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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775975/misleading-new-insights-into-the-chrysotile-debate
#1
H-J Woitowitz, X Baur
Although there is no dispute among independent scientists about the carcinogenic and fibrogenic effects of chrysotile, the asbestos industry has been continuously and successfully acting to cast doubts on its harm. Another approach including asbestos insurance entities is to refuse compensation by raising the bar and fight criminal prosecution for asbestos-related diseases by the help of paid scientists. A recent publication on asbestos fibre burden in human lungs fits well in this context. The claim that chrysotile fibres are biopersistent in human lung is not based on the data provided by these authors, and, additionally, exhibits serious inconsistencies and obvious mismeasurements and significant methodological problems...
May 18, 2018: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775843/transfer-of-radionuclides-and-dose-assessment-to-ants-and-anthills-in-a-swedish-forest-ecosystem
#2
K Rosén, L Lenoir, K Stark, M Vinichuk, S Sundell-Bergman
In forest ecosystems soil organisms are important for immobilization, translocation and recycling of radionuclides. Still, there is a lack of studies on the role of insects such as ants in the turnover of radionuclides and how radioactivity affects an ant community. In this study seven anthills were sampled in an area that was heavily contaminated after the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Samples of ant and anthill materials were taken from different depths of the anthills as well as from the surrounding soil and the activity concentrations of 137 Cs were determined...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775825/binding-capacity-of-mannose-binding-lectin-mbl-is-associated-with-the-severity-of-chronic-chagas-cardiomyopathy
#3
Elisa de A N Azevedo, Silvana Barreto, Raul Emídio de Lima, Romero Henrique Teixeira, George Diniz, Wilson Oliveira, Maria da Glória A M Cavalcanti, Yara M Gomes, Patrícia M M de F Moura, Clarice N L Morais
Chagas disease (CD) is a global problem. Currently, it affects approximately 15 million individuals in Latin America. It is well know that the human immune response is related to different clinical manifestations. Mannose binding lectin (MBL) plays an important role in innate immunity, and it mediates the phagocytosis and complement-mediated destruction of pathogens. The binding capacity is enhanced by the oligomerization of MBL. In this study, we evaluated the serum concentration and the binding capacity of MBL in patients with chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy...
May 15, 2018: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775755/whole-genome-sequencing-and-bioinformatics-analysis-of-two-egyptian-genomes
#4
Mahmoud ElHefnawi, Sungwon Jeon, Youngjune Bhak, Asmaa ElFiky, Ahmed Horaiz, JeHoon Jun, Hyunho Kim, Jong Bhak
We report two Egyptian male genomes (EGP1 and EGP2) sequenced at ~ 30× sequencing depths. EGP1 had 4.7 million variants, where 198,877 were novel variants while EGP2 had 209,109 novel variants out of 4.8 million variants. The mitochondrial haplogroup of the two individuals were identified to be H7b1 and L2a1c, respectively. We also identified the Y haplogroup of EGP1 (R1b) and EGP2 (J1a2a1a2 > P58 > FGC11). EGP1 had a mutation in the NADH gene of the mitochondrial genome ND4 (m.11778 G > A) that causes Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy...
May 15, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775723/a-scale-out-approach-towards-neural-induction-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-neurodevelopmental-toxicity-studies
#5
Cláudia C Miranda, Tiago G Fernandes, Sandra N Pinto, Manuel Prieto, M Margarida Diogo, Joaquim M S Cabral
Stem cell's unique properties confer them a multitude of potential applications in the fields of cellular therapy, disease modelling and drug screening fields. In particular, the ability to differentiate neural progenitors (NP) from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) using chemically-defined conditions provides an opportunity to create a simple and straightforward culture platform for application in these fields. Here, we demonstrated that hiPSCs are capable of undergoing neural commitment inside microwells, forming characteristic neural structures resembling neural rosettes and further give rise to glial and neuronal cells...
May 15, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775551/pharmacogenetic-associations-with-cytochrome-p450-in-antiretroviral-therapy-what-does-the-future-hold
#6
Gabriel Stillemans, Leila Belkhir, Dennis A Hesselink, Vincent Haufroid, Laure Elens
Several antiretroviral drugs used to treat infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are substrates of enzymes belonging to the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily, which are polymorphically expressed. It may therefore be useful to take into account the genetic variation in these enzymes to predict the likelihood of anti-HIV treatment success, toxicity and the potential for drug-drug interactions. Areas covered: In this manuscript, the authors discuss the current state of knowledge regarding pharmacogenetic associations between CYP and all major antiretrovirals, as well as the importance of these associations...
