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Amparo Romero-Picó, Estrella Sanchez-Rebordelo, Monica Imbernon, David González-Touceda, Cintia Folgueira, Ana Senra, Johan Fernø, Clémence Blouet, Roberto Cabrera, Margriet van Gestel, Roger A Adan, Miguel López, Rafael Maldonado, Ruben Nogueiras, Carlos Diéguez
Melanin-Concentrating Hormone (MCH) is one of the most relevant orexigenic factors specifically located in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), with its physiological relevance demonstrated in studies using several genetically manipulated mice models. However, the central mechanisms controlling MCH-induced hyperphagia remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we show that central injection of MCH in mice deficient for kappa opoid receptor (k-OR) failed to stimulate feeding. To determine the hypothalamic area responsible for this MCH/k-OR interaction, we performed virogenetic studies and found that downregulation of k-OR by adeno-associated viruses (shOprk1-AAV) in LHA, but not in other hypothalamic nuclei, was sufficient to block MCH-induced food intake...
March 1, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Xinyi Gao, Pooja Bakshi, Sindhu Sunkara Ganti, Mahima Manian, Andrew Korey, William Fowler, Ajay K Banga
CONTEXT: The improper disposal of unused prescription opioids has a potential for abuse as well as environmental contamination. Consequently, there is an imperative need for an environmentally safe, convenient, and effective drug disposal system. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to analyze the deactivation efficiency of the disposal system employing four model opioid drugs of high abuse potential. METHODS: The deactivation system used in this investigation is an activated granular carbon based disposal system in the form of a pouch, which can be used to safely and effectively deactivate unused or expired medications...
January 2018: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Sarah J Nevitt, Ashley P Jones, Jo Howard
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of the most common inherited diseases worldwide. It is associated with lifelong morbidity and a reduced life expectancy. Hydroxyurea (hydroxycarbamide), an oral chemotherapeutic drug, ameliorates some of the clinical problems of SCD, in particular that of pain, by raising fetal haemoglobin. This is an update of a previously published Cochrane Review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of hydroxyurea therapy in people with SCD (all genotypes), of any age, regardless of setting...
April 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Hugo F Miranda, Fernando Sierralta, Nicolás Aranda, Viviana Noriega, Juan Carlos Prieto
BACKGROUND: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may act through others mechanisms, in addition to inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. These includes cholinergic, NO, serotonergic and opioids pathways. METHODS: The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of systemic action of (S)-+-ketoprofen (dexketoprofen, DEX) on pain behaviors using the orofacial formalin test in mice and the potential involvement of cholinergic, NO, serotonergic and opioids pathways...
December 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Saira Sultan, Nuzhat Huma, Masood Sadiq Butt, Muhammad Aleem, Munawar Abbas
Dairy products are associated with numerous health benefits. These are a good source of nutrients such as carbohydrates, protein (bioactive peptides), lipids, minerals, and vitamins, which are essential for growth, development, and maintenance of the human body. Accordingly, dairy bioactive peptides are one of the targeted compounds present in different dairy products. Dairy bioactive compounds can be classified as antihypertensive, anti-oxidative, immmunomodulant, anti-mutagenic, antimicrobial, opoid, anti-thrombotic, anti-obesity, and mineral-binding agents, depending upon biological functions...
January 2, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Nondumiso Mkontwana, Natalia Novikova
BACKGROUND: Oral analgesia is a convenient and widely used form of pain relief following caesarean section. It includes various medications used at different doses alone or in adjunction to other form of analgesia. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of oral analgesia for post-caesarean pain relief. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 July 2014) and reference lists of retrieved studies...
March 29, 2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jason E Pope, Timothy R Deer
INTRODUCTION: Intrathecal drug delivery is a well-defined strategy to treat malignant and nonmalignant pain. Ziconotide is a well-studied intrathecal medicine option that has many attractive qualities, as it is non-granulomagenic, overdose or underdose is not associated with cardiopulmonary compromise or death, and is a non-opoid analgesic. However, it has had slow adoption into pain care algorithms because it has been historically plagued with the connotation of having a narrow therapeutic window and a low sustainability rate...
July 2015: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
T P Lybrand, P A Kollman, V C Yu, W Sadée
Molecular mechanics energy minimization and electrostatic potential surface calculations have been used to examine a series of opioid compounds that interact with the µ opoid receptor and a recently discovered high-affinity naloxone binding site (the λ site). The compounds studied include members of the morphinan, 4,5-epoxymorphinan, and benzomorphan families. All compounds bind with a high affinity at the µ opiate receptor site, but only the 4,5-epoxymorphinans bind tightly at the λ site. The results suggest that conformational differences in the various families do not satisfactorily explain the observed trends in binding affinity at the λ site...
August 1986: Pharmaceutical Research
Xavier Basurto Ona, David Rigau Comas, Gerard Urrútia
BACKGROUND: Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammatory process of the pancreas that may also involve adjacent tissues and/or remote organ systems. Abdominal pain is the main symptom and is usually accompanied by nausea, vomiting and fever. Opoids are commonly used to manage pain in acute pancreatitis but there are still some uncertainties about their clinical effectiveness and safety. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of opioids for treating acute pancreatitis pain...
July 26, 2013: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Sandra Nordmann, Vincent Pradel, Maryse Lapeyre-Mestre, Elisabeth Frauger, Vanessa Pauly, Xavier Thirion, Michel Mallaret, Emilie Jouanjus, Joëlle Micallef
BACKGROUND: Prescription opioid abuse is not homogeneous due to varying patterns of use and different geographic preferences. Because doctor shopping is one of the main sources of diversion, it has previously been used to estimate drug abuse. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe and compare opioid abuse in 2008 using doctor shopping to estimate abuse in 3 French regions. SETTING: Data for this study came from the General Health Insurance (GHI) reimbursement database, which covers 77% of the French population...
