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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222746/cadmium-favors-f-actin-depolymerization-in-rat-renal-mesangial-cells-by-site-specific-disulfide-based-dimerization-of-the-cap1-protein
#1
Ying Liu, Weiqun Xiao, Manasi Shinde, Jeffrey Field, Douglas M Templeton
Cadmium is a toxic metal that produces oxidative stress and has been shown to disrupt the actin cytoskeleton in rat renal mesangial cells (RMC). In a survey of proteins that might undergo Cd2+-dependent disulfide crosslinking, we identified the adenylyl cyclase-associated protein, CAP1, as undergoing a dimerization in response to Cd2+ (5-40 µM) that was sensitive to disulfide reducing agents, was reproduced by the disulfide crosslinking agent diamide, and was shown by site-directed mutagenesis to involve the Cys29 residue of the protein...
December 8, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222525/conserved-gene-microsynteny-unveils-functional-interaction-between-protein-disulfide-isomerase-and-rho-guanine-dissociation-inhibitor-families
#2
Ana I S Moretti, Jessyca C Pavanelli, Patrícia Nolasco, Matthias S Leisegang, Leonardo Y Tanaka, Carolina G Fernandes, João Wosniak, Daniela Kajihara, Matheus H Dias, Denise C Fernandes, Hanjoong Jo, Ngoc-Vinh Tran, Ingo Ebersberger, Ralf P Brandes, Diego Bonatto, Francisco R M Laurindo
Protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs) support endoplasmic reticulum redox protein folding and cell-surface thiol-redox control of thrombosis and vascular remodeling. The family prototype PDIA1 regulates NADPH oxidase signaling and cytoskeleton organization, however the related underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here we show that genes encoding human PDIA1 and its two paralogs PDIA8 and PDIA2 are each flanked by genes encoding Rho guanine-dissociation inhibitors (GDI), known regulators of RhoGTPases/cytoskeleton...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222281/improved-biological-insight-and-influence-on-management-in-indolent-lymphoma-talk-3-update-on-nodal-and-splenic-marginal-zone-lymphoma
#3
REVIEW
Catherine Thieblemont
Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) and nodal marginal zone lymphoma (NMZL) are rare indolent chronic B-cell lymphomas. Prognosis is typically good with median survival around 10-15 years. Management is generally based on the presence of symptoms or high tumor burden. There are no standard treatments for these 2 entities, and therapeutic strategies are rapidly evolving. Clinical developments for these 2 entities are oriented by genomic studies, with largely overlapping mutational profiles involving the NOTCH, B-cell receptor (BcR) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling, chromatin remodeling, and the cytoskeleton...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222169/nanoscale-tuning-of-vcam-1-determines-vla-4-dependent-melanoma-cell-plasticity-on-rgd-motifs
#4
Katharina Amschler, Eugen Kossmann, Luise Erpenbeck, Sebastian Kruss, Tillmann Schill, Margarete Schön, Sigrid M C Möckel, Joachim P Spatz, Michael P Schön
The biophysical fine-tuning of cancer cell plasticity is crucial for tumor progression but remains largely enigmatic. Although Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1/CD106) has been implicated in melanoma progression, here its presentation on endothelial cells was associated with diminished melanoma cell spreading. Using a specific nanoscale-modulation of VCAM-1 (tunable from 70 to 670 ligands/µm²) next to integrin ligands (RGD motifs) in a bifunctional system, reciprocal regulation of integrin α4 (ITGA4/VLA-4/CD49d)-dependent adhesion and spreading of melanoma cells was found...
December 8, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221909/maintaining-the-active-zone-demand-supply-and-disposal-of-core-active-zone-proteins
#5
REVIEW
Noam E Ziv
Chemical synapses are sites of cell-cell contact specialized for transmission of signals between neurons and their respective targets. Neurotransmission occurs through the secretion of neurotransmitters at specialized presynaptic membrane regions known as Active Zones (AZs). AZ composition and function are now characterized quite well. Much less is known, however, on the manners by which these unique specializations are maintained for weeks, months, and presumably years. Here we focus on core AZ components that make up the Cytoskeleton associated with the AZ (CAZ) - their lifetimes, their supply and their disposal...
