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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691404/capping-protein-controlled-actin-polymerization-shapes-lipid-membranes
#1
Katharina Dürre, Felix C Keber, Philip Bleicher, Fridtjof Brauns, Christian J Cyron, Jan Faix, Andreas R Bausch
Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin assembly at cell membranes drives the formation of protrusions or endocytic vesicles. To identify the mechanism by which different membrane deformations can be achieved, we reconstitute the basic membrane deformation modes of inward and outward bending in a confined geometry by encapsulating a minimal set of cytoskeletal proteins into giant unilamellar vesicles. Formation of membrane protrusions is favoured at low capping protein (CP) concentrations, whereas the formation of negatively bent domains is promoted at high CP concentrations...
April 24, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691054/sun-mediated-mechanical-linc-between-nucleus-and-cytoskeleton-regulates-%C3%AE-catenin-nuclear-access
#2
Gunes Uzer, Guniz Bas, Buer Sen, Zhihui Xie, Scott Birks, Melis Olcum, Cody McGrath, Maya Styner, Janet Rubin
βcatenin acts as a primary intracellular signal transducer for mechanical and Wnt signaling pathways to control cell function and fate. Regulation of βcatenin in the cytoplasm has been well studied but βcatenin nuclear trafficking and function remains unclear. In a previous study we showed that, in mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), mechanical blockade of adipogenesis relied on inhibition of βcatenin destruction complex element GSK3β (glycogen synthase kinase 3β) to increase nuclear βcatenin as well as the function of Linker of Cytoskeleton and Nucleoskeleton (LINC) complexes, suggesting that these two mechanisms may be linked...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690642/autophagic-removal-of-farnesylated-carboxy-terminal-lamin-peptides
#3
Xiang Lu, Karima Djabali
The mammalian nuclear lamina proteins—prelamin A- and B-type lamins—are post-translationally modified by farnesylation, endoproteolysis, and carboxymethylation at a carboxy-terminal CAAX (C, cysteine; a, aliphatic amino acid; X, any amino acid) motif. However, prelamin A processing into mature lamin A is a unique process because it results in the production of farnesylated and carboxymethylated peptides. In cells from patients with Hutchinson⁻Gilford progeria syndrome, the mutant prelamin A protein, progerin, cannot release its prenylated carboxyl-terminal moiety and therefore remains permanently associated with the nuclear envelope (NE), causing severe nuclear alterations and a dysmorphic morphology...
April 23, 2018: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689548/nestin-improves-preeclampsia-like-symptoms-by-inhibiting-activity-of-cyclin-dependent-kinase-5
#4
Xu Yang, Yiling Ding, Mengyuan Yang, Ling Yu, Yun Hu, Yali Deng
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific hypertensive disorder that is characterised by a high incidence of hypertension and proteinuria. Podocytes are involved in the formation of a split membrane, which is the last barrier preventing the leakage of protein into the urine. Nestin, a cytoskeleton protein, is expressed stably in podocytes. However, the association between the Nestin concentration in urine and the progression of PE and the role of Nestin in PE remains unclear...
April 19, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689229/tensile-forces-and-mechanotransduction-at-cell-cell-junctions
#5
REVIEW
Guillaume Charras, Alpha S Yap
Cell-cell junctions are specializations of the plasma membrane responsible for physically integrating cells into tissues. We are now beginning to appreciate the diverse impacts that mechanical forces exert upon the integrity and function of these junctions. Currently, this is best understood for cadherin-based adherens junctions in epithelia and endothelia, where cell-cell adhesion couples the contractile cytoskeletons of cells together to generate tissue-scale tension. Junctional tension participates in morphogenesis and tissue homeostasis...
April 23, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689199/arginine-methylation-by-prmt2-controls-the-functions-of-the-actin-nucleator-cobl
#6
Wenya Hou, Sabine Nemitz, Simone Schopper, Michael Lund Nielsen, Michael Manfred Kessels, Britta Qualmann
The complex architecture of neuronal networks in the brain requires tight control of the actin cytoskeleton. The actin nucleator Cobl is critical for neuronal morphogenesis. Here we reveal that Cobl is controlled by arginine methylation. Coprecipitations, coimmunoprecipitations, cellular reconstitutions, and in vitro reconstitutions demonstrated that Cobl associates with the protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT2 in a Src Homology 3 (SH3) domain-dependent manner and that this promotes methylation of Cobl's actin nucleating C-terminal domain...
April 23, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689197/ari-1-regulates-myonuclear-organization-together-with-parkin-and-is-associated-with-aortic-aneurysms
#7
Kai Li Tan, Nele A Haelterman, Callie S Kwartler, Ellen S Regalado, Pei-Tseng Lee, Sonal Nagarkar-Jaiswal, Dong-Chuan Guo, Lita Duraine, Michael F Wangler, Michael J Bamshad, Deborah A Nickerson, Guang Lin, Dianna M Milewicz, Hugo J Bellen
Nuclei are actively positioned and anchored to the cytoskeleton via the LINC (Linker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton) complex. We identified mutations in the Parkin-like E3 ubiquitin ligase Ariadne-1 (Ari-1) that affect the localization and distribution of LINC complex members in Drosophila. ari-1 mutants exhibit nuclear clustering and morphology defects in larval muscles. We show that Ari-1 mono-ubiquitinates the core LINC complex member Koi. Surprisingly, we discovered functional redundancy between Parkin and Ari-1: increasing Parkin expression rescues ari-1 mutant phenotypes and vice versa...
