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Shitij kapur

Heather Wilson, Flavia Niccolini, Salman Haider, Tiago Reis Marques, Gennaro Pagano, Christopher Coello, Sridhar Natesan, Shitij Kapur, Eugenii A Rabiner, Roger N Gunn, Sarah J Tabrizi, Marios Politis
Huntington's disease (HD) is a monogenic neurodegenerative disorder with an underlying pathology involving the toxic effect of mutant huntingtin protein primarily in striatal and cortical neurons. Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) regulates intracellular signalling cascades, thus having a key role in promoting neuronal survival. Using positron emission tomography (PET) with [(11)C]IMA107, we investigated the in vivo extra-striatal expression of PDE10A in 12 early premanifest HD gene carriers. Image processing and kinetic modelling was performed using MIAKAT™...
September 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Jonathan Rabinowitz, Nomi Werbeloff, Francine S Mandel, François Menard, Lauren Marangell, Shitij Kapur
Several often-cited meta-analysis have reported that the efficacy of antidepressant medications depends on the severity of depression. They found that drug-placebo differences increased as a function of initial severity, which was attributed to decreased responsiveness to placebo among patients with severe depression rather than to increased responsiveness to medication. We retested this using patient-level data and also undertaking a meta-analysis of trial-level data from 34 randomised placebo controlled trials (n = 10 737) from the NEWMEDS registry...
May 19, 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Tiago Reis Marques, Sridhar Natesan, Flavia Niccolini, Marios Politis, Roger N Gunn, Graham E Searle, Oliver Howes, Eugenii A Rabiner, Shitij Kapur
OBJECTIVE: Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is an enzyme present in striatal medium spiny neurons that degrades the intracellular second messengers triggered by dopamine signaling. The pharmaceutical industry has considerable interest in PDE10A inhibitors because they have been shown to have an antipsychotic-like effect in animal models. However, the status of PDE10A in schizophrenia is unknown. Using a newly developed and validated radioligand, [(11)C]IMA107, the authors report the first in vivo assessment of PDE10A brain expression in patients with schizophrenia...
July 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Shitij Kapur, Tiago Reis Marques
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
Ingeborg Bolstad, Ole A Andreassen, Inge Groote, Andres Server, Ivar Sjaastad, Shitij Kapur, Jimmy Jensen
The atypical antipsychotic drug aripiprazole is a partial dopamine (DA) D2 receptor agonist, which differentiates it from most other antipsychotics. This study compares the brain activation characteristic produced by aripiprazole with that of haloperidol, a typical D2 receptor antagonist. Healthy participants received an acute oral dose of haloperidol, aripiprazole or placebo, and then performed an active aversive conditioning task with aversive and neutral events presented as sounds, while blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was carried out...
December 2015: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Anthony C Vernon, Po-Wah So, David J Lythgoe, Winfred Chege, Jonathan D Cooper, Steven C R Williams, Shitij Kapur
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) studies in schizophrenia patients generally report decreased levels of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), glutamate and glutathione, particularly in frontal cortex. However, these data are inconsistent in part due to confounds associated with clinical samples. The lack of validated diagnostic biomarkers also hampers analysis of the neurodevelopmental trajectory of neurochemical abnormalities. Rodent models are powerful tools to address these issues, particularly when combined with (1)H MRS (clinically comparable technology)...
December 2015: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Tine Bryan Stensbøl, Shitij Kapur
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Psychopharmacology
Marie-Caroline Cotel, Ewelina M Lenartowicz, Sridhar Natesan, Michel M Modo, Jonathan D Cooper, Steven C R Williams, Shitij Kapur, Anthony C Vernon
Neuroinflammation is increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of Schizophrenia (SCZ). In addition, there is increasing evidence for a relationship between the dose and duration of antipsychotic drug (APD) treatment and reductions in grey matter volume. The potential contribution of microglia to these phenomena is however not yet defined. Adult rats were treated with a common vehicle, haloperidol (HAL, 2 mg/kg/day) or olanzapine (OLZ, 10 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks via an osmotic mini-pump implanted subcutaneously...