December 5, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221633/proteases-of-sporothrix-schenckii-cytopathological-effects-on-a-host-cell-model
#6
Myrna Sabanero López, Lérida L Flores Villavicencio, Karla Soto Arredondo, Gloria Barbosa Sabanero, Julio César Villagómez-Castro, Gustavo Cruz Jiménez, Gerardo Sandoval Bernal, Haydee Torres Guerrero
BACKGROUND: Sporotrichosis is a fungal infection caused by the Sporothrix schenckii complex. The adhesion of the fungus to the host tissue has been considered the key step in the colonization and invasion, but little is known about the early events in the host-parasite interaction. AIMS: To evaluate the proteolytic activity of S. schenckii on epithelial cells. METHODS: The proteolytic system (at pH 5 and 7) was evaluated using azocoll and zymograms...
December 5, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221156/the-protective-role-of-sphingosine-1-phosphate-against-the-action-of-the-vascular-disrupting-agent-combretastatin-a-4-3-o-phosphate
#7
Joanna Shepherd, Matthew Fisher, Abigail Welford, Donald M McDonald, Chryso Kanthou, Gillian M Tozer
Solid tumours vary in sensitivity to the vascular disrupting agent combretastatin A-4 3-O-phosphate (CA4P), but underlying factors are poorly understood. The signaling sphingolipid, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), promotes vascular barrier integrity by promoting assembly of VE-cadherin/β-catenin complexes. We tested the hypothesis that tumour pre-treatment with S1P would render tumours less susceptible to CA4P. S1P (1μM) pretreatment attenuated an increase in endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayer permeability induced by 10μM CA4P...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218087/the-cytoskeleton-protein-%C3%AE-actin-may-mediate-t-cell-apoptosis-during-acute-rejection-reaction-after-liver-transplantation-in-a-rat-model
#8
Xiaolong Chen, Jun Zheng, Jianye Cai, Hui Li, Shihui Li, Li Wang, Daorou Cheng, Huaxin Chen, Yang Yang, Guihua Chen, Qi Zhang, Yanwen Peng, Qiyou Wang, Genshu Wang
Cytoskeletal proteins and associated regulatory proteins are essential for maintaining cell structure and growth. β-actin is a major component of the cytoskeleton, and β-actin remodeling is involved in lymphocyte migration, infiltration and apoptosis. However, little is known about whether changes in β-actin expression affect lymphocyte cell fate, particularly during acute rejection after liver transplantation in a rat model. In our studies, grafts were harvested on days 5, 7 or 9 after xenogeneic rat liver transplantation...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217769/structural-insights-into-ankyrin-repeat-mediated-recognition-of-the-kinesin-motor-protein-kif21a-by-kank1-a-scaffold-protein-in-focal-adhesion
#9
Wenfei Pan, Kang Sun, Kun Tang, Qingpin Xiao, Chenxue Ma, Cong Yu, Zhiyi Wei
Kidney ankyrin repeat-containing proteins (KANK1/2/3/4) belong to a family of scaffold proteins, playing critical roles in cytoskeleton organization, cell polarity and migration. Mutations in KANK proteins are implicated in cancers and genetic diseases, such as nephrotic syndrome. KANK proteins can bind various target proteins through different protein regions, including a highly conserved ankyrin repeat domain (ANKRD). However, the molecular basis for target recognition by the ANKRD remains elusive. In this study, we solved a high-resolution crystal structure of the ANKRD of KANK1 in complex with a short sequence of the motor protein kinesin family member 21A (KIF21A), revealing that the highly specific target-binding mode of the ANKRD involves combinatorial use of two interfaces...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212889/stem-cell-differentiation-is-regulated-by-extracellular-matrix-mechanics
#10
REVIEW
Lucas R Smith, Sangkyun Cho, Dennis E Discher
Stem cells mechanosense the stiffness of their microenvironment, which impacts differentiation. Although tissue hydration anti-correlates with stiffness, extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness is clearly transduced into gene expression via adhesion and cytoskeleton proteins that tune fates. Cytoskeletal reorganization of ECM can create heterogeneity and influence fates, with fibrosis being one extreme.