January 2013: Pain Physician
Carlene Oliverio, Natalie Malone, Drew A Rosielle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2012: Journal of Palliative Medicine
Magnus Anderberg, Christina Clementson Kockum, Einar Arnbjörnsson
PURPOSE: Computer-assisted laparoscopic surgery (CALS) in children is increasingly used and has proven to be feasible and safe. However, its full potential remains unclear and clinical comparative studies hardly exist. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate our experience with CALS for performing retroperitoneal nephrectomies in children when compared with controls undergoing open surgery in terms of safety, operative time, blood loss, opoid requirements, the duration of hospital stay and complications...
July 2011: Pediatric Surgery International
Da-Peng Wang, Hong-Xin Wang, Bo Tang, Xiao-Chun Yu
AIM: To study upon to serum deprivation if delta-opioid receptor activation has direct effect on cultured impaired cardiomyocytes survival. METHODS: Myocardial cells of neonatal rats were cultured in vitro. The cell viability was determined with crystal violet staining uptake. The percentage of S + G2 + M in cell cycle was determined by flow cytometry. Apoptosis rates were determined by flow cytometry (FCM). The expression of Caspase-3 were investigated by Western blotting...
August 2008: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
Christopher Welsh, Adela Valadez-Meltzer
Opioid dependence is a significant and growing problem in the United States. For nearly a century, federal regulations have made it illegal for psychiatrists and other physicians to pharmacologically manage this condition in an office-based setting using opioids. The passage of the Drug Addiction Treatment Act of 2000 has made it possible for all physicians to prescribe buprenorphine to patients in such a setting. Buprenorphine, a partial mu-opoid receptor agonist, has unique pharmacologic properties that distinguish it from methadone and other medications used in the treatment of opioid dependence...
December 2005: Psychiatry
Tasuku Akiyama, Mirela Iodi Carstens, Earl Carstens
Intradermal microinjection of the pruritogen histamine, or the algogen capsaicin, in the mouse cheek differentially elicits mainly hindlimb scratching or ipsilateral forelimb wiping, respectively. We investigated the dose-dependency of these responses elicited by various pruritogens and algogens, and µ-opioid modulation. Histamine, 5-hydro-xytryptamine (5-HT) and agonists of protease-activated receptors PAR-2 and PAR-4, all elicited dose-related hindlimb scratching bouts with little forelimb wiping. In contrast, capsaicin, allyl isothiocyanate and bradykinin elicited dose-related forelimb wiping with little scratching...
November 2010: Acta Dermato-venereologica
Sophie K Billa, Yan Xia, Jose A Morón
The addictive properties of morphine limit its clinical use. Learned associations that develop between the abused opiate and the environment in which it is consumed are engendered through Pavlovian conditioning processes. Disruption of the learned associations between the opiate and environmental cues may be a therapeutic approach to prevent morphine dependence. Although a role for the delta-opioid receptor in the regulation of the rewarding properties of morphine has already been shown, in this study we further characterized the role of the delta-opioid receptor in morphine-induced conditioned responses by examining the effect of a selective delta2-opioid receptor antagonist (naltriben), using a conditioned place preference paradigm in rats...
August 2010: European Journal of Neuroscience
S K Mattoo, S Chakrabarti, M Anjaiah
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Relapse is a common and distressing aspect of substance dependence mediated by several biological and psychosocial factors. This study examined the association between demographic variables, clinical parameters and certain psychosocial factors and relapse among patients with either alcohol or opioid dependence. METHODS: Structured assessments of clinical/demographic parameters, relapse precipitants, coping strategies, self-efficacy, stressful life events and perceived social support were carried out among patients with alcohol/opoid dependence (n=30) who had relapsed and compared with those (n=30) who had managed to remain abstinent...
December 2009: Indian Journal of Medical Research
H Hjiej, C Doyen, C Couprie, K Kaye, Y Contejean
INTRODUCTION: Autism is a developmental disorder that requires specialized therapeutic approaches. Influenced by various theoretical hypotheses, therapeutic programs are typically structured on a psychodynamic, biological or educative basis. Presently, educational strategies are recommended in the treatment of autism, without excluding other approaches when they are necessary. Some authors recommend dietetic or complementary approaches to the treatment of autism, which often stimulates great interest in the parents but also provokes controversy for professionals...
October 2008: L'Encéphale
H Goeke, M Herbst
PCAO (patient-controlled analgesia in outpatients) is a new treatment concept designed to overcome chronic or acute pain of cancer patients. From 1989 to 1992, a total of with tumour pain 204 patients were treated in the pain clinics of Fürth in cooperation with the Department of Radiation at the University Hospital in Regensburg. In 90 of these patients adequate oral medication was impossible because of problems in swallowing or blockage of the gastrointestinal tract, and subcutaneous opioid infusion over 24 h was therefore instituted...
March 1993: Der Schmerz
Hyoung June Kim, Hyuk Kim, Eun-Sil Han, Sun-Mi Park, Jae-Young Koh, Kwang-Mi Kim, Min-Soo Noh, Jung-Ju Kim, Chang-Hoon Lee
Sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) is upregulated in the stratum corneum of atopic dermatitis patients by sphingomyelin deacylase. We conducted an investigation, both to confirm that intradermal injection of SPC elicits scratching in mice, and to elucidate the detailed mechanism of the SPC-induced itch-scratch response. Intradermal administration of SPC increased the incidence of scratching behavior in a dose-dependent manner. SPC-induced scratching could be suppressed, significantly, by the mu-opoid receptor antagonist, naltrexon, the vaniloid receptor agonist, capsaicin, and the histamine H1 receptor antagonist ketotifen...
March 31, 2008: European Journal of Pharmacology
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