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Seung Jae Lee, Eun-Mi Jeong, Ah Young Ki, Kyung-Seo Oh, Joseph Kwon, Jae-Hyuk Jeong, Nam-Jin Chung
High salinity is a major abiotic stress that affects the growth and development of plants. This type of stress can influence flowering, the production of crops, defense mechanisms and other physiological processes. Previous studies have attempted to elucidate salt-tolerance mechanisms to improve plant growth and productivity in the presence of sodium chloride. One such plant that has been studied in detail is Salicornia, a well-known halophyte, which has adapted to grow in the presence of high salt. To further the understanding of how Salicornia grows and develops under high saline conditions, Salicornia herbacea (S...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Matthew E Dupre, Alicia Nelson
Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States and nearly one million Americans will have a heart attack this year. Although the risks associated with a heart attack are well established, we know surprisingly little about how marital factors contribute to survival in adults afflicted with heart disease. This study uses a life course perspective and longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study to examine how various dimensions of marital life influence survival in U.S. older adults who suffered a heart attack (n = 2197)...
October 15, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Vasanthanathan Poongavanam, Jacob Kongsted
The high rate of drug resistance as well as the complex biochemical process of the parasite reproduction cycle makes development of new drugs for malaria a very important but challenging task. Falcipain 2 (FL2) and Falcipain 3 (FL3) are the major cysteine protease enzymes that play a central role in providing essential amino acids for the parasite's protein biosynthesis through the hemoglobin hydrolysis process. Selective inhibition of these enzymes is considered as a promising chemotherapeutic target. In the present investigation, the highly efficient linear interaction energy (LIE) method has been parameterized for binding affinity predictions and assessed with a set of 244 compounds for FL2 and FL3 inhibition...
June 26, 2016: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Huawang Wu, Hui Sun, Chao Wang, Lin Yu, Yilan Li, Hongjun Peng, Xiaobing Lu, Qingmao Hu, Yuping Ning, Tianzi Jiang, Jinping Xu, Jiaojian Wang
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric disorder that is characterized by cognitive deficits and affective symptoms. To date, an increasing number of neuroimaging studies have focused on emotion regulation and have consistently shown that emotion dysregulation is one of the central features and underlying mechanisms of MDD. Although gray matter morphological abnormalities in regions within emotion regulation networks have been identified in MDD, the interactions and relationships between these gray matter structures remain largely unknown...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Andrew F Leuchter, Aimee M Hunter, Felipe A Jain, Molly Tartter, Caroline Crump, Ian A Cook
Serotonin modulates brain oscillatory activity, and serotonergic projections to the thalamus and cortex modulate the frequency of prefrontal rhythmic oscillations. Changes in serotonergic tone have been reported to shift oscillations between the combined delta-theta (2.5-8 Hz) and the alpha (8-12 Hz) frequency ranges. Such frequency shifts may constitute a useful biomarker for the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medications in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). We utilized quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) to measure shifts in prefrontal rhythmic oscillations early in treatment with either the SSRI escitalopram or placebo, and examined the relationship between these changes and remission of depressive symptoms...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
R Tafer, M Sleiman, A Boulkamh, C Richard
The photolysis of aqueous 5-chlorosalicylic acid (ClSA) and dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA), its main photoproduct, was studied to determine the extent of degradation caused by simulated solar light. Photoproducts identification was achieved using high resolution LC-MS and GC-MS. About 40 photoproducts from C19 to C1 were characterized, including a dihydroxycyclopentadienic acid, a ring contraction photoproduct, and numerous carbonyls and carboxylic acid derivatives that were detected thanks to derivatization...
October 15, 2016: Water Research
Penghui Du, He Zhao, Chenming Liu, Qingguo Huang, Hongbin Cao
The transformation of captopril (CAP), a widely-used thiol drug, was studied with the presence of dissolved model humic constituents (HCs) in a laccase-catalyzed system. Reaction products were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry and condensed fukui function computation. CAP reacted with different model HCs in the enzymatic system for 1 h, ranging from 75% (syringic acid) to 96% (p-coumaric acid). In the absence of HCs, only 15% of CAP was removed through self-coupling...
