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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151235/how-the-urge-to-kill-feels-articulations-of-emic-appetitive-aggression-experiences-among-former-forcefully-recruited-children-and-youth-in-the-acholi-region-of-northern-uganda
#1
Helle Harnisch, Anett Pfeiffer
Based on 10 months of fieldwork in the Acholi region of northern Uganda among youth and adults who were forcefully recruited into the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) during the war, this article provides qualitative details to research on 'appetitive aggression.' Through two case-stories the article unfolds first person articulations of how 'appetitive aggression' is experienced as 'the urge to kill' and how it relates to the emic Acholi spiritual concept of 'cen'; a local Luo expression used to describe places and human beings possessed by evil spirits...
November 18, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151093/munchausen-syndrome-and-the-wide-spectrum-of-factitious-disorders
#2
Laurent Tatu, Selma Aybek, Julien Bogousslavsky
Since its initial description in 1851, Munchausen syndrome has been widely used interchangeably with factitious disorder. Nevertheless, this syndrome is only one form of factitious disorder that is both severe and chronic. The syndrome was named after Karl Friedrich Hieronymus, Baron von Münchhausen (1720-1797), a German nobleman who became famous as a narrator of false and exaggerated exploits. His name was progressively corrupted to Munchausen. Factitious disorders and Munchausen syndrome remain a great diagnosis challenge for physicians...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151046/the-association-between-gastro-oesophageal-reflux-disease-and-subsequent-rheumatoid-arthritis-occurrence-a-nested-case-control-study-from-taiwan
#3
Herng-Ching Lin, Sudha Xirasagar, Cha-Ze Lee, Chung-Chien Huang, Chao-Hung Chen
OBJECTIVE: Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is a common comorbidity among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). While GORD has been attributed to the antirheumatic medications, no studies of human cohorts have investigated a link between GORD and RA. This study investigates whether GORD is associated with a subsequent RA diagnosis over a 5-year follow-up using a population-based dataset. SETTING: Taiwan PARTICIPANTS: We used data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database...
November 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150377/urgent-versus-post-stabilisation-antiretroviral-treatment-in-hospitalised-hiv-infected-children-in-kenya-push-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Irene N Njuguna, Lisa M Cranmer, Vincent O Otieno, Cyrus Mugo, Hellen M Okinyi, Sarah Benki-Nugent, Barbra Richardson, Joshua Stern, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Dalton C Wamalwa, Grace C John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Urgent antiretroviral therapy (ART) among hospitalised HIV-infected children might accelerate recovery or worsen outcomes associated with immune reconstitution. We aimed to compare urgent versus post-stabilisation ART among hospitalised HIV-infected children in Kenya. METHODS: In this unmasked randomised controlled trial, we randomly assigned (1:1) HIV-infected, ART-naive children aged 0-12 years who were eligible for treatment to receive ART within 48 h (urgent group) or in 7-14 days (post-stabilisation group) at four hospitals in Kenya (two in Nairobi and two in western Kenya)...
November 14, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149154/philosophical-issues-and-psychological-variables-that-influence-the-determination-of-opioid-effectiveness-a-narrative-review
#5
Daniel Michael Doleys
BACKGROUND: The prescribing of opioids in the chronic pain setting is often based on the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacogenetics of the drug obtained during development and clinical trials. However, the effectiveness of opioids varies widely and often appears to bear no relationship to the aforementioned variables. The impact of philosophical issues and psychological factors on determining how clinically effective opioid therapy is has often been over looked. OBJECTIVES: This manuscript provides a selective review and narrative summary of the philosophical issues and psychological factors which can influence opioid effectiveness...
November 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149132/lifelong-impression-remembering-one-of-our-own-during-the-holiday-season%C3%A2
#6
Mai-Fung Ho-Law
In life, meeting someone who truly possesses the gift of teaching is a blessing. As an exceptional mentor and role model, this person will inspire us to be the best that we can be and make us want to be better human beings. As oncology nurses, we have the honor of caring for patients who have been devastated by the diagnosis of cancer. Establishing deep connections with some of these patients will enrich and give more meaning to our own lives. 
.
December 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149131/genetics-and-genomics-an-oncology-nurse-s-journey-in-practice
#7
Suzanne M Mahon
BACKGROUND: Cancer genetics and genomics are now an integral component of oncology care. Genetics and genomics guide recommendations not only for cancer prevention and early detection, but also for cancer treatment. 
. OBJECTIVES: This article documents the personal experiences of an oncology nurse who has worked in cancer prevention and early detection since the 1990s and describes the many changes that have occurred in cancer-related genetic and genomic care during that time...
