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Human personality

Ann-Kristin Niewald, Carina Oedingen, Oliver Razum
BACKGROUND: In 2006, the first human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was licensed in Europe and in 2007 it was included in the service catalogue of the statutory health insurance. The HPV vaccine led to a controversy in public and print media even before it was licensed. We evaluated the quality of the newspaper coverage of the HPV vaccine during the controversy in Germany. METHODS: The LexisNexis print media database was scanned for health journalism articles on HPV in 4 high-circulation national newspapers and 4 magazines using pre-defined search terms for the period 2006-2009...
March 16, 2018: Das Gesundheitswesen
Audrey M Bernstein, Robert Ritch, J Mario Wolosin
Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is an age-related disease involving the deposition of aggregated fibrillar material (XFM) at extracellular matrices in tissues that synthesize elastic fibers. Its main morbidity is in the eye, where XFM accumulations form on the surface of the ciliary body, iris and lens. Exfoliation glaucoma (XFG) occurs in a high proportion of persons with XFS and can be a rapidly progressing disease. Worldwide, XFG accounts for about 25% of open-angle glaucoma cases. XFS and XFG show a sharp age-dependence, similarly to the many age-related diseases classified as aggregopathies...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
M M Marques, E Alves, C Queirós, P Norton, A Henriques
Background: A high level of burnout has been described in health professionals. However, literature regarding other hospital employees is scarce. Aims: To assess the prevalence of burnout in different professional groups of hospital staff and how the professional category is associated with levels of burnout. Methods: Employees of a University Hospital in Portugal completed a self-administered online questionnaire in 2014-2015. We used the Portuguese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey and scored three dimensions of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment) as low, average or high...
March 13, 2018: Occupational Medicine
Cheleka A M Mpande, One B Dintwe, Munyaradzi Musvosvi, Simbarashe Mabwe, Nicole Bilek, Mark Hatherill, Elisa Nemes, Thomas J Scriba
Background: Maintenance of long-lasting immunity is thought to depend on stem cell memory T cells (TSCM ), which have superior self-renewing capacity, longevity and proliferative potential compared with central memory (TCM ) or effector (TEFF ) T cells. Our knowledge of TSCM derives primarily from studies of virus-specific CD8+ TSCM . We aimed to determine if infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M. tb ), the etiological agent of tuberculosis, generates antigen-specific CD4+ TSCM and to characterize their functional ontology...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Meryem Mniouil, Hajiba Fellah, Fatima Amarir, Abderrahim Sadak, Abdeslam Et-Touys, Youssef Bakri, Aziza Moustachi, Fatima Zahraa Tassou, Mostapha Hida, Mohamed Lyagoubi, El Bachir Adlaoui, Mohamed Rhajaoui, Faiza Sebti
A rapid, sensitive and specific tool for detection of Leishmania infantum infection in Humans would be highly desirable, because it would allow control interventions in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis. This study was carried out at the Reference National Laboratory of Leishmaniasis (RNLL) in National Institute of Hygiene (NIH) Morocco, in order to evaluate the diagnostic potential of immunochromatographic dipstick test (ICT) rk39 in Moroccan suspected VL patients. A total of 49 admitted patients with strong clinical suspicion of VL and 40 healthy controls were investigated for the performance of the ICT rk39...
March 12, 2018: Acta Tropica
Pontus Plavén-Sigray, Granville James Matheson, Petter Gustavsson, Per Stenkrona, Christer Halldin, Lars Farde, Simon Cervenka
BACKGROUND: Associations between dopamine receptor levels and pro- and antisocial behavior have previously been demonstrated in human subjects using positron emission tomography (PET) and self-rated measures of personality traits. So far, only one study has focused on the dopamine D1-receptor (D1-R), finding a positive correlation with the trait social desirability, which is characterized by low dominant and high affiliative behavior, while physical aggression showed a negative correlation...
2018: PloS One
Mary M Alleman, Rohit Chitale, Cara C Burns, Jane Iber, Naomi Dybdahl-Sissoko, Qi Chen, Djo-Roy Van Koko, Raimi Ewetola, Yogolelo Riziki, Hugo Kavunga-Membo, Cheikh Dah, Rija Andriamihantanirina
The last confirmed wild poliovirus (WPV) case in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) had paralysis onset in December 2011 (1). DRC has had cases of vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) documented since 2004 (Table 1) (1-6). After an outbreak of 30 circulating VDPV type 2 (cVDPV2) cases during 2011-2012, only five VDPV2 cases were reported during 2013-2016 (Table 1) (1-6). VDPVs can emerge from oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV types 1, 2, or 3; Sabin) polioviruses that have genetically mutated resulting in reversion to neurovirulence...