April 23, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688323/silac-based-phosphoproteomics-reveals-new-pp2a-cdc55-regulated-processes-in-budding-yeast
#8
Barbara Baro, Soraya Játiva, Inés Calabria, Judith Vinaixa, Joan-Josep Bech-Serra, Carolina de LaTorre, João Rodrigues, María Luisa Hernáez, Concha Gil, Silvia Barceló-Batllori, Martin R Larsen, Ethel Queralt
Background: Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a family of conserved serine/threonine phosphatases involved in several essential aspects of cell growth and proliferation. PP2ACdc55 phosphatase has been extensively related to cell cycle events in budding yeast, however few PP2ACdc55 substrates have been identified. Here, we performed a quantitative mass spectrometry approach to reveal new substrates of PP2ACdc55 phosphatase and new PP2A-related processes in mitotic arrested cells. Results: We identified 62 statistically significant PP2ACdc55 substrates involved mainly in actin-cytoskeleton organization...
April 24, 2018: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687151/anti-cancer-parasporin-toxins-of-new-bacillus-thuringiensis-against-human-colon-hct-116-and-blood-ccrf-cem-cancer-cell-lines
#9
Elham Moazamian, Nima Bahador, Negar Azarpira, Manoochehr Rasouli
Bacillus thuringiensis is one of the most important microorganisms used against cancer cell lines in latest studies all over the world. This study aims to perform the isolation, molecular identification, and to identify novel B. thuringiensis strains that specifically targeting human cancer cell-killing activities in Iran. A total of 88 B. thuringiensis isolates were recovered from Iran. Upon the treatment of the non-hemolytic crystal proteins by proteinase K, five isolates belonging to three biotypes, thuringiensis, kurstaki and sotto of B...
April 23, 2018: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687107/multiparameter-cell-tracking-intrinsic-cytometry-for-single-cell-characterization
#10
N Apichitsopa, A Jaffe, J Voldman
An abundance of label-free microfluidic techniques for measuring cell intrinsic markers exists, yet these techniques are seldom combined because of integration complexity such as restricted physical space and incompatible modes of operation. We introduce a multiparameter intrinsic cytometry approach for the characterization of single cells that combines ≥2 label-free measurement techniques onto the same platform and uses cell tracking to associate the measured properties to cells. Our proof-of-concept implementation can measure up to five intrinsic properties including size, deformability, and polarizability at three frequencies...
April 24, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687002/identification-of-key-candidate-proteins-and-pathways-associated-with-temozolomide-resistance-in-glioblastoma-based-on-subcellular-proteomics-and-bioinformatical-analysis
#11
Guo-Zhong Yi, Wei Xiang, Wen-Yan Feng, Zi-Yang Chen, Yao-Min Li, Sheng-Ze Deng, Man-Lan Guo, Liang Zhao, Xue-Gang Sun, Min-Yi He, Song-Tao Qi, Ya-Wei Liu
TMZ resistance remains one of the main reasons why treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) fails. In order to investigate the underlying proteins and pathways associated with TMZ resistance, we conducted a cytoplasmic proteome research of U87 cells treated with TMZ for 1 week, followed by differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) screening, KEGG pathway analysis, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network construction, and validation of key candidate proteins in TCGA dataset. A total of 161 DEPs including 65 upregulated proteins and 96 downregulated proteins were identified...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686032/noncanonical-biogenesis-of-centrioles-and-basal-bodies
#12
Catarina Nabais, Sónia Gomes Pereira, Mónica Bettencourt-Dias
Centrioles and basal bodies (CBBs) organize centrosomes and cilia within eukaryotic cells. These organelles are composed of microtubules and hundreds of proteins performing multiple functions such as signaling, cytoskeleton remodeling, and cell motility. The CBB is present in all branches of the eukaryotic tree of life and, despite its ultrastructural and protein conservation, there is diversity in its function, occurrence (i.e., presence/absence), and modes of biogenesis across species. In this review, we provide an overview of the multiple pathways through which CBBs are formed in nature, with a special focus on the less studied, noncanonical ways...
April 23, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685820/mastering-complexity-towards-bottom-up-construction-of-multifunctional-eukaryotic-synthetic-cells
#13
REVIEW
Kerstin Göpfrich, Ilia Platzman, Joachim P Spatz
With the ultimate aim to construct a living cell, bottom-up synthetic biology strives to reconstitute cellular phenomena in vitro - disentangled from the complex environment of a cell. Recent work towards this ambitious goal has provided new insights into the mechanisms governing life. With the fast-growing library of functional modules for synthetic cells, their classification and integration become increasingly important. We discuss strategies to reverse-engineer and recombine functional parts for synthetic eukaryotes, mimicking the characteristics of nature's own prototype...
