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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786931/real-time-monitoring-of-prodrug-activation-by-direct-mode-of-chemiluminescence
#1
Doron Shabat, Samer Gnaim, Anna Scomparin, Sayantan Das, Ronit Satchi-Fainaro
The majority of theranostic prodrugs reported so far relay information through a fluorogenic response generated upon release of the active chemotherapeutic agent. A chemiluminescence detection mode offers significant advantages over fluorescence, mainly due to the superior signal-to-noise ratio of chemiluminescence. Here we report the design and synthesis of the first theranostic prodrug monitored by a chemiluminescence diagnostic mode. As a representative model we prepared a prodrug from the chemotherapeutic monomethyl auristatin E designed for activation by β-galactosidase...
May 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786768/risk-prediction-score-for-hiv-infection-development-and-internal-validation-with-cross-sectional-data-from-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-china
#2
Lu Yin, Yuejuan Zhao, Meridith Blevins Peratikos, Liang Song, Xiangjun Zhang, Ruolei Xin, Zheya Sun, Yunan Xu, Li Zhang, Yifei Hu, Chun Hao, Yuhua Ruan, Yiming Shao, Sten H Vermund, Han-Zhu Qian
Receptive anal intercourse, multiple partners, condomless sex, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and drug/alcohol addiction are familiar factors that correlate with increased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk among men who have sex with men (MSM). To improve estimation to HIV acquisition, we created a composite score using questions from routine survey of 3588 MSM in Beijing, China. The HIV prevalence was 13.4%. A risk scoring tool using penalized maximum likelihood multivariable logistic regression modeling was developed, deploying backward step-down variable selection to obtain a reduced-form model...
May 21, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786590/hepatitis-c-and-human-rights-comparison-of-legal-experience-of-ukraine-and-georgia
#3
Iryna Y Senyuta
A comparative legal research of human rights provision in Ukraine and Georgia, in the aspect of combating viral HCV, was conducted. Ukrainian advocacy experience and Georgian strategic litigation experience with regard to human rights and HCV was analyzed. Key international instruments, which lay the conceptual foundations as well as outline the measures, which are directed at human rights in patient care provision and fighting viral hepatitis, were elucidated. Attention was paid to the Global health sector strategy...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786549/pluripotent-stem-cells-induction-and-self-renewal
#4
REVIEW
R Abu-Dawud, N Graffmann, S Ferber, W Wruck, J Adjaye
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) lie at the heart of modern regenerative medicine due to their properties of unlimited self-renewal in vitro and their ability to differentiate into cell types representative of the three embryonic germ layers-mesoderm, ectoderm and endoderm. The derivation of induced PSCs bypasses ethical concerns associated with the use of human embryonic stem cells and also enables personalized cell-based therapies. To exploit their regenerative potential, it is essential to have a firm understanding of the molecular processes associated with their induction from somatic cells...
July 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786548/designer-human-tissue-coming-to-a-lab-near-you
#5
David C Hay, Cliona O'Farrelly
Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) offer a scalable alternative to primary and transformed human tissue. PSCs include human embryonic stem cells, derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts unsuitable for human implantation; and induced PSCs, generated by the reprogramming of somatic cells. Both cell types display the ability to self-renew and retain pluripotency, promising an unlimited supply of human somatic cells for biomedical application. A distinct advantage of using PSCs is the ability to select for genetic background, promising personalized modelling of human biology 'in a dish' or immune-matched cell-based therapies for the clinic...
July 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786110/multi%C3%A2-layered-prevention-and-treatment-of-chronic-inflammation-organ-fibrosis-and-cancer-associated-with-canonical-wnt-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-catenin-signaling-activation-review
#6
Masaru Katoh
β‑catenin/CTNNB1 is an intracellular scaffold protein that interacts with adhesion molecules (E‑cadherin/CDH1, N‑cadherin/CDH2, VE‑cadherin/CDH5 and α‑catenins), transmembrane‑type mucins (MUC1/CD227 and MUC16/CA125), signaling regulators (APC, AXIN1, AXIN2 and NHERF1/EBP50) and epigenetic or transcriptional regulators (BCL9, BCL9L, CREBBP/CBP, EP300/p300, FOXM1, MED12, SMARCA4/BRG1 and TCF/LEF). Gain‑of‑function CTTNB1 mutations are detected in bladder cancer, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer and uterine cancer, whereas loss‑of‑function CTNNB1 mutations are also detected in human cancer...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785773/molecular-tension-probes-to-investigate-the-mechanopharmacology-of-single-cells-a-step-toward-personalized-mechanomedicine
#7
Kornelia Galior, Victor Pui-Yan Ma, Yang Liu, Hanquan Su, Nusaiba Baker, Reynold A Panettieri, Cherry Wongtrakool, Khalid Salaita
Given that dysregulation of mechanics contributes to diseases ranging from cancer metastasis to lung disease, it is important to develop methods for screening the efficacy of drugs that target cellular forces. Here, nanoparticle-based tension sensors are used to quantify the mechanical response of individual cells upon drug treatment. As a proof-of-concept, the activity of bronchodilators is tested on human airway smooth muscle cells derived from seven donors, four of which are asthmatic. It is revealed that airway smooth muscle cells isolated from asthmatic donors exhibit greater traction forces compared to the control donors...