November 2015: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Pauline Whelan, Matthew Machin, Shôn Lewis, Iain Buchan, Caroline Sanders, Eve Applegate, Charlotte Stockton, Sally Preston, Robert Andrew Bowen, Zhimin Ze, Chris Roberts, Linda Davies, Til Wykes, Nicholas Tarrier, Shitij Kapur, John Ainsworth
Current approaches to the management of severe mental illness have four major limitations: 1) symptom reporting is intermittent and subject to problems with reliability; 2) service users report feelings of disengagement from their care planning; 3) late detection of symptoms delay interventions and increase the risk of relapse; and 4) care systems are held back by the costs of unscheduled hospital admissions that could have been avoided with earlier detection and intervention. The ClinTouch system was developed to close the loop between service users and health professionals...
2015: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Flavia Niccolini, Thomas Foltynie, Tiago Reis Marques, Nils Muhlert, Andri C Tziortzi, Graham E Searle, Sridhar Natesan, Shitij Kapur, Eugenii A Rabiner, Roger N Gunn, Paola Piccini, Marios Politis
The mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration and loss of dopaminergic signalling in Parkinson's disease are still only partially understood. Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is a basal ganglia expressed dual substrate enzyme, which regulates cAMP and cGMP signalling cascades, thus having a key role in the regulation of dopaminergic signalling in striatal pathways, and in promoting neuronal survival. This study aimed to assess in vivo the availability of PDE10A in patients with Parkinson's disease using positron emission tomography molecular imaging with (11)C-IMA107, a highly selective PDE10A radioligand...
October 2015: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Steven Wooding, Thed N Van Leeuwen, Sarah Parks, Shitij Kapur, Jonathan Grant
BACKGROUND: The UK, like some other countries, carries out a periodic review of research quality in universities and the most recent Research Excellence Framework (REF) reported a doubling (103% increase) in its "world leading" or so-called "4*" research outputs in the areas of life sciences and medicine between 2008 and 2014. This is a remarkable improvement in six years and if validated internationally could have profound implications for health sciences. METHODS: We compared the reported changes in 4* quality to bibliometric measures of quality for the 56,639 articles submitted to the RAE 2008 and the 50,044 articles submitted to the REF 2014 to Panel A, which assesses the life sciences, including medicine...
2015: PloS One
Flavia Niccolini, Salman Haider, Tiago Reis Marques, Nils Muhlert, Andri C Tziortzi, Graham E Searle, Sridhar Natesan, Paola Piccini, Shitij Kapur, Eugenii A Rabiner, Roger N Gunn, Sarah J Tabrizi, Marios Politis
There is an urgent need for early biomarkers and novel disease-modifying therapies in Huntington's disease. Huntington's disease pathology involves the toxic effect of mutant huntingtin primarily in striatal medium spiny neurons, which highly express phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A). PDE10A hydrolyses cAMP/cGMP signalling cascades, thus having a key role in the regulation of striatal output, and in promoting neuronal survival. PDE10A could be a key therapeutic target in Huntington's disease. Here, we used combined positron emission tomography (PET) and multimodal magnetic resonance imaging to assess PDE10A expression in vivo in a unique cohort of 12 early premanifest Huntington's disease gene carriers with a mean estimated 90% probability of 25 years before the predicted onset of clinical symptoms...
October 2015: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Suzanne H So, Emmanuelle R Peters, Shitij Kapur, Philippa A Garety
Delusional experiences can be considered on a range of dimensions including conviction, distress, preoccupation, and disruption, which have been shown to be related to depression and anxiety. This study aimed to test the hypotheses that delusional conviction is less responsive to antipsychotic treatment than delusional distress and preoccupation, and that depression and anxiety reduce alongside improvements in delusional dimensions. Forty acutely ill inpatients with delusions were assessed during their early stage of antipsychotic treatment...
