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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443043/leniency-bias-in-performance-ratings-the-big-five-correlates
#1
Kevin H C Cheng, C Harry Hui, Wayne F Cascio
Some researchers assume that employees' personality characteristics affect leniency in rating others and themselves. However, little research has investigated these two tendencies at the same time. In the present study we developed one index for other-rating leniency and another one for self-rating leniency. Based on a review of the literature, we hypothesized that a generous assessment of peers would more likely be made by those who are extroverted and agreeable than by those who are not. Furthermore, a generous assessment of oneself would more likely be made by people who are conscientious and emotionally stable, than by people who are not...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443039/primary-emotional-systems-and-personality-an-evolutionary-perspective
#2
Christian Montag, Jaak Panksepp
The present article highlights important concepts of personality including stability issues from the perspective of situational demands and stability over the life-course. Following this more introductory section, we argue why individual differences in primary emotional systems may represent the phylogenetically oldest parts of human personality. Our argumentation leads to the need to increasingly consider individual differences in the raw affects/emotions of people to understand human personality in a bottom-up fashion, which can be coordinated with top-down perspectives...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439525/most-likely-to-succeed-long-run-returns-to-adolescent-popularity
#3
Ying Shi, James Moody
Sociological explanations for economic success tend toward measures of embeddedness in longstanding social institutions, such as race and gender, or personal skills represented mainly by educational attainment. In this paper we seek a distinctively social foundation for success by investigating the long-term association between high school popularity and income. Using rich longitudinal data, we find a clear and persistent association between the number of friendship nominations received and adult income, even after accounting for the mediating influences of diverse personal, family, and work characteristics...
February 2017: Social Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436689/the-mentalization-scale-ments-a-self-report-measure-for-the-assessment-of-mentalizing-capacity
#4
Aleksandar Dimitrijević, Nataša Hanak, Ana Altaras Dimitrijević, Zorana Jolić Marjanović
The psychometric properties of a new 28-item self-report measure of mentalization, the Mentalization Scale (MentS), were examined in 2 studies: with a sample of employed adults and university students (N1 = 288 + 278) and with a sample of persons with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and matched controls (N2 = 62 + 62). Besides the MentS, both studies employed measures of attachment and the Big Five; Study 1 also included assessments of empathy and emotional intelligence. MentS whole-scale internal consistency was good in the community and acceptable in the clinical sample (α = ...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431632/combined-evaluation-of-personality-risk-and-coping-in-ms-patients-a-step-towards-individualized-treatment-choice-the-pericoms-study-i
#5
G Bsteh, E Monz, L Zamarian, S Hagspiel, H Hegen, M Auer, S Wurth, F Di Pauli, F Deisenhammer, T Berger
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory neurological disease requiring disease-modifying treatment (DMT). To provide patients with the optimal individual therapeutic option, treatment recommendations should be based not only on individual disease course and DMT specific benefit-risk estimates, but also on patient's individual characteristics such as personality, risk attitude and coping strategies. However, these characteristics are difficult to objectify in clinical routine practice without the support of appropriate evaluation instruments...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425882/associations-between-the-big-five-personality-traits-and-a-medical-school-admission-interview
#6
Isabel Lourinho, André Moreira, Rui Mota-Cardoso, Milton Severo, Maria Amélia Ferreira
INTRODUCTION: Personality has became popular in medical student's selection. However, few research exists about the association between the big five personality traits and the existent medical school selection tools. Our aim was to study which personality traits were selected by a medical school admission interview. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred ninety four graduate applicants that had applied to the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Porto through the graduate entry approach, after ranked on previous achievement, were interviewed between the academic years of 2011 and 2013...
December 30, 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425741/development-of-identity-clarity-and-content-in-adulthood
#7
Jennifer Lodi-Smith, Seth M Spain, Kimberly Cologgi, Brent W Roberts
The current research examines self-concept clarity over 2 assessment points with the aims of establishing patterns of stability and change in self-concept clarity across adulthood, modeling corollary changes in traits and health-related role limitations, and demonstrating the ways in which gender and age moderate these patterns. Within this sample of 461 adults age 19-86 years of age, self-concept clarity had robust rank-order stability and no significant mean-level change during a 3-year assessment window...
