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Pediatric scalp block

Alexander Sasha Dubrovsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Peripheral nerve blocks of the scalp, mainly greater occipital nerve blocks, have received a renewed interest amongst pediatric providers as they offer an alternate option to provide both acute and chronic relief from the suffering of children with difficult to treat headaches. This narrative review will provide an in-depth discussion of the published pediatric-specific studies exploring the utility of nerve blocks for pediatric headache disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: A total of seven pediatric publications have been reported to date and reveal excellent therapeutic effectiveness of bilateral greater occipital nerve blocks on primary chronic headaches and post-traumatic headaches...
November 9, 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
Maha Ahmed Abo-Zeid, Alaa Eldin Adel Elmaddawy, Mohamed Hassan El-Fahar, Ahmed Hassan El-Sabbagh
BACKGROUND: Scalp defects can be reconstructed either with skin graft, local flaps, free flaps, or tissue expansion. Tissue expanders have been proved to be fruitful in the pediatric population. Scalp expansion has proved to be useful in the reconstruction of posttraumatic and postburn alopecic defects. Selective nerve block can be added for attenuation of sympathetic stimulation and decrease surgical stress in cranial surgeries. In this study, a comparison was done between using selective nerve block and without selective nerve block in both stages of tissue expansion procedure...
February 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Jashin J Wu, W C Valdecantos
<p>Psoriasis is a common, inflammatory disease that manifests itself as lesions on the skin, which greatly impacts the physical and psychological wellbeing of those affected. The current goal of treatment in psoriasis is to improve the signs and symptoms of disease, whilst minimizing the burden of disease on patient health-related quality of life. Psoriasis can also be associated with other comorbidities such as joint disease, cardiovascular disease, and depression, which can add to the complexity of treatment...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Lauren Peloquin, Leslie Castelo-Soccio
Pediatric alopecia areata is a spectrum of autoimmune non-scarring alopecia in which some patients lose small patches of hair from their scalp but others lose more or all of the hair from the scalp and body, including eyebrows and eyelashes. Few studies have looked at therapies for this disorder in children, so much of the data are derived from adult literature and describe off-label use of medication. Generally, topical therapies consisting of topical steroids and topical irritating compounds/contact sensitizers are used...
October 2017: Paediatric Drugs
Alexander Sasha Dubrovsky, Debbie Friedman, Helen Kocilowicz
OBJECTIVE: This study's objective is to characterize the therapeutic effect of peripheral nerve blocks of the scalp for children and adolescents with post-traumatic headaches. BACKGROUND: Headaches are the most frequently reported persistent symptoms following a pediatric mild traumatic brain injury, may be challenging to treat, and can transform into debilitating chronic headaches. The beneficial use of peripheral nerve blocks of the scalp has been reported for adults with post-traumatic headaches...
May 2014: Headache
Manimaran Kanakaraj, N Shanmugasundaram, M Chandramohan, R Kannan, S Mahendra Perumal, J Nagendran
Faciomaxillary and oral surgical procedures are frequently done under local anesthesia. Only few techniques are used widely in these areas in spite of the numerous blocks available. Knowledge about these techniques could encourage use of these techniques for the benefit of patients and operators' comfort. Leaving aside the commonly used intraoral anesthetic technique by faciomaxillary and dental surgeons, focus is given on regional blocks of extraoral route, like maxillary block, mandibular block, superficial cervical plexus block, forehead and scalp block, trigeminal nerve block, sphenopalatine nerve block, and they are discussed with their indications and technical details involved in administering them...
August 2012: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
Ryan C Peterson, Lisa Patel, Kenneth Cubert, Amitabh Gulati
BACKGROUND: While intractable itching may be rarely associated with postherpetic neuralgia, it can have catastrophic complications if present. METHOD: We highlight a severe case of postherpetic itching in a 10-year-old male with Fanconi's and aplastic anemia, refractory to conventional treatments and requiring intravenous sedation. RESULTS: Our use of 3 sequential stellate ganglion blocks with 5.5 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine provided significant improvement of the symptoms for 4 months after the last procedure...
May 2009: Pain Physician
J Behr
The challenges of pediatric laceration repair include the probability of an uncooperative participant, tense or frantic parents and a busy setting. Linear lacerations of the scalp, trunk and extremities are excellent sites for staples. Stapling may be less traumatic because it is generally quicker than suturing. Suture repair is necessary for lacerations of the face, over joints, on the hands and feet, and other areas that impede the use of a stapling device. The most common methods of anesthesia for laceration repair include topical agents, direct infiltration and blocks...
January 1999: Advance for Nurse Practitioners
R Boos, L Auer, H RĆ¼ttgers, F Kubli
Antepartum and intrapartum monitoring problems are discussed with reference to a case history of a fetal AV-block detected during the 36th week of pregnancy. CTG instruments where the internal logic criteria can be turned off are suitable for monitoring arrhythmias. During labor the direct fetal ECG permits exact diagnosis as to the type of arrhythmia. The necessity of antepartum diagnosis in regard to postpartum pediatric management and hypoxic states during labor justify the large expenditure on monitoring apparatus...
1982: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
E J Hartley, B Bissonnette, P St-Louis, J Rybczynski, M E McLeod
To evaluate whether local anesthetic scalp infiltration blunts hemodynamic responses to craniotomy in anesthetized children (age, 2-18 yr), two concentrations of bupivacaine (0.125% and 0.25%) with vasoconstrictor (epinephrine 1:400,000) were compared with control data when a solution of vasoconstrictor alone was injected. Arterial plasma levels of bupivacaine were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Statistically significant increases in mean arterial pressure and heart rate above baseline measurements occurred in the control group during the period between scalp incision and dural reflection (P less than 0...
July 1991: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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