August 30, 2015: Psychiatry Research
Stephen Z Levine, Jonathan Rabinowitz, Rudolf Uher, Shitij Kapur
Emerging data from on imaging and genetic studies have generated interest in "clinically significant" biomarkers to predict response and prognosis. What constitutes "clinical significance" and how a biomarker would reach that threshold are unclear. To develop a benchmark we reviewed different approaches for defining "clinical significance" applied in schizophrenia research and identified that an improvement of 15 points on the PANSS Total is considered meaningful in clinical settings. Using this benchmark and we simulated thousands of schizophrenia trials, using characteristics derived from the NEWMEDS database with over 8000 patients with schizophrenia, to the kind of imaging, genetic, and other biomarkers that could attain clinical significance...
October 2015: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Jane Lees, Eve Applegate, Richard Emsley, Shôn Lewis, Panayiota Michalopoulou, Tracey Collier, Cristina Lopez-Lopez, Shitij Kapur, Gahan J Pandina, Richard J Drake
RATIONALE: Cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia is a key predictor of functional outcomes. The FDA-accepted MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) is held to be the gold standard measure but there are concerns about its ease of administration, reliance on language causing problems with translation and possible practice effects. The CogState Schizophrenia Battery (SB) is suggested as a non-language-based alternative but there is no substantial, independent comparison...
November 2015: Psychopharmacology
Panayiota G Michalopoulou, Shôn W Lewis, Richard J Drake, Abraham Reichenberg, Richard Emsley, Anastasia K Kalpakidou, Jane Lees, Tracey Bobin, James K Gilleen, Gahan Pandina, Eve Applegate, Til Wykes, Shitij Kapur
Several efforts to develop pharmacological treatments with a beneficial effect on cognition in schizophrenia are underway, while cognitive remediation has shown modest effects on cognitive performance. Our goal was to test if pharmacological augmentation of cognitive training would result in enhancement of training-induced learning. We chose modafinil as the pharmacological augmenting agent, as it is known to have beneficial effects on learning and cognition. 49 participants with chronic schizophrenia were enroled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study across two sites and were randomised to either modafinil (200mg/day) or placebo...
August 2015: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Celso Arango, Shitij Kapur, René S Kahn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2015: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Stefan Leucht, Inge Winter-van Rossum, Stephan Heres, Celso Arango, W Wolfgang Fleischhacker, Birte Glenthøj, Marion Leboyer, F Markus Leweke, Shôn Lewis, Phillip McGuire, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Dan Rujescu, Shitij Kapur, René S Kahn, Iris E Sommer
BACKGROUND: Most of the 13 542 trials contained in the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's register just tested the general efficacy of pharmacological or psychosocial interventions. Studies on the subsequent treatment steps, which are essential to guide clinicians, are largely missing. This knowledge gap leaves important questions unanswered. For example, when a first antipsychotic failed, is switching to another drug effective? And when should we use clozapine? The aim of this article is to review the efficacy of switching antipsychotics in case of nonresponse...
May 2015: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Guillaume Fond, Marc-Antoine d'Albis, Stéphane Jamain, Ryad Tamouza, Celso Arango, W Wolfgang Fleischhacker, Birte Glenthøj, Markus Leweke, Shôn Lewis, Phillip McGuire, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Iris E Sommer, Inge Winter-van Rossum, Shitij Kapur, René S Kahn, Dan Rujescu, Marion Leboyer
Successful treatment of first-episode psychosis is one of the major factors that impacts long-term prognosis. Currently, there are no satisfactory biological markers (biomarkers) to predict which patients with a first-episode psychosis will respond to which treatment. In addition, a non-negligible rate of patients does not respond to any treatment or may develop side effects that affect adherence to the treatments as well as negatively impact physical health. Thus, there clearly is a pressing need for defining biomarkers that may be helpful to predict response to treatment and sensitivity to side effects in first-episode psychosis...
May 2015: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Faye Sim, Isabel Sweetman, Shitij Kapur, Maxine X Patel
BACKGROUND: Benzodiazepine prescribing for schizophrenia occurs in clinical practice and antipsychotic trials. This review examined the clinical outcomes for benzodiazepines in schizophrenia. METHOD: A systematic search identified randomised controlled trials that evaluated benzodiazepines in comparison with placebo or antipsychotics, and also as adjuncts to antipsychotics. Relevant clinical outcome data was extracted. RESULTS: Twenty six studies were included with some reporting multiple comparisons...
February 2015: Journal of Psychopharmacology
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