May 18, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775479/acute-intermittent-hypoxia-and-rehabilitative-training-following-cervical-spinal-injury-alters-neuronal-hypoxia-and-plasticity-associated-protein-expression
#7
Atiq Hassan, Breanna M Arnold, Sally Caine, Behzad M Toosi, Valerie M K Verge, Gillian D Muir
One of the most promising approaches to improve recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) is the augmentation of spontaneously occurring plasticity in uninjured neural pathways. Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH, brief exposures to reduced O2 levels alternating with normal O2 levels) initiates plasticity in respiratory systems and has been shown to improve recovery in respiratory and non-respiratory spinal systems after SCI in experimental animals and humans. Although the mechanism by which AIH elicits its effects after SCI are not well understood, AIH is known to alter protein expression in spinal neurons in uninjured animals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775425/pre-obesity-and-obesity-impacts-on-passive-joint-range-of-motion
#8
Yihun Jeong, Suyeon Heo, Giwhyun Lee, Woojin Park
Despite the prevalence of pre-obesity and obesity, the physical capabilities of pre-obese/obese individuals are not well documented. As an effort to address this, this study investigated the pre-obesity and obesity impacts on joint range of motion (RoM) for twenty-two body joint motions. A publicly available passive RoM dataset was analysed. Three BMI groups (normal-weight, pre-obese, and obese [Class I]) were statistically compared in joint RoM. The pre-obese and obese groups were found to have significantly smaller RoM means than the normal-weight for elbow flexion and supination, hip extension and flexion, knee flexion, and ankle plantarflexion...
May 18, 2018: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775423/successfully-striving-for-happiness-socially-engaged-pursuits-predict-increases-in-life-satisfaction
#9
Julia M Rohrer, David Richter, Martin Brümmer, Gert G Wagner, Stefan C Schmukle
Happiness is considered a highly desirable attribute, but whether or not individuals can actively steer their lives toward greater well-being is an open empirical question. In this study, respondents from a representative German sample reported, in text format, ideas for how they could improve their life satisfaction. We investigated which of these ideas predicted changes in life satisfaction 1 year later. Active pursuits per se-as opposed to statements about external circumstances or fortune-were not associated with changes in life satisfaction ( n = 1,178)...
May 1, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774990/searching-for-a-mitochondrial-root-to-the-decline-in-muscle-function-with-ageing
#10
EDITORIAL
Marta Gonzalez-Freire, Fatemeh Adelnia, Ruin Moaddel, Luigi Ferrucci
Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength, is linked to a range of adverse outcomes, such as impaired physical performance, cognitive function, and mortality. Preventing sarcopenia may reduce the burden of functional decline with aging and its impact on physiological and economic well-being in older adults. Mitochondria in muscle cells lose their intrinsic efficiency and capacity to produce energy during aging, and it has been hypothesized that such a decline is the main driver of sarcopenia...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774985/microrna-1270-is-associated-with-poor-prognosis-and-its-inhibition-yielded-anticancer-mechanisms-in-human-osteosarcoma
#11
Lei Zhong, Changjun Zheng, Hongjuan Fang, Meng Xu, Bingpeng Chen, Chen Li
In this work, we explored the aberrant expression pattern, clinical association, and functional regulations of microRNA-1270 (miR-1270) in osteosarcoma. Among in vitro osteosarcoma cell lines and in situ tissues of osteosarcoma patients, quantitative real time-PCR was used to examine their endogenous miR-1270 expression. Clinical correlation between endogenous miR-1270 expression and clinicopathological features of osteosarcoma patients, as well as cancer patients' overall survival, was statistically examined...
May 18, 2018: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774338/trace-metals-in-oysters-molecular-and-cellular-mechanisms-and-ecotoxicological-impacts
#12
REVIEW
Wen-Xiong Wang, Jie Meng, Nanyan Weng
Oysters are important benthic bivalves in coastal and estuarine environments. They are widely farmed due to their rapid growth and taste; they are also widely applied in environmental monitoring of coastal pollution due to their accumulation of contaminants. Most importantly, oysters are among the few marine organisms that are considered to be hyper-accumulators of many toxic metals, such as cadmium, copper and zinc. As such, there is a tremendous call to study the interactions between metals and oysters, especially due to the increasing metal pollution in many coastal and estuarine waters...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774295/serological-investigation-of-visceral-leishmania-infection-in-human-and-its-associated-risk-factors-in-welkait-district-western-tigray-ethiopia
#13
Abrha Bsrat, Mebrahtu Berhe, Endalemaw Gadissa, Habtamu Taddele, Yohannes Tekle, Yohannes Hagos, Adugna Abera, Messele G/Micael, Tehetna Alemayhu, Getachew Gugsa, Abraham Aseffa
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is major neglected public health problem in terms of geographical spread and incidence in Ethiopia. Magnitude, public health impact and dynamics of VL were not well studied in Welkait District, Western Tigray, though the area is known for VL. Hence, this study aimed to determine sero-prevalence of human VL and associated risk factors in Welkait as new foci. A cross sectional study design was employed in this study. Two stage stratified random sampling method was used to select study participants...
February 2018: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774170/liquid-biopsy-of-vitreous-reveals-an-abundant-vesicle-population-consistent-with-the-size-and-morphology-of-exosomes
#14
Yuanjun Zhao, Sarah R Weber, Joshua Lease, Mariano Russo, Christopher A Siedlecki, Li-Chong Xu, Han Chen, Weiwei Wang, Michael Ford, Rafael Simó, Jeffrey M Sundstrom
Purpose: To investigate the molecular components of the vitreous in order to better understand retinal physiology and disease. Methods: Vitreous was acquired from patients undergoing vitrectomy for macular hole and/or epiretinal membrane, postmortem donors, and C57BL/6J mice. Unbiased proteomic analysis was performed via electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Gene ontology analysis was performed and results were confirmed with transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA)...
