risk and progression of atherosclerosis. It is known that regular physical activity of moderate intensity has beneficial effects on the vasculature. However, it is still discussed controversially whether prolonged exercise, including participation in exhaustive competitive sports such as long-distance races, has also beneficial effects or might even be harmful regarding the cardiovascular system. Patients and methods Thirty-eight male marathon runners (45...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482356/heart-type-fatty-acid-binding-protein-after-ultramarathon-running-and-relationship-with-high-sensitivity-troponin-i
#17
Giuseppe Lippi, Mariella Dipalo, Rosalia Aloe, Gian Luca Salvagno, Federico Schena
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460195/chronic-probiotic-supplementation-with-or-without-glutamine-does-not-influence-the-ehsp72-response-to-a-multi-day-ultra-endurance-exercise-event
#18
Hannah Marshall, Bryna Catherine Rose Chrismas, Craig Anthony Suckling, Justin D Roberts, Josh Foster, Lee Taylor
Probiotic and glutamine supplementation increases tissue Hsp72, but their influence on extracellular Hsp72 (eHsp72) has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic probiotic supplementation, with or without glutamine, on eHsp72 concentration before and after an ultramarathon. Thirty-two participants were split into 3 independent groups, where they ingested probiotic capsules (PRO; n = 11), probiotic + glutamine powder (PGLn; n = 10), or no supplementation (CON; n = 11), over a 12-week period prior to commencement of the Marathon des Sables (MDS)...
May 1, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454790/the-impact-of-hepatitis-b-carrier-on-cardiac-troponin-i-in-100-km-ultramarathon-runners
#19
Li-Hua Li, Chorng-Kuang How, Wei-Fong Kao, Yu-Hui Chiu, Chen Meng, Cheng-Chin Hsu, Yeou-Guang Tsay
BACKGROUND: Prolonged endurance exercise is known to cause elevation of cardiac troponin I (cTnI). Previous studies have reported the correlation of several factors with exercise-induced cTnI release. However, the investigation of the predictors for elevated cTnI and postrace kinetics of cTnI after ultramarathon running is lacking, especially in an Oriental population. METHODS: Twenty-six participants, including eight hepatitis B virus carrier (HBVc) runners, who finished a 100-km ultramarathon in Taiwan were enrolled...
June 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349501/a-placebo-controlled-trial-of-riboflavin-for-enhancement-of-ultramarathon-recovery
#20
Martin D Hoffman, Taylor R Valentino, Kristin J Stuempfle, Brandon V Hassid
BACKGROUND: Riboflavin is known to protect tissue from oxidative damage but, to our knowledge, has not been explored as a means to control exercise-related muscle soreness. This study investigated whether acute ingestion of riboflavin reduces muscle pain and soreness during and after completion of a 161-km ultramarathon and improves functional recovery after the event. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, participants of the 2016 161-km Western States Endurance Run were assigned to receive a riboflavin or placebo capsule shortly before the race start and when reaching 90 km...
December 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
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