October 14, 2016: Water Research
Koji Kosaka, Keiko Ohkubo, Michihiro Akiba
The occurrence of six haloacetamides (HAcAms), which are a group of emerging nitrogenous disinfection byproducts, was investigated in drinking water across Japan in September 2015 and February 2016. At least one of the six HAcAms were found in all of the drinking water samples and their total concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 3.8 μg/L. The detection frequencies and concentrations of 2,2-dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm) and 2-bromo-2-chloroacetamide (BCAcAm) were the largest among the targeted HAcAm species. The total HAcAm concentrations in the raw water after chlorination ranged from 0...
October 13, 2016: Water Research
Fei Fan, Kui Zhang, Zhao Peng, Jing-Hui Cui, Na Hu, Zhen-Hua Deng
To perform a study to clarify how strong the chronological age relates to ossification of the knee in Chinese on X-rays and the MRI when a similar four-stage grading system was used. 322 individuals with conventional radiographs and MRI were collected from routine medical investigations and evaluated retrospectively. Bland Altman plots were performed to reveal the agreement of grading of MRI and radiograph. Regression analysis was conducted to establish a mathematical model for age estimation. The ossification process of the knee occurs earlier in females than in males for about 1-2 years...
October 12, 2016: Forensic Science International
Margret Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur A Thorsteinsdottir, Finnur F Eiriksson, Hrafnhildur L Runolfsdottir, Inger M Sch Agustsdottir, Steinunn Oddsdottir, Baldur B Sigurdsson, Hordur K Hardarson, Nilesh R Kamble, Snorri Th Sigurdsson, Vidar O Edvardsson, Runolfur Palsson
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency is a hereditary disorder that leads to excessive urinary excretion of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (DHA), causing nephrolithiasis and chronic kidney disease. Treatment with allopurinol or febuxostat reduces DHA production and attenuates the renal manifestations. Assessment of DHA crystalluria by urine microscopy is used for therapeutic monitoring, but lacks sensitivity. We report a high-throughput assay based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for quantification of urinary DHA...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Xiao Wei Tang, Miao Yu, Wei Wei Duan, Xiang Rong Zhang, Wei Wei Sha, Xiang Wang, Xiao Bin Zhang
Deficit schizophrenia (DS) has been proposed as a pathophysiologically distinct schizophrenia subtype. This study investigated facial emotion recognition deficits and alexithymia in DS and non-deficit schizophrenia patients (NDS) and their relationships with other clinical variables. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), and Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) were employed to evaluate the psychiatric symptoms in patients with schizophrenia...
September 29, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Anja Stajnko, Ingrid Falnoga, Janja Snoj Tratnik, Darja Mazej, Marta Jagodic, Mladen Krsnik, Alfred B Kobal, Marija Prezelj, Lijana Kononenko, Milena Horvat
BACKGROUND: Urine cadmium (Cd) and renal function biomarkers, mostly analysed in urine spot samples, are well established biomarkers of occupational exposure. Their use and associations at low environmental level are common, but have recently been questioned, particularly in terms of physiological variability and normalisation bias in the case of urine spot samples. AIM: To determine the appropriateness of spot urine and/or blood Cd exposure biomarkers and their relationships with renal function biomarkers at low levels of exposure...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Research
Bin Wang, Qian Chen, Lixiao Shen, Shasha Zhao, Weiyi Pang, Jun Zhang
Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are commonly used in industrial applications and consumer products, and their potential health impacts are of concern, especially for vulnerable population like fetuses. However, in utero exposure to PFASs and health implications are far from fully characterized in China. To fill in the gap, we analyzed 10 PFASs in cord plasma samples (N=687) collected in Shanghai between 2011 and 2012, one of the regions widely polluted with PFASs in China. A questionnaire survey on maternal and diet-related factors was conducted...