April 21, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684697/new-arene-ruthenium-ii-complexes-of-4%C3%A2-aryl%C3%A2-4h%C3%A2-naphthopyrans-with-anticancer-and-anti-vascular-activities
#14
Florian Schmitt, Jana Kasparkova, Viktor Brabec, Gerrit Begemann, Rainer Schobert, Bernhard Biersack
A series of four 2‑amino‑3‑cyano‑4‑(3/4‑pyridyl)‑4H‑benzo[h]chromenes 2a-d and their dichlorido(p‑cymene)ruthenium(II) complexes 3a-d were tested for antiproliferative, vascular-disruptive, anti-angiogenic and DNA-binding activity. The coordination of the 4‑pyridyl‑4H‑naphthopyrans 2 to ruthenium led to complexes with pleiotropic effects. Unlike the free ligands 2a-d, their ruthenium complexes 3a-d showed a significant affinity for DNA as demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) and ethidium bromide assays...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683438/visualizing-the-actin-and-microtubule-cytoskeletons-at-the-b-cell-immune-synapse-using-stimulated-emission-depletion-sted-microscopy
#15
Jia C Wang, Madison Bolger-Munro, Michael R Gold
B cells that bind to membrane-bound antigens (e.g., on the surface of an antigen-presenting cell) form an immune synapse, a specialized cellular structure that optimizes B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling and BCR-mediated antigen acquisition. Both the remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and the reorientation of the microtubule network towards the antigen contact site are essential for immune synapse formation. Remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton into a dense peripheral ring of F-actin is accompanied by polarization of the microtubule-organizing center towards the immune synapse...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681215/hyaluronic-acid-dictates-chondrocyte-morphology-and-migration-in-composite-gels
#16
Renu Mohan, Neethu Mohan, Dhanesh Vaikkath
Tissue equivalent collagen-hyaluronic acid based hydrogels are widely used for cartilage tissue engineering, however not much importance has been given to investigate how cellular responses are altered with varying concentrations of hyaluronic acid in gels. In this study, different concentrations of hyaluronic acid dialdehyde (HAD) were combined with collagen to fabricate collagen-HAD composite (CH) gels, and the influence of HAD on cell shape, migration, viability, cytoskeletal organization and gel contraction were examined...
April 21, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678956/local-actin-polymerization-during-endocytic-carrier-formation
#17
REVIEW
Claudia Hinze, Emmanuel Boucrot
Extracellular macromolecules, pathogens and cell surface proteins rely on endocytosis to enter cells. Key steps of endocytic carrier formation are cargo molecule selection, plasma membrane folding and detachment from the cell surface. While dedicated proteins mediate each step, the actin cytoskeleton contributes to all. However, its role can be indirect to the actual molecular events driving endocytosis. Here, we review our understanding of the molecular steps mediating local actin polymerization during the formation of endocytic carriers...
April 20, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678550/low-level-shear-stress-promotes-migration-of-liver-cancer-stem-cells-via-the-fak-erk1-2-signalling-pathway
#18
Jinghui Sun, Qing Luo, Lingling Liu, Guanbin Song
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small subpopulation of tumour cells that have been proposed to be responsible for cancer initiation, chemotherapy resistance and cancer recurrence. Shear stress activated cellular signalling is involved in cellular migration, proliferation and differentiation. However, little is known about the effects of shear stress on the migration of liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs). Here, we studied the effects of shear stress that are generated from a parallel plated flow chamber system, on LCSC migration and the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2), using transwell assay and western blot, respectively...
April 17, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678354/actin-dynamics-at-focal-adhesions-a-common-endpoint-and-putative-therapeutic-target-for-proteinuric-kidney-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Sanja Sever, Mario Schiffer
Proteinuria encompasses diverse causes including both genetic diseases and acquired forms such as diabetic and hypertensive nephropathy. The basis of proteinuria is a disturbance in size selectivity of the glomerular filtration barrier, which largely depends on the podocyte: a terminally differentiated epithelial cell type covering the outer surface of the glomerulus. Compromised podocyte structure is one of the earliest signs of glomerular injury. The phenotype of diverse animal models and podocyte cell culture firmly established the essential role of the actin cytoskeleton in maintaining functional podocyte structure...
April 17, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675785/neuronal-autophagy-and-axon-degeneration
#20
REVIEW
Yu Wang, Mingxue Song, Fuyong Song
Axon degeneration is a pathophysiological process of axonal dying and breakdown, which is characterized by several morphological features including the accumulation of axoplasmic organelles, disassembly of microtubules, and fragmentation of the axonal cytoskeleton. Autophagy, a highly conserved lysosomal-degradation machinery responsible for the control of cellular protein quality, is widely believed to be essential for the maintenance of axonal homeostasis in neurons. In recent years, more and more evidence suggests that dysfunctional autophagy is associated with axonal degeneration in many neurodegenerative diseases...
April 19, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
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