December 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148112/big-data-and-data-science-in-healthcare-what-nurses-and-midwives-need-to-know
#8
EDITORIAL
Siobhan O'Connor
The evolution of technology in contemporary society has been accelerating in recent decades, with smaller, more interconnected hardware devices and software applications becoming the norm. As desktop computing paved the way for mobile platforms, which are now transitioning to wearable devices and other sensors, it is inevitable these electronic tools will advance into the realm of nanotechnology and biotechnology in the years to come. As the proliferation of information and communication technology continues it has led to a tsunami of digital data (Bates et al, 2014), which is being collected on many aspects of life...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147143/analyzing-text-recognition-from-tactually-evoked-eeg
#9
A Khasnobish, S Datta, R Bose, D N Tibarewala, A Konar
Tactual exploration of objects produce specific patterns in the human brain and hence objects can be recognized by analyzing brain signals during tactile exploration. The present work aims at analyzing EEG signals online for recognition of embossed texts by tactual exploration. EEG signals are acquired from the parietal region over the somatosensory cortex of blindfolded healthy subjects while they tactually explored embossed texts, including symbols, numbers, and alphabets. Classifiers based on the principle of supervised learning are trained on the extracted EEG feature space, comprising three features, namely, adaptive autoregressive parameters, Hurst exponents, and power spectral density, to recognize the respective texts...
December 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147055/assistive-technologies-for-people-with-dementia-ethical-considerations
#10
Belinda Bennett, Fiona McDonald, Elizabeth Beattie, Terry Carney, Ian Freckelton, Ben White, Lindy Willmott
The sustainable development goals (SDGs) adopted by the United Nations in 2015 include a new target for global health: SDG 3 aims to "ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages." Dementia care of good quality is particularly important given the projected increase in the number of people living with the condition. A range of assistive technologies have been proposed to support dementia care. However, the World Health Organization estimated in 2017 that only one in 10 of the 1 billion or more people globally who could benefit from these technologies in some way actually has access to them...
November 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145631/rifaximin-fails-to-prevent-campylobacteriosis-in-the-human-challenge-model-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#11
Joanna E Rimmer, Clayton Harro, David A Sack, Kawsar R Talaat, Ramiro L Gutierrez, Barbara DeNearing, Jessica Brubaker, Renee M Laird, Frédéric Poly, Alexander C Maue, Kayla Jaep, Ashley Alcala, Yelizaveta Mochalova, Christina L Gariepy, Subhra Chakraborty, Patricia Guerry, David R Tribble, Chad K Porter, Mark S Riddle
Background: Campylobacter species are a leading cause of diarrheal disease globally with significant morbidity. Primary prevention efforts have yielded limited results. Rifaximin chemoprophylaxis decreases travelers' diarrhea rates and may be suitable for high risk persons. We assessed the efficacy of rifaximin in the controlled human infection model (CHIM) for Campylobacter jejuni. Methods: Twenty-eight subjects were admitted to an inpatient facility and randomized to a twice daily dose of 550 mg rifaximin or placebo...
November 14, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145603/accuracy-of-next-generation-sequencing-for-molecular-diagnosis-in-patients-with-infantile-nystagmus-syndrome
#12
John Hoon Rim, Seung-Tae Lee, Heon Yung Gee, Byung Joo Lee, Jong Rak Choi, Hye Won Park, Sueng-Han Han, Jinu Han
Importance: Infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) is a group of disorders presenting with genetic and clinical heterogeneities that have challenged the genetic and clinical diagnoses of INS. Precise molecular diagnosis in early infancy may result in more accurate genetic counseling and improved patient management. Objective: To assess the accuracy of genomic data from next-generation sequencing (NGS) and phenotypic data to enhance the definitive diagnosis of INS. Design, Setting, and Participants: A single-center retrospective case series was conducted in 48 unrelated, consecutive patients with INS, with or without associated ocular or systemic conditions, who underwent genetic testing between June 1, 2015, and January 31, 2017...
November 16, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143759/the-role-of-food-antioxidants-benefits-of-functional-foods-and-influence-of-feeding-habits-on-the-health-of-the-older-person-an-overview
#13
REVIEW
Douglas W Wilson, Paul Nash, Harpal Singh Buttar, Keith Griffiths, Ram Singh, Fabien De Meester, Rie Horiuchi, Toru Takahashi
This overview was directed towards understanding the relationship of brain functions with dietary choices mainly by older humans. This included food color, flavor, and aroma, as they relate to dietary sufficiency or the association of antioxidants with neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Impairment of olfactory and gustatory function in relation to these diseases was also explored. The role of functional foods was considered as a potential treatment of dementia and Alzheimer's disease through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase as well as similar treatments based on herbs, spices and antioxidants therein...