March 16, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Meda E Pavkov, Jessica L Harding, Nilka R Burrows
Acute kidney injury is a sudden decrease in kidney function with or without kidney damage, occurring over a few hours or days. Diabetes, hypertension, and advanced age are primary risk factors for acute kidney injury. It is increasingly recognized as an in-hospital complication of sepsis, heart conditions, and surgery (1,2). Its most severe stage requires treatment with dialysis. Acute kidney injury is also associated with higher likelihood of long-term care, incidence of chronic kidney disease and hospital mortality, and health care costs (1,2)...
March 16, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Han Sun, Xiong Zhang, Yacong Zhao, Yu Zhang, Xuefei Zhong, Zhaowen Fan
The novel human-computer interface (HCI) using bioelectrical signals as input is a valuable tool to improve the lives of people with disabilities. In this paper, surface electromyography (sEMG) signals induced by four classes of wrist movements were acquired from four sites on the lower arm with our designed system. Forty-two features were extracted from the time, frequency and time-frequency domains. Optimal channels were determined from single-channel classification performance rank. The optimal-feature selection was according to a modified entropy criteria (EC) and Fisher discrimination (FD) criteria...
March 15, 2018: Sensors
Kyung Duk Min, Sung Il Cho
BACKGROUND: The incidence rate of scrub typhus has been increasing in the Republic of Korea. Previous studies have suggested that this trend may have resulted from the effects of climate change on the transmission dynamics among vectors and hosts, but a clear explanation of the process is still lacking. In this study, we applied mathematical models to explore the potential factors that influence the epidemiology of tsutsugamushi disease. METHODS: We developed mathematical models of ordinary differential equations including human, rodent and mite groups...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Raziyeh Kasaei, David Carmena, Ali Jelowdar, Molouk Beiromvand
Giardia duodenalis is an intestinal flagellated protozoan that infects humans and several animal species. Giardiasis causing more than 200 million symptomatic infections globally is one of the most common causes of diarrhea in developing countries. Based on molecular studies mainly targeting the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene locus of the parasite, eight assemblages (A to H) have been identified in humans and other animal species. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the frequency and molecular diversity of G...
March 14, 2018: Parasitology Research
Nicholas Calvert, Jiansha Wu, Sophie Sneddon, Jennifer Woodhouse, Richard Carey-Smith, David Wood, Evan Ingley
Background: Soft tissue and bone sarcoma represent a broad spectrum of different pathology and genetic variance. Current chemotherapy regimens are derived from randomised trials and represent empirical treatment. Chemosensitivity testing and whole exome sequencing (WES) may offer personalized chemotherapy treatment based on genetic mutations. Methods: A pilot, prospective, non-randomised control experimental study was conducted. Twelve patients with metastatic bone or soft tissue sarcoma that had failed first line chemotherapy treatment were enrolled for this study...
2018: Clinical Sarcoma Research
Filomena E C de Alencar, Rosely Dos Santos Malafronte, Crispim Cerutti Junior, Lícia Natal Fernandes, Julyana Cerqueira Buery, Blima Fux, Helder Ricas Rezende, Ana Maria Ribeiro de Castro Duarte, Antonio Ralph Medeiros-Sousa, Angelica Espinosa Miranda
BACKGROUND: The hypotheses put forward to explain the malaria transmission cycle in extra-Amazonian Brazil, an area of very low malaria incidence, are based on either a zoonotic scenario involving simian malaria, or a scenario in which asymptomatic carriers play an important role. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of asymptomatic infection by detecting Plasmodium spp. DNA and its role in residual malaria transmission in a non-Amazonian region of Brazil. METHODS: Upon the report of the first malaria case in 2010 in the Atlantic Forest region of the state of Espírito Santo, inhabitants within a 2 km radius were invited to participate in a follow-up study...
March 14, 2018: Malaria Journal
Shannon M Melody, Veronica Martin-Gall, Ben Harding, Mark Gk Veitch
OBJECTIVES: To describe the retail availability of tobacco and to examine the association between tobacco outlet density and area-level remoteness and socio-economic status classification in Tasmania. DESIGN: Ecological cross-sectional study; analysis of tobacco retail outlet data collected by the Department of Health and Human Services (Tasmania) according to area-level (Statistical Areas Level 2) remoteness (defined by the Remoteness Structure of the Australian Statistical Geographical Standard) and socio-economic status (defined by the 2011 Australian Bureau of Statistics Index of Relative Socioeconomic Advantage and Disadvantage)...