May 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421473/personality-emotion-related-variables-and-media-pressure-predict-eating-disorders-via-disordered-eating-in-lebanese-university-students
#8
Maria Jose Sanchez-Ruiz, Claire El-Jor, Joelle Abi Kharma, Maya Bassil, Nadine Zeeni
PURPOSE: Disordered eating behaviors are on the rise among youth. The present study investigates psychosocial and weight-related variables as predictors of eating disorders (ED) through disordered eating (DE) dimensions (namely restrained, external, and emotional eating) in Lebanese university students. METHODS: The sample consisted of 244 undergraduates (143 female) aged from 18 to 31 years (M = 20.06; SD = 1.67). Using path analysis, two statistical models were built separately with restrained and emotional eating as dependent variables, and all possible direct and indirect pathways were tested for mediating effects...
April 18, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419457/subscales-of-the-barratt-impulsiveness-scale-differentially-relate-to-the-big-five-factors-of-personality
#9
Florian Lange, Adina Wagner, Astrid Müller, Frank Eggert
The place of impulsiveness in multidimensional personality frameworks is still unclear. In particular, no consensus has yet been reached with regard to the relation of impulsiveness to Neuroticism and Extraversion. We aim to contribute to a clearer understanding of these relationships by accounting for the multidimensional structure of impulsiveness. In three independent studies, we related the subscales of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) to the Big Five factors of personality. Study 1 investigated the associations between the BIS subscales and the Big Five factors as measured by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) in a student sample (N = 113)...
April 18, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407460/depressive-symptoms-and-their-interactions-with-emotions-and-personality-traits-over-time-interaction-networks-in-a-psychiatric-clinic
#10
Laura N Semino, Josef Marksteiner, Gernot Brauchle, Erik Danay
Objective: Associations between depression, personality traits, and emotions are complex and reciprocal. The aim of this study is to explore these interactions in dynamical networks and in a linear way over time depending on the severity of depression. Methods: Participants included 110 patients with depressive symptoms (DSM-5 criteria) who were recruited between October 2015 and February 2016 during their inpatient stay in a general psychiatric hospital in Hall in Tyrol, Austria...
April 13, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404231/modulation-of-sensorimotor-circuits-during-retrieval-of-negative-autobiographical-memories-exploring-the-impact-of-personality-dimensions
#11
Ludovico Mineo, Carmen Concerto, Dhaval Patel, Tyrone Mayorga, Eileen Chusid, Carmenrita Infortuna, Eugenio Aguglia, Yasmin Sarraf, Fortunato Battaglia
Autobiographical Memory (AM) retrieval refers to recollection of experienced past events. Previous Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) studies have shown that presentation of emotional negative stimuli affects human motor cortex excitability resulting in larger motor evoked potentials (MEPs). Up to date no TMS studies have been carried out in order to investigate the effect of personal memories with negative emotional value on corticospinal excitability. In this study we hypothesized that negative AM retrieval will modulate corticomotor excitability and sensorimotor integration as determined by TMS neurophysiological parameters...
April 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383929/personality-strengths-in-romantic-relationships-measuring-perceptions-of-benefits-and-costs-and-their-impact-on-personal-and-relational-well-being
#12
Todd B Kashdan, Dan V Blalock, Kevin C Young, Kyla A Machell, Samuel S Monfort, Patrick E McKnight, Patty Ferssizidis
Three studies using samples of people in romantic relationships were conducted to create a new individual difference measure of partner strengths in couples. The 2 perceptions of partner strengths included (1) appreciation of their use and effectiveness and (2) recognition of costs associated with their use. Factor analyses supported 2-factors and we found that greater appreciation of partner strengths predicted greater relationship satisfaction, commitment, investment, intimacy, self-expansion, and support for goal pursuit; recognizing significant costs with partner strengths was inversely related to several outcomes...
April 6, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381393/who-is-still-playing-pok%C3%A3-mon-go-a-web-based-survey
#13
Peter Rasche, Anna Schlomann, Alexander Mertens
BACKGROUND: Poor physical activity is one of the major health care problems in Western civilizations. Various digital gadgets aiming to increase physical activity, such as activity trackers or fitness apps, have been introduced over recent years. The newest products are serious games that incorporate real-life physical activity into their game concept. Recent studies have shown that such games increase the physical activity of their users over the short term. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the motivational effects of the digital game "Pokémon Go" leading to continued use or abandonment of the game...