May 22, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785721/heeding-humanity-in-an-age-of-electronic-health-records-heidegger-levinas-and-healthcare
#8
Casey Rentmeester
The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) required healthcare providers in the United States to adopt and demonstrate meaningful use of electronic health records (EHRs) by January 1, 2014. In many ways, EHRs mark a notable improvement over paper medical records as they are more easily accessible and allow for electronic searching and sharing of medical history. However, as EHRs have become mandated by ARRA, many nurses now rely upon computers far more heavily during nurse-patient interactions, thereby decreasing the level of direct interpersonal communication between the two...
May 21, 2018: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784759/of-what-use-is-connectomics-a-personal-perspective-on-the-drosophila-connectome
#9
REVIEW
Ian A Meinertzhagen
The brain is a network of neurons and its biological output is behaviour. This is an exciting age, with a growing acknowledgement that the comprehensive compilation of synaptic circuits densely reconstructed in the brains of model species is now both technologically feasible and a scientifically enabling possibility in neurobiology, much as 30 years ago genomics was in molecular biology and genetics. Implemented by huge advances in electron microscope technology, especially focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) milling (see Glossary), image capture and alignment, and computer-aided reconstruction of neuron morphologies, enormous progress has been made in the last decade in the detailed knowledge of the actual synaptic circuits formed by real neurons, in various brain regions of the fly Drosophila It is useful to distinguish synaptic pathways that are major, with 100 or more presynaptic contacts, from those that are minor, with fewer than about 10; most neurites are both presynaptic and postsynaptic, and all synaptic sites have multiple postsynaptic dendrites...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784728/cyp2d6-allelic-variants-34-17-2-17-3-and-53-and-a-thr309ala-mutant-display-altered-kinetics-and-nadph-coupling-in-metabolism-of-bufuralol-and-dextromethorphan-and-altered-susceptibility-to-inactivation-by-sch-66712
#10
Sarah M Glass, Cydney M Martell, Alexandria K Oswalt, Victoria Osorio-Vasquez, Christi Cho, Michael J Hicks, Jacqueline M Mills, Rina Fujiwara, Michael J Glista, Sharat S Kamath, Laura Lowe Furge
Metabolic phenotype can be affected by multiple factors including allelic variation and interactions with inhibitors. Human CYP2D6 is responsible for approximately 20% of CYP-mediated drug metabolism but consists of over 100 known variants with several variants being commonly found in the population and others quite rare. Four CYP2D6 allelic variants - three with a series of mutations distal to the active site (*34, *17-2, *17-3) and one ultra-metabolizer with mutations near the active site (*53), along with reference *1 and an active site mutant of *1 (Thr309Ala) were expressed, purified, and studied for interactions with the typical substrates dextromethorphan and bufuralol and the inactivator SCH 66712...
May 21, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784537/artificial-intelligence-a-joint-narrative-on-potential-use-in-pediatric-stem-and-immune-cell-therapies-and-regenerative-medicine
#11
REVIEW
Irena Sniecinski, Jerard Seghatchian
Artificial Intelligence (AI) reflects the intelligence exhibited by machines and software. It is a highly desirable academic field of many current fields of studies. Leading AI researchers describe the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents". McCarthy invented this term in 1955 and defined it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines". The central goals of AI research are reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, natural language processing (communication), perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects...
May 9, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784084/perception-of-social-interaction-compresses-subjective-duration-in-an-oxytocin-dependent-manner
#12
Rui Liu, Xiangyong Yuan, Kepu Chen, Yi Jiang, Wen Zhou
Communication through body gestures permeates our daily life. Efficient perception of the message therein reflects one's social cognitive competency. Here we report that such competency is manifested temporally as shortened subjective duration of social interactions: motion sequences showing agents acting communicatively are perceived to be significantly shorter in duration as compared with those acting noncommunicatively. The strength of this effect is negatively correlated with one's autistic-like tendency...
May 22, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784050/exploring-hiv-risks-testing-and-prevention-among-sub-saharan-african-community-members-in-australia
#13
Amy B Mullens, Jennifer Kelly, Joseph Debattista, Tania M Phillips, Zhihong Gu, Fungisai Siggins
BACKGROUND: Significant health disparities persist regarding new and late Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) diagnoses among sub-Saharan African (SSA) communities in Australia. Personal/cultural beliefs and practices influence HIV (risk, prevention, testing) within Australia and during visits to home countries. METHOD: A community forum was conducted involving 23 male and female adult African community workers, members and leaders, and health workers; facilitated by cultural workers and an experienced clinician/researcher...