October 19, 2016: Environment International
Aaron J Done, Tinna Traustadóttir
The primary aim of this review is to summarize the current literature on the effects of acute exercise and regular exercise on nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activity and downstream targets of Nrf2 signaling. Nrf2 (encoded in humans by the NFE2L2 gene) is the master regulator of antioxidant defenses, a transcription factor that regulates expression of more than 200 cytoprotective genes. Increasing evidence indicates that Nrf2 signaling plays a key role in how oxidative stress mediates the beneficial effects of exercise...
October 14, 2016: Redox Biology
Esra Özdil Demiryürek, Atilla Tekin, Engin Çakmak, Osman Temizkan, Oğuz Karamustafalıoğlu, Sibel Gökova, Enes Demiryürek
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between anger, impulsiveness, and biochemical parameters (testosterone, insulin, insulin resistance) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. STUDY DESIGN: We recruited 84 women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome according to the Rotterdam diagnostic criteria. Psychiatric interviews were performed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and the State Trait Anger Expression Inventory were also administered to each participant...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Priya Mishra, Updesh Dixit, Ashutosh K Pandey, Alok Upadhyay, Virendra N Pandey
We recently identified a cell-factor, ErbB3 binding protein 1 (Ebp-1), which specifically interacts with the viral RNA genome and modulates HCV replication and translation. Ebp1 has two isoforms, p48, and p42, that result from differential splicing. We found that both isoforms interact with HCV proteins NS5A and NS5B, as well as cell-factor PKR. The p48 isoform, which localizes in the cytoplasm and nuclei, promoted HCV replication, whereas the shorter p42 isoform, which resides exclusively in the cytoplasm, strongly inhibited HCV replication...
October 19, 2016: Virology
Bryan A Johnson, Heather L Aloor, Cary A Moody
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) exhibit constitutive activation of ATM and ATR DNA damage response (DDR) pathways, which are required for productive viral replication. Expression of HPV31 E7 alone is sufficient to activate the DDR through an unknown mechanism. Here, we demonstrate that the E7 Rb binding domain is required to increase levels of many DDR proteins, including ATM, Chk2, Chk1, the MRN components MRE11, Rad50, and NBS1, as well as the homologous recombination repair proteins BRCA1 and Rad51. Interestingly, we have found that the increase in these DNA repair proteins does not occur solely at the level of transcription, but that E7 broadly increases the half-life of these DDR factors, a phenotype that is lost in the E7 Rb binding mutant...
October 19, 2016: Virology
Yong-Jun Ye, Xin-Tao Dai, De-Xin Ding, Ya-Li Zhao
In this study, a one-dimensional steady-state mathematical model of radon transport in fragmented uranium ore was established according to Fick's law and radon transfer theory in an air-water interface. The model was utilized to obtain an analytical solution for radon concentration in the air-water, two-phase system under steady state conditions, as well as a corresponding radon exhalation rate calculation formula. We also designed a one-dimensional experimental apparatus for simulating radon diffusion migration in the uranium ore with various water levels to verify the mathematical model...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
A N Stephens, C A Bishop, S Liu, M Fitzharris
BACKGROUND: Alcohol contributes to approximately 30% of all serious crashes. While the majority of drivers acknowledge the risks associated with drink-driving, a significant proportion of the population continue to engage in this behaviour. Attitudes towards drink-driving as well as personal alcohol consumption patterns are likely to underpin a driver's decision to drink-drive. These associations were explored in the current study. METHODS: A large (N=2994) cross-sectional online survey of a representative sample of drivers in Australia was conducted...
October 19, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Jie Wang, Helai Huang, Qiang Zeng
OBJECTIVES: This paper aimed to (i) differentiate the effects of contributory factors on crash risks related to different transportation modes, i.e., motor vehicle, bicycle and pedestrian; (ii) explore the potential contribution of zone-level factors which are traditionally excluded or omitted, so as to track the source of heterogeneous effects of certain risk factors in crash-frequency models by different modes. METHODS: Two analytical methods, i.e. negative binomial models (NB) and random parameters negative binomial models (RPNB), were employed to relate crash frequencies of different transportation modes to a variety of risk factors at intersections...
October 19, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
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