March 19, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
Shigeru Kinoshita, Noriko Koizumi, Morio Ueno, Naoki Okumura, Kojiro Imai, Hiroshi Tanaka, Yuji Yamamoto, Takahiro Nakamura, Tsutomu Inatomi, John Bush, Munetoyo Toda, Michio Hagiya, Isao Yokota, Satoshi Teramukai, Chie Sotozono, Junji Hamuro
BACKGROUND: Corneal endothelial cell (CEC) disorders, such as Fuchs's endothelial corneal dystrophy, induce abnormal corneal hydration and result in corneal haziness and vision loss known as bullous keratopathy. We investigated whether injection of cultured human CECs supplemented with a rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor into the anterior chamber could increase CEC density. METHODS: We performed an uncontrolled, single-group study involving 11 persons who had received a diagnosis of bullous keratopathy and had no detectable CECs...
March 15, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Akitsugu Konno, Miho Inoue-Murayama, Shinji Yabuta, Akiko Tonoike, Miho Nagasawa, Kazutaka Mogi, Takefumi Kikusui
Drug detection dogs can be trained to locate various prohibited drugs with targeted odors, and they play an important role in the interdiction of drug smuggling in human society. Recent studies provide the interesting hypothesis that the oxytocin system serves as a biological basis for co-evolution between dogs and humans. Here, we offer the new possibility that genetic variation of the canine oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene may regulate the success of a dog's training to become a drug detection dog. A total of 340 Labrador Retriever dogs that were trained to be drug detection dogs in Japan were analyzed...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Mery Natali Silva Abreu, Angela Deise Soares, Diemack Alle Oliveira Ramos, Fernanda Vieira Soares, Gerson Nunes Filho, Analina Furtado Valadão, Patrícia Gonçalves da Motta
Several studies have identified misconceptions about human papillomavirus (HPV), which can lead to negligent behavior and risk to the health of the population. This article aims to assess the knowledge of men and women about HPV in the city of Ipatinga, Minas Gerais, and evaluate socioeconomic factors and preventive measures associated with such knowledge. It involved a cross-sectional study with 591 subjects living in the city, by means of stratified sampling by quotas proportional to the number of individuals by sex and age in each of the eight administrative regions of the city...
March 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Huipeng Chen, David Poulard, Jason Forman, Jeff Crandall, Matthew B Panzer
STRUCTURED ABSTRACT Objective: Evaluating the biofidelity of pedestrian finite element models (PFEM) using post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) is a challenge as differences in anthropometry between PMHS and PFEM could limit a model's capability to accurately capture cadaveric responses. Geometrical personalization via morphing can modify the PFEM geometry to match the specific PMHS anthropometry which could alleviate this issue. In this study, the THUMS PFEM (v4.01) was compared to the cadaveric response in vehicle-pedestrian impacts using geometrically personalized models...
March 14, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Karen M Miernyk, Lisa R Bulkow, Benjamin D Gold, Michael G Bruce, Debby H Hurlburt, Patricia M Griffin, David L Swerdlow, Kim Cook, Thomas W Hennessy, Alan J Parkinson
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common human infections in the world, and studies in Alaska Native people, as well as other Indigenous peoples, have shown a high prevalence of this gastric infection. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of H. pylori infection by urea breath test (UBT) and anti- H. pylori IgG among Alaskans living in four regions of the state and to identify factors associated with infection. METHODS: A convenience sample of persons > 6 months old living in five rural and one urban Alaskan community were recruited from 1996 to 1997...
March 14, 2018: Helicobacter
Karin Alejandra Rosemblatt, Leandro Daniel Benmergui
During World War II, the U.S. Indian Service conducted social science experiments regarding governance among Japanese Americans imprisoned at the Poston, Arizona, camp. Researchers used an array of techniques culled from anthropological culture and personality studies, psychiatry, psychology, medicine, and public opinion research to probe how the personality traits of the confined Japanese-Americans and camp leaders affected the social interactions within each group and between them. The research drew on prior studies of Indian personality in the US Southwest, Mexico's Native policies, and indirect colonial rule...
March 14, 2018: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
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