January 1, 2018: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212002/going-with-the-flow-water-flux-and-cell-shape-during-cytokinesis
#11
Yizeng Li, Lijuan He, Nicolas A P Gonzalez, Jenna Graham, Charles Wolgemuth, Denis Wirtz, Sean X Sun
Cell shape changes during cytokinesis in eukaryotic cells have been attributed to contractile forces from the actomyosin ring and the actomyosin cortex. Here we propose an additional mechanism where active pumping of ions and water at the cell poles and the division furrow can also achieve the same type of shape change during cytokinesis without myosin contraction. We develop a general mathematical model to examine shape changes in a permeable object subject to boundary fluxes. We find that hydrodynamic flows in the cytoplasm and the relative drag between the cytoskeleton network phase and the water phase also play a role in determining the cell shape during cytokinesis...
December 5, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211777/alpha-conotoxin-buia-globular-isomer-is-a-competitive-antagonist-for-oleoyl-l-alpha-lysophosphatidic-acid-binding-to-lpar6-a-molecular-dynamics-study
#12
Saima Younis, Sajid Rashid
Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 6 (LPAR6) is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) involved in hair development and cytoskeleton formation in mammals. Its proliferation is implicated in several forms of cancer including liver cancer, squamous cell carcinoma and metastatic prostate cancer. Current study emphasizes the isolation of competitive non-lipid and stable peptide antagonists for Lysophosphatidic acid ligand. A total of 148 conotoxin structures were characterized for their binding abilities against LPAR6...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211717/force-loading-explains-spatial-sensing-of-ligands-by-cells
#13
Roger Oria, Tina Wiegand, Jorge Escribano, Alberto Elosegui-Artola, Juan Jose Uriarte, Cristian Moreno-Pulido, Ilia Platzman, Pietro Delcanale, Lorenzo Albertazzi, Daniel Navajas, Xavier Trepat, José Manuel García-Aznar, Elisabetta Ada Cavalcanti-Adam, Pere Roca-Cusachs
Cells can sense the density and distribution of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules by means of individual integrin proteins and larger, integrin-containing adhesion complexes within the cell membrane. This spatial sensing drives cellular activity in a variety of normal and pathological contexts. Previous studies of cells on rigid glass surfaces have shown that spatial sensing of ECM ligands takes place at the nanometre scale, with integrin clustering and subsequent formation of focal adhesions impaired when single integrin-ligand bonds are separated by more than a few tens of nanometres...
December 6, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211497/the-rho-kinase-isoforms-rock1-and-rock2-each-contribute-to-the-development-of-experimental-pulmonary-fibrosis
#14
Rachel S Knipe, Clemens K Probst, David Lagares, Alicia Franklin, Jillian J Spinney, Patricia L Brazee, Paula Grasberger, Linlin Zhang, Katharine E Black, Norihiko Sakai, Barry S Shea, James K Liao, Benjamin D Medoff, Andrew M Tager
Pulmonary fibrosis is thought to result from dysregulated wound repair after repetitive lung injury. Many cellular responses to injury involve rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton mediated by the two isoforms of the Rho-associated coiled coil forming protein kinase, ROCK1 and ROCK2. Additionally, profibrotic mediators such as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), thrombin and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) act through receptors that activate ROCK. Inhibition of ROCK activation may be a potent therapeutic strategy for human pulmonary fibrosis...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209610/perturbation-of-wound-healing-cytoskeletal-organization-and-cellular-protein-networks-during-hazara-virus-infection
#15
Andrea Molinas, Maria V Turkina, Karl-Eric Magnusson, Ali Mirazimi, Elena Vikström