May 21, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783934/the-impact-of-pharmacokinetic-gene-profiles-across-human-cancers
#14
Michael T Zimmermann, Terry M Therneau, Jean-Pierre A Kocher
BACKGROUND: The right drug to the right patient at the right time is one of the ideals of Individualized Medicine (IM) and remains one of the most compelling promises of the post-genomic age. The addition of genomic information is expected to increase the precision of an individual patient's treatment, resulting in improved outcomes. While pilot studies have been encouraging, key aspects of interpreting tumor genomics information, such as somatic activation of drug transport or metabolism, have not been systematically evaluated...
May 21, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783244/some-features-of-the-behavior-of-alcohol-dependent-persons
#15
Ihor М Karpinets, Oksana V Marusyn
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Alcoholism is characterized by psychological dependence and changes in human behavior, which affects the person's relationship with the social environment. The aim: to determine the behavior of alcohol dependent persons basing on the retrospective study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: On the basis of narcological offices of healthcare establishments and narcological clinic in Ivano-Frankivsk oblast, 552 people being in follow-up by a narcologist as addicted or abused have been examined for a specially developed extended program based on a standardized AUDIT screening test...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783180/reprint-of-cling-film-plastic-wrap-an-innovation-for-dead-body-packaging-preservation-and-transportation-by-first-responders-as-a-replacement-for-cadaver-body-bag-in-large-scale-disasters
#16
Lay See Khoo, Poh Soon Lai, Mohd Hilmi Saidin, Zahari Noor, Mohd Shah Mahmood
Cadaver body bags are the conventional method to contain a human body or human remains, which includes the use for storage and transportation of the deceased at any crime scene or disaster scene. During disasters, most often than not, the first responders including the police will be equipped with cadaver body bags to do scene processing of human remains and collection of personal belongings at the disaster site. However, in an unanticipated large scale disasters involving hundreds and thousands of fatalities, cadaver body bags supplies may be scarce...
May 18, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782820/onchocerciasis-prevalence-human-migration-and-risks-for-onchocerciasis-elimination-in-the-upper-mouhoun-nakamb%C3%A3-and-nazinon-river-basins-in-burkina-faso
#17
Achille S Nikièma, Lassane Koala, Rory J Post, Alain B Paré, Claude Montant Kafando, François Drabo, Adrien M G Belem, Roch K Dabiré, Soungalo Traoré
Historically, the whole of Burkina Faso was considered to be endemic for onchocerciasis (except a small area in the far north of the country) with prevalence rates 60-80%, but all endemic areas were included in the World Health Organisation Onchocerciasis Control Programme, which operated a system of vector control by larviciding beginning in 1974. In Burkina Faso larviciding had been phased out by 1989 when it was considered that onchocerciasis had been reduced to levels below the transmission breakpoint (and any residual infections would disappear without further intervention)...
May 18, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781983/effective-analysis-of-human-exposure-conditions-with-body-worn-dosimeters-in-the-2-4-ghz-band
#18
Silvia de Miguel-Bilbao, Juan Blas, Victoria Ramos
A well-defined experimental procedure is put forward to evaluate maximum exposure conditions in a worst-case scenario whilst avoiding the uncertainties caused by the use of personal exposimeters (PEMs) as measuring devices: the body shadow effect (BSE), the limited sensitivity range, and the non-identification of the radiation source. An upper bound for exposure levels to EMF in several indoor enclosures has been measured and simulated. The frequency used for the study is 2.4 GHz, as it is the most commonly used band in indoor communications...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781972/human-trafficking-how-nurses-can-make-a-difference
#19
Meredith Scannell, Andrea E MacDonald, Amanda Berger, Nichole Boyer
Human trafficking is a human rights violation and a global health problem. Victims of human trafficking have medical and mental health sequelae requiring specific healthcare interventions. Healthcare professionals may be the initial contact that these victims make outside the world of trafficking. Healthcare professionals are key agents in the identification of human trafficking, which is essential in eliminating this public health problem. Unfortunately, healthcare professionals are not always able to detect signs of human trafficking...
April 2018: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781692/significance-of-mental-health-legislation-for-successful-primary-care-for-mental-health-and-community-mental-health-services-a-review
#20
Getinet Ayano
BACKGROUND:  Mental health legislation (MHL) is required to ensure a regulatory framework for mental health services and other providers of treatment and care, and to ensure that the public and people with a mental illness are afforded protection from the often-devastating consequences of mental illness. AIMS:  To provide an overview of evidence on the significance of MHL for successful primary care for mental health and community mental health servicesMethod: A qualitative review of the literature on the significance of MHL for successful primary care for mental health and community mental health services was conducted...
March 29, 2018: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
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