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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772771/a-novel-hepadnavirus-identified-in-an-immunocompromised-domestic-cat-in-australia
#1
Mahdis Aghazadeh, Mang Shi, Vanessa R Barrs, Alicia J McLuckie, Scott A Lindsay, Barbara Jameson, Bronte Hampson, Edward C Holmes, Julia A Beatty
High-throughput transcriptome sequencing allows for the unbiased detection of viruses in host tissues. The application of this technique to immunosuppressed animals facilitates the detection of viruses that might otherwise be excluded or contained in immunocompetent individuals. To identify potential viral pathogens infecting domestic cats we performed high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of tissues from cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). A novel member of the Hepadnaviridae , tentatively named domestic cat hepadnavirus, was discovered in a lymphoma sample and its complete 3187 bp genome characterized...
May 17, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768042/baseline-knowledge-of-potential-pet-toxins-among-the-us-general-public
#2
Natalie Young, Kenneth Royal, Bryan Lovee, Gigi Davidson
In 2014, the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty toAnimals Animal Poison Control Center fielded more than 167,000cases of potential nonhuman animal toxicosis. Concomitantly, thereremain limited free and reputable veterinary toxicology resourcesavailable for companion-animal (pet) caregivers (owners) seekingassistance and advice about potentially harmful exposures inanimals. The objective of this study was to assess pet toxicantknowledge among a representative sample of Americans andgauge the need for additional toxicology resources...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767568/the-relationship-between-intuitive-action-choices-and-moral-reasoning-on-animal-ethics-issues-in-students-of-veterinary-medicine-and-other-relevant-professions
#3
Joy M Verrinder, Clive J C Phillips
With growing understanding of animals' capabilities, and public and organizational pressures to improve animal welfare, moral action by veterinarians and other relevant professionals to address animal issues is increasingly important. Little is known about how their action choices relate to their moral reasoning on animal ethics issues. A moral judgment measure, the VetDIT, with three animal and three non-animal scenarios, was used to investigate the action choices of 619 students in five animal- and two non-animal-related professional programs in one Australian university, and how these related to their moral reasoning based on Personal Interest (PI), Maintaining Norms (MN), or Universal Principles (UP) schemas...
2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752821/species-distribution-virulence-factors-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-acinetobacter-spp-isolates-from-dogs-and-cats-a-preliminary-study
#4
Yui Kimura, Kazuki Harada, Takae Shimizu, Tomomi Sato, Akari Kajino, Masaru Usui, Yutaka Tamura, Yuzo Tsuyuki, Tadashi Miyamoto, Asami Ohki, Masahisa Watarai
We investigated the prevalence of virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance among 67 Acinetobacter spp. isolates, consisting of 21 Acinetobacter baumannii and 46 non-baumannii Acinetobacter from companion animals. The PCR analysis showed that the most prevalent virulence gene was afa/draBC (29.9%), followed by papC (22.4%) and cvaC (20.9%). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that resistance to gentamicin (14.9%) and ciprofloxacin (11.9%) was relatively prevalent. Five gentamicin- and/or ciprofloxacin-resistant A...
May 12, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735702/high-mobility-group-a2-hmga2-deficiency-in-pigs-leads-to-dwarfism-abnormal-fetal-resource-allocation-and-cryptorchidism
#5
Jaewook Chung, Xia Zhang, Bruce Collins, Renan B Sper, Katherine Gleason, Sean Simpson, Sehwon Koh, Jeffrey Sommer, William L Flowers, Robert M Petters, Jorge A Piedrahita
Expression of HMGA2 is strongly associated with body size and growth in mice and humans. In mice, inactivation of one or both alleles of Hmga2 results in body-size reductions of 20% and 60%, respectively. In humans, microdeletions involving the HMGA2 locus result in short stature, suggesting the function of the HMGA2 protein is conserved among mammals. To test this hypothesis, we generated HMGA2-deficient pigs via gene editing and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Examination of growth parameters revealed that HMGA2 -/+ male and female pigs were on average 20% lighter and smaller than HMGA2 +/+ matched controls ( P < 0...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724234/an-empirical-examination-of-the-conceptualization-of-companion-animals
#6
Ruben Hoffmann, Carl Johan Lagerkvist, Malin Hagberg Gustavsson, Bodil S Holst
BACKGROUND: The extensive keeping of companion animals and the substantial monetary amount we spend on these animals indicate that they are highly valued. Although the benefits humans derive from keeping cats and dogs have been extensively studied, how we conceptualize these animals has received limited attention. How people conceptualize cats and dogs is important as it influences human behavior and the well-being of humans as well as animals. The objective of this paper was to examine the conceptual meaning of dogs and cats and the relative importance of meanings assigned to these species...