October 28, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143615/diagnostic-accuracy-of-tests-to-detect-hepatitis-c-antibody-a-meta-analysis-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Weiming Tang, Wen Chen, Ali Amini, Debi Boeras, Jane Falconer, Helen Kelly, Rosanna Peeling, Olivia Varsaneux, Joseph D Tucker, Philippa Easterbrook
BACKGROUND: Although direct-acting antivirals can achieve sustained virological response rates greater than 90% in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infected persons, at present the majority of HCV-infected individuals remain undiagnosed and therefore untreated. While there are a wide range of HCV serological tests available, there is a lack of formal assessment of their diagnostic performance. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate he diagnostic accuracy of available rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) and laboratory based EIA assays in detecting antibodies to HCV...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143461/do-animal-exhibitors-support-and-follow-recommendations-to-prevent-transmission-of-variant-influenza-at-agricultural-fairs-a-survey-of-animal-exhibitor-households-after-a-variant-influenza-virus-outbreak-in-michigan
#15
R J Stewart, J Rossow, J T Conover, E E Lobelo, S Eckel, K Signs, M G Stobierski, S C Trock, A M Fry, S J Olsen, M Biggerstaff
Influenza A viruses circulate in swine and can spread rapidly among swine when housed in close proximity, such as at agricultural fairs. Youth who have close and prolonged contact with influenza-infected swine at agricultural fairs may be at increased risk of acquiring influenza virus infection from swine. Animal and human health officials have issued written measures to minimize influenza transmission at agricultural exhibitions; however, there is little information on the knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of these measures among animal exhibitors...
November 16, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143224/investigation-of-dna-transfer-onto-clothing-during-regular-daily-activities
#16
Travis Ruan, Mark Barash, Peter Gunn, David Bruce
Low levels of DNA from an unidentified human source, often referred to as trace DNA, are ubiquitous, can be transferred onto objects by either direct or indirect methods and have an unknown longevity in situ. Clothing items from crime scenes are often submitted for trace DNA analysis, usually in attempt to identify a person of interest. This study examined the transfer of DNA onto three 10 × 10 cm areas located on the front, back and shoulder of an individual's external clothing (n = 300) during a regular day's activity...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142742/supporting-breast-cancer-decisions-using-formalized-guidelines-and-experts-decision-patterns-initial-prototype-and-evaluation
#17
Dennis Andrzejewski, Rüdiger Breitschwerdt, Michael Fellmann, Eberhard Beck
Transparent decisions and its documentation of breast cancer patients' therapy are getting more important especially since modern therapeutic approaches favor personalized forms of treatment. The medical decisions for a treatment are very complex, because there are rules and different options for each patient. To support the decision process, we analyzed the current decision rules and implemented them in a prototype of a rule-based expert system. Thus, this system shall support the quality assurance regarding transparent documentation of individualized therapeutic decisions...
December 2017: Health Information Science and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142506/detection-of-circulating-natural-antibodies-to-inflammatory-cytokines-in-type-2-diabetes-and-clinical-significance
#18
Weiyi Cai, Cailing Qiu, Hongyu Zhang, Xiangyun Chen, Xuan Zhang, Qingyong Meng, Jun Wei
Background: Inflammatory cytokines have been demonstrated to be involved in developing insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes (T2D). Natural antibodies in the circulation have protective effects on common diseases in humans. The present study was thus designed to test the hypothesis that natural antibodies against inflammatory cytokines could be associated with T2D. Methods: An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed in-house to detect plasma IgG against peptide antigens derived from interleukin 1α (IL1α), IL1β, IL6, IL8 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in 200 patients with T2D and 220 control subjects...
2017: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142094/standardized-automated-training-of-rhesus-monkeys-for-neuroscience-research-in-their-housing-environment
#19
Michael Berger, Antonino Calapai, Valeska Stephan, Michael Niessing, Leonore Burchardt, Alexander Gail, Stefan Treue
Teaching non-human primates the complex cognitive behavioral tasks that are central to cognitive neuroscience research is an essential and challenging endeavor. It is crucial for the scientific success that the animals learn to interpret the often complex task rules, and reliably and enduringly act accordingly. To achieve consistent behavior and comparable learning histories across animals, it is desirable to standardize training protocols. Automatizing the training can significantly reduce the time invested by the person training the animal...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141712/clinical-outcomes-during-treatment-interruptions-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hepatitis-b-virus-co-infected-patients-from-sub-saharan-africa
#20
Anders Boyd, Laura Houghtaling, Raoul Moh, Mariama Abdou Chekaraou, Delphine Gabillard, Serge Paul Eholié, Xavier Anglaret, Fabien Zoulim, Christine Danel, Karine Lacombe, For The Anrs Trivacan And Anrs VarBVA Studies
Antiretroviral treatment (ART) interruptions increase the risk of severe morbidity/mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals from subSaharan Africa. We aimed to determine whether the risk is further increased among HIV-hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infected patients in this setting. In this sub-analysis of a randomized-control trial, 632 participants from Côte d'Ivoire randomized to receive continuous-ART (C-ART), structured ART interruptions of 2-months off, 4-months on (2/4-ART), and CD4-guided ART interruptions (CD4GT, interruption at 350/mm(3) and reintroduction at 250/mm(3)) were analyzed...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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