April 5, 2017: JMIR Serious Games
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380341/effect-of-personality-traits-age-and-sex-on-aggressive-driving-psychometric-adaptation-of-the-driver-aggression-indicators-scale-in-china
#14
Huihui Zhang, Weina Qu, Yan Ge, Xianghong Sun, Kan Zhang
This study aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Driver Aggression Indicators Scale (DAIS), which measures aggressive driving behaviors. Besides, demographic variables (sex and age) and the big five personality traits were examined as potential impact factors of aggressive driving. A total of 422 participants completed the DAIS, Big Five Personality Inventory (BFPI), and the socio-demographic scale. First, psychometric results confirmed that the DAIS had a stable two-factor structure and acceptable internal consistency...
April 2, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372095/situational-and-person-related-factors-influencing-momentary-and-retrospective-soundscape-evaluations-in-day-to-day-life
#15
Jochen Steffens, Daniel Steele, Catherine Guastavino
Soundscape research draws on both experiments conducted in laboratory settings and studies in the field to explore peoples' perception and understanding of their acoustic environments. One opportunity to combine the strength of both approaches is the so-called Experience Sampling Method (ESM). This method was used to investigate the influence of situational and person-related variables on soundscape evaluations. Further, the relationship between momentary and retrospective soundscape judgments was explored...
March 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367741/two-swedish-screening-instruments-for-exhaustion-disorder-cross-sectional-associations-with-burnout-work-stress-private-life-stress-and-personality-traits
#16
Roger Persson, Kai Österberg, Njördur Viborg, Peter Jönsson, Artur Tenenbaum
AIMS: To examine the relationships of two screening instruments recently developed for assessment of exhaustion disorder (ED) with some other well-known inventories intended to assess ED-related concepts and self-reports of job demands, job control, job support, private life stressors, and personality factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional population sample ( n = 1355) completed: the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale (KEDS), Self-reported Exhaustion Disorder Scale (s-ED), Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ), Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9), Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), Big Five Inventory (BFI), and items concerning family-to-work interference and stress in private life...
March 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365672/moral-reasoning-and-its-correlates-in-job-applicants
#17
Ana Proroković, Matilda Nikolić, Nataša Šimić
The aim of this study was to verify the applicability of the Test of Moral Reasoning (TMR) in the selection of job applicants and to see how it correlated with education, intelligence, and the "big five" personality traits. The study included 210 participants (132 women and 78 men) who applied for various positions in the banking sector. Our findings have confirmed the applicability of TMR for recruitment because they showed that TMR did not allow the candidates to fake their responses. Furthermore, they have confirmed Kohlberg's views that general intelligence and education are the main determinants of moral development (positive correlation), whereas tendency towards socially desirable responding showed a negative correlation...
March 1, 2017: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364967/-does-the-french-big-five-inventory-evaluate-facets-other-than-the-big-five-factors
#18
R Courtois, J-M Petot, B Lignier, G Lecocq, O Plaisant
INTRODUCTION: The Big Five Inventory (BFI) developed by John et al. (1991) is one of the most widely accepted tools for assessing dimensions of personality. It comprises 44 items that assess five broad dimensions of personality (the Big Five Factors): Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism and Openness to experience. Based on correlations with the facets described in the NEO Personality Inventory Revised (NEO PI-R), another Big Five assessment tool with 240 items and 6 facets per dimension, Soto and John (2009) showed that the dimensions in the BFI could be divided into two facets each (ten facets altogether)...
March 29, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364687/comorbidity-family-history-and-personality-traits-in-pathological-gamblers-compared-with-healthy-controls
#19
K Mann, T Lemenager, E Zois, S Hoffmann, H Nakovics, M Beutel, M Vogelgesang, K Wölfling, F Kiefer, M Fauth-Bühler
BACKGROUND: While DSM-5 classified pathological gambling as an addictive disorder, there is debate as to whether ICD-11 should follow suit. The debate hinges on scientific evidence such as neurobiological findings, family history of psychiatric disorders, psychiatric comorbidity, and personality variables. METHODS: In the "Baden-Württemberg Study of Pathological Gambling", we compared a group of 515 male pathological gamblers receiving treatment with 269 matched healthy controls...
May 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355929/teasing-apart-overclaiming-overconfidence-and-socially-desirable-responding
#20
Doreen Bensch, Delroy L Paulhus, Lazar Stankov, Matthias Ziegler
Contamination with positivity bias is a potential problem in virtually all areas of psychological assessment. To determine the impact of positivity bias, one common approach is to embed special indicators within one's assessment battery. Such tools range from social desirability scales to overconfidence measures to the so-called overclaiming technique. Despite the large literature on these different approaches and underlying theoretical notions, little is known about the overall nomological network-in particular, the degree to which these constructs overlap...
March 1, 2017: Assessment
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