May 4, 2018: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721442/phacoemulsification-of-bilateral-cataracts-in-two-pet-rabbits
#7
Filipe Espinheira Gomes, Ricardo de Matos, Eric Ledbetter
Two 3 year-old, healthy, client-owned Lop rabbits presented with bilateral cataracts. After performing a physical examination, bloodwork, ocular ultrasonography and electroretinography, both animals were deemed good surgical candidates for phacoemulsification. Bilateral cataract surgery was performed and both rabbits regained vision in both eyes. Both animals developed post-operative ocular hypertension and one animal developed corneal ulcers immediately after surgery. Both surgical complications resolved with medical management...
2018: Open Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721081/companion-diagnostic-64-cu-liposome-positron-emission-tomography-enables-characterization-of-drug-delivery-to-tumors-and-predicts-response-to-cancer-nanomedicines
#8
Helen Lee, Daniel Gaddy, Manuela Ventura, Nicholas Bernards, Raquel de Souza, Dmitri Kirpotin, Thomas Wickham, Jonathan Fitzgerald, Jinzi Zheng, Bart S Hendriks
Deposition of liposomal drugs into solid tumors is a potentially rate-limiting step for drug delivery and has substantial variability that may influence probability of response. Tumor deposition is a shared mechanism for liposomal therapeutics such that a single companion diagnostic agent may have utility in predicting response to multiple nanomedicines. Methods: We describe the development, characterization and preclinical proof-of-concept of the positron emission tomography (PET) agent, MM-DX-929, a drug-free untargeted 100 nm PEGylated liposome stably entrapping a chelated complex of 4-DEAP-ATSC and 64 Cu (copper-64)...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706095/understanding-feline-emotions-%C3%A2-and-their-role-in-problem-behaviours
#9
Sarah Heath
Practical relevance: Despite its importance, emotional health is a subject that is sadly neglected in the context of companion animals. Understanding emotions is at the heart of veterinary behavioural medicine and is key to preventing, managing and treating reported behavioural problems in domestic cats. Clinical challenges: On a daily basis, veterinary practices are presented with the physical health impact of emotional health and with emotionally motivated behaviours that are undesirable to owners and/or detrimental to the cat...
May 2018: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705455/the-design-of-visitation-facilities-to-engage-patients-with-their-own-cats-and-dogs
#10
Gerardo Pérez-Camargo, Edward T Creagan
There are voluminous data acknowledging the validity of the animal/human bond. Pharmacologic, endocrinologic, immunologic, and psychologic studies have clearly documented the impact of the companion animal on the health and well-being of patients and families, especially in the medical setting. Our paper is, to our knowledge, the first study outlining the mechanics, engineering concepts, and background of providing the appropriate facility to connect the hospitalized patient with their companion animal. We have summarized the peer-reviewed research in this critical area...
May 2018: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699519/comprehensive-gene-expression-analysis-of-canine-invasive-urothelial-bladder-carcinoma-by-rna-seq
#11
Shingo Maeda, Hirotaka Tomiyasu, Masaya Tsuboi, Akiko Inoue, Genki Ishihara, Takao Uchikai, James K Chambers, Kazuyuki Uchida, Tomohiro Yonezawa, Naoaki Matsuki
BACKGROUND: Invasive urothelial carcinoma (iUC) is a major cause of death in humans, and approximately 165,000 individuals succumb to this cancer annually worldwide. Comparative oncology using relevant animal models is necessary to improve our understanding of progression, diagnosis, and treatment of iUC. Companion canines are a preferred animal model of iUC due to spontaneous tumor development and similarity to human disease in terms of histopathology, metastatic behavior, and treatment response...
April 27, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695170/a-survey-of-rabbit-handling-methods-within-the-united-kingdom-and-the-republic-of-ireland
#12
James Andrew Oxley, Clare Frances Ellis, E Anne McBride, Wanda Denise McCormick
Rabbits are commonly kept in a variety of settings, including homes, laboratories, and veterinary clinics. Despite the popularity of keeping this prey species, little research has investigated current methods of handling. The aim of this study was to examine the experience of caregivers (owners and keepers) in using five handling methods commonly referred to in books written for companion animal (pet) owners and veterinary and/or laboratory personnel. An online survey was completed by 2644 respondents, representing all three of these groups, and breeders...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688430/regulation-of-large-number-of-weak-targets-new-insights-from-twin-micrornas
#13
Yixin Zhao, Pei Lin, Zhongqi Liufu, Hao Yang, Yang Lyu, Xu Shen, Chung-I Wu, Tian Tang
Each animal microRNA (miRNA) targets many genes for repression. Down-regulation of most of these targets is weak and has no detectable individual phenotypic effect. Whether this extensive weak repression is biologically relevant is a central issue in the debate on miRNA functionality. In the "small (target) pool" view, weak repression is non-functional and should be gradually removed during evolution. However, since the selective advantage of removing individual targets is small, testing this hypothesis is a challenge...