May 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774119/periostin-a-signal-transduction-intermediate-in-tgf-%C3%AE-induced-emt-in-u-87mg-human-glioblastoma-cells-and-its-inhibition-by-anthocyanidins
#15
Amira Ouanouki, Sylvie Lamy, Borhane Annabi
Periostin is a secreted protein that is highly expressed in glioblastoma cells as compared to normal brain tissue, and is therefore considered as a potential biomarker in therapeutic modalities. Its contribution in the cancer cells invasive phenotype is, however, poorly understood. This work investigates the role of periostin in U-87 MG glioblastoma cell invasion, cell migration and in Transforming Growth Factor β (TGF-β)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Periostin gene silencing, using small interfering RNA, decreased TGF-β-induced mesenchymal marker expression of fibronectin and vimentin, partly through reduced Smad2, Akt and Fak phosphorylation as well as U-87 MG cell invasion and migration...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774117/investigation-of-tumor-tumor-interactions-in-a-double-human-cervical-carcinoma-xenograft-model-in-nude-mice
#16
Barbara Mertens, Tatiane Cristina de Araujo Nogueira, Dimitrios Topalis, Ruzena Stranska, Robert Snoeck, Graciela Andrei
Tumor-tumor distant interactions within one organism are of major clinical relevance determining clinical outcome. To investigate this poorly understood phenomenon, a double human cervical xenograft model in nude mice was developed. A first tumor was induced subcutaneously by injection of human papillomavirus positive cervical carcinoma cells into the mouse lower right flank and 3 weeks later, animals were challenged with the same tumor cell line injected subcutaneously into the upper left flank. These tumors had no direct physical contact and we found no systemic changes induced by the primary tumor affecting the growth of a secondary tumor...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774116/human-papilloma-virus-global-research-architecture-assessed-by-density-equalizing-mapping
#17
Dörthe Brüggmann, Luise Kayser, Jenny Jaque, Matthias Bundschuh, Doris Klingelhöfer, David A Groneberg
Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is linked to cervical cancer, which represents the world's fourth most common cancer in women. So far, no detailed map of the worldwide HPV research architecture has been constructed. Hence, this study focuses on the chronological development and geographical distribution of the global HPV-specific publications and evaluates citation-based parameters as well as socioeconomic features of the publishing countries. In total, 29,330 HPV-related publications were identified...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774025/co-stimulation-impaired-bone-marrow-derived-dendritic-cells-prevent-dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced-colitis-in-mice
#18
Carl Engman, Yesica Garciafigueroa, Brett Eugene Phillips, Massimo Trucco, Nick Giannoukakis
Dendritic cells (DC) are important in the onset and severity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Tolerogenic DC induce T-cells to become therapeutic Foxp3+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs). We therefore asked if experimental IBD could be prevented by administration of bone marrow-derived DC generated under conventional GM-CSF/IL-4 conditions but in the presence of a mixture of antisense DNA oligonucleotides targeting the primary transcripts of CD40, CD80, and CD86. These cell products (which we call AS-ODN BM-DC) have demonstrated tolerogenic activity in preventing type 1 diabetes and preserving beta cell mass in new-onset type 1 diabetes in the NOD mouse strain, in earlier studies...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773924/mercury-in-the-diatoms-of-various-ecological-formations
#19
Magdalena Bełdowska, Aleksandra Zgrundo, Justyna Kobos
Mercury is a neurotoxin, its main source in the human organism being fish and seafood. The first level in the marine food web is formed of planktonic and benthic photosynthetic microorganisms, which form a biofilm on the surface of the hard bottom (epilithon) or plants (epiphyton). They are carriers of nutritional as well as toxic substances and pass these on to subsequent levels of the trophic web. Their biomass is often dominated by diatoms. This was the basis for the presented study into Hg accumulation in epilithic, epiphytic and planktonic diatoms, which was carried out in 2012-2013 in the coastal zone of the Puck Lagoon and the Gulf of Gdańsk (southern Baltic)...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773907/an-approach-to-monitoring-home-cage-behavior-in-mice-that-facilitates-data-sharing
#20
Edoardo Balzani, Matteo Falappa, Fuat Balcà, Valter Tucci
Genetically modified mice are used as models for a variety of human behavioral conditions. However, behavioral phenotyping can be a major bottleneck in mouse genetics because many of the classic protocols are too long and/or are vulnerable to unaccountable sources of variance, leading to inconsistent results between centers. We developed a home-cage approach using a Chora feeder that is controlled by-and sends data to-software. In this approach, mice are tested in the standard cages in which they are held for husbandry, which removes confounding variables such as the stress induced by out-of-cage testing...
June 2018: Nature Protocols
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