Normal epithelial and endothelial renewal and healing after bacterial and viral challenges are essential for homeostasis along the intestine and the blood and lymphatic vessels. We thus investigated whether and how virus affects migration of human epithelial cells and specifically how the nucleocapsid protein (N) modulates the cellular proteome and interactome using human Caco-2 cells in a wound-healing assay with Hazara virus as a model. Here, Hazara virus blocked cell migration in a dose- and time-dependent manner, disrupted the actin cytoskeleton and specifically reduced the expression of the IQ-motif-containing GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) and water channel aquaporin 6 (AQP6) that regulate cytoskeletal organization, water homeostasis and vesicle communication...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209279/promoting-glucose-transporter-4-vesicle-trafficking-along-cytoskeletal-tracks-pak-ing-them-out
#16
REVIEW
Ragadeepthi Tunduguru, Debbie C Thurmond
Glucose is the principal cellular energy source in humans and maintenance of glucose homeostasis is critical for survival. Glucose uptake into peripheral skeletal muscle and adipose tissues requires the trafficking of vesicles containing glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) from the intracellular storage compartments to the cell surface. Trafficking of GLUT4 storage vesicles is initiated via the canonical insulin signaling cascade in skeletal muscle and fat cells, as well as via exercise-induced contraction in muscle cells...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208644/filopodia-like-structure-formation-from-xenopus-egg-extracts
#17
Helen M Fox, Jennifer L Gallop
The actin cytoskeleton comprises many different architectures of filaments, including branched networks, parallel bundles and antiparallel fibers. A current challenge is to elucidate how the diverse array of actin regulators, which controls the growth, assembly and turnover of actin filaments, is used to orchestrate cytoskeletal organization and in turn cell shape and movement. Long observed to assemble at cell membranes, actin in Xenopus egg extracts recapitulates membrane-triggered assembly at specific lipid and membrane environments...
December 5, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208529/vesicular-transport-protein-arf6-modulates-cytoskeleton-dynamics-for-polar-body-extrusion-in-mouse-oocyte-meiosis
#18
Xing Duan, Hao-Lin Zhang, Meng-Hao Pan, Yu Zhang, Shao-Chen Sun
Arf6 (ADP-ribosylation factor 6) is known to play important roles in membrane dynamics through the regulation of actin filament reorganization for multiple cellular processes such as cytokinesis, phagocytosis, cell migration and tumor cell invasion. However, the functions of Arf6 in mammalian oocyte meiosis have not been clarified. In present study we showed that Arf6 expressed in mouse oocytes and was mainly distributed around the spindle during meiosis. Depletion of Arf6 by morpholino microinjection caused oocytes failing to extrude first polar body...
December 2, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208460/ralgps2-is-involved-in-tunneling-nanotubes-formation-in-5637-bladder-cancer-cells
#19
A D'Aloia, G Berruti, B Costa, C Schiller, R Ambrosini, V Pastori, E Martegani, M Ceriani
RalGPS2 is a Ras-independent Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF) for RalA containing a PH domain and an SH3-bindind region and it is involved in several cellular processes, such as cytokinesis, control of cell cycle progression, differentiation, cytoskeleton organization and rearrangement. Up to now, few data have been published regarding RalGPS2 role in cancer cells, and its involvement in bladder cancer is yet to be established. In this paper we demonstrated that RalGPS2 is expressed in urothelial carcinoma-derived 5637 cancer cells and is essential for cellular growth...
December 2, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208348/nuclear-migration-in-mammalian-brain-development
#20
REVIEW
Chiara Bertipaglia, João Carlos Gonçalves, Richard Bert Vallee
During development of the mammalian brain, neural stem cells divide and give rise to adult stem cells, glia and neurons, which migrate to their final locations. Nuclear migration is an important feature of neural stem cell (radial glia progenitor) proliferation and subsequent postmitotic neuronal migration. Defects in nuclear migration contribute to severe neurodevelopmental disorders such as microcephaly and lissencephaly. In this review, we address the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for nuclear migration during the radial glia cell cycle and postmitotic neuronal migration, with a particular focus on the role of molecular motors and cytoskeleton dynamics in regulating nuclear behavior...
December 2, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
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