April 23, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681128/association-between-indoor-air-pollution-and-respiratory-disease-in-companion-dogs-and-cats
#14
Chung-Hui Lin, Pei-Ying Lo, Huey-Dong Wu, Chinhao Chang, Lih-Chiann Wang
BACKGROUND: Indoor air pollution (IAP) leads to important respiratory morbidity and mortality in humans. Companion dogs and cats share the same household environment with their owners and are exposed to IAP. HYPOTHESIS: Pets with respiratory disease are more commonly exposed to indoor air pollutants in their homes and to worse air quality than pets without respiratory disease. ANIMALS: Three hundred and forty-eight animals (230 dogs and 118 cats) were recruited...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672169/functional-bla-kpc-2-sequences-are-present-in-u-s-beef-cattle-feces-regardless-of-antibiotic-use
#15
Amit Vikram, John W Schmidt
Carbapenems are classified as critically important antibiotics since they are employed when resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections fail to respond to other antibiotic therapies. Carbapenem-resistant bacteria (CRB) were traditionally understood to be rare in the U.S. food-producing animals. Recently, using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), our group detected blaKPC-2 in all 72 metagenomic DNA (mgDNA) samples prepared from the feces of 36 lots of beef cattle "raised without antibiotics" (RWA) and 36 lots raised "conventionally" (CONV)...
April 19, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670064/veterinary-students-knowledge-and-perceptions-about-antimicrobial-stewardship-and-biosecurity-a-national-survey
#16
Laura Hardefeldt, Torben Nielsen, Helen Crabb, James Gilkerson, Richard Squires, Jane Heller, Claire Sharp, Rowland Cobbold, Jacqueline Norris, Glenn Browning
A better understanding of veterinary students&rsquo; perceptions, attitudes, and knowledge about antimicrobial stewardship and biosecurity could facilitate more effective education of future veterinarians about these important issues. A multicenter cross-sectional study was performed by administering a questionnaire to veterinary students expected to graduate in 2017 or 2018 in all Australian veterinary schools. Four hundred and seventy-six of 1246 students (38%) completed the survey. Many students were unaware of the high importance of some veterinary drugs to human medicine, specifically enrofloxacin and cefovecin (59% and 47% of responses, respectively)...
April 18, 2018: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669519/molecular-characterization-and-new-genotypes-of-enterocytozoon-bieneusi-in-pet-chipmunks-eutamias-asiaticus-in-sichuan-province-china
#17
Lei Deng, Wei Li, Zhijun Zhong, Yijun Chai, Leli Yang, Hang Zheng, Wuyou Wang, Hualin Fu, Min He, Xiangming Huang, Zhicai Zuo, Ya Wang, Suizhong Cao, Haifeng Liu, Xiaoping Ma, Kongju Wu, Guangneng Peng
BACKGROUND: Enterocytozoon bieneusi, the most commonly identified microsporidian species in humans, is also identified in livestock, birds, rodents, reptiles, companion animals, even wastewater. However, there is no information available on occurrence of E. bieneusi in pet chipmunks. The aim of the present study was to determine the genotypes, molecular characterization of E. bieneusi in pet chipmunks, and assess the zoonotic potential. RESULTS: A total of 279 fecal specimens were collected from chipmunks from seven pet shops and one breeding facility in Sichuan province, China...
April 18, 2018: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668896/critical-review-of-research-methods-used-to-consider-the-impact-of-human-animal-interaction-on-older-adults-health
#18
Erika Friedmann, Nancy R Gee
Background and Objectives: Most research on human-animal interaction (HAI) and human health focuses on one of three perspectives: (a) health effects of pet ownership; (b) health effects of contact with a companion animal; or (c) health effects of animal-assisted interventions including animal-assisted therapies, and animal-assisted activities. Methods: We reviewed research methods used to address each perspective, within the context of human aging, and identified challenges associated with these methods...
April 12, 2018: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662886/high-prevalence-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-among-clinical-isolates-from-cats-and-dogs-admitted-to-a-veterinary-hospital-in-switzerland
#19
Anna Lena Zogg, Sabrina Simmen, Katrin Zurfluh, Roger Stephan, Sarah N Schmitt, Magdalena Nüesch-Inderbinen
Objectives: This study aimed to identify and characterize extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae among clinical samples of companion animals. Methods: A total of 346 non-duplicate Enterobacteriaceae isolates were collected between 2012 and 2016 from diseased cats ( n  = 115) and dogs ( n  = 231). The presence of bla ESBL , PMQR genes, and the azithromycin resistance gene mph(A) was confirmed by PCR and sequencing of bla genes...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657015/are-recreational-areas-a-risk-factor-for-tick-paralysis-in-urban-environments
#20
Maria Gerasimova, Mark Kelman, Michael P Ward
In Australia, tick paralysis in dogs (caused by a toxin in the saliva of Ixodes species during feeding) is a serious, distressing condition, and untreated it is often fatal. The aim of this study was to quantify the association between parkland (recreational or natural) in an urban area and the occurrence of canine tick paralysis. Brisbane, as a large urban centre located within the zone of paralysis tick habitat along the east coast of Australia, was selected as the study area. Postcodes selected for inclusion were those defined as being of an urban character (Australian Bureau of Statistics)...
April 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
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