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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549188/eif5a-facilitates-translation-termination-globally-and-promotes-the-elongation-of-many-non-polyproline-specific-tripeptide-sequences
#1
Vicent Pelechano, Paula Alepuz
eIF5A is an essential protein involved in protein synthesis, cell proliferation and animal development. High eIF5A expression is observed in many tumor types and has been linked to cancer metastasis. Recent studies have shown that eIF5A facilitates the translation elongation of stretches of consecutive prolines. Activated eIF5A binds to the empty E-site of stalled ribosomes, where it is thought to interact with the peptidyl-tRNA situated at the P-site. Here, we report a genome-wide analysis of ribosome stalling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae eIF5A depleted cells using 5Pseq...
May 26, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546458/proteoglycans-ion-channels-and-cell-matrix-adhesion
#2
REVIEW
Ioli Mitsou, Hinke A B Multhaupt, John R Couchman
Cell surface proteoglycans comprise a transmembrane or membrane-associated core protein to which one or more glycosaminoglycan chains are covalently attached. They are ubiquitous receptors on nearly all animal cell surfaces. In mammals, the cell surface proteoglycans include the six glypicans, CD44, NG2 (CSPG4), neuropilin-1 and four syndecans. A single syndecan is present in invertebrates such as nematodes and insects. Uniquely, syndecans are receptors for many classes of proteins that can bind to the heparan sulphate chains present on syndecan core proteins...
May 25, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546428/the-myocardin-related-transcription-factor-mkl-co-regulates-the-cellular-levels-of-two-profilin-isoforms
#3
Marion Joy, David Gau, Nevin Castellucci, Ron Prywes, Partha Roy
Megakaryoblastic leukemia (MKL)/ serum response factor (SRF)-mediated gene transcription is a highly conserved mechanism that connects dynamic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton to regulation of expression of a wide range of genes including SRF itself and many important structural and regulatory components of actin cytoskeleton. In this study, we examined the possible role of MKL/SRF in the context of regulation of profilin (Pfn), a major controller of actin dynamics and actin cytoskeletal remodeling in cells...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545845/claudins-are-essential-for-cell-shape-changes-and-convergent-extension-movements-during-neural-tube-closure
#4
Amanda I Baumholtz, Annie Simard, Evanthia Nikolopoulou, Marcus Oosenbrug, Michelle M Collins, Anna Piontek, Gerd Krause, Jörg Piontek, Nicholas D E Greene, Aimee K Ryan
During neural tube closure, regulated changes at the level of individual cells are translated into large-scale morphogenetic movements to facilitate conversion of the flat neural plate into a closed tube. Throughout this process, the integrity of the neural epithelium is maintained via cell interactions through intercellular junctions, including apical tight junctions. Members of the claudin family of tight junction proteins regulate paracellular permeability, apical-basal cell polarity and link the tight junction to the actin cytoskeleton...
May 22, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545352/cytoskeleton-anchoring-of-conformational-mutant-like-p53-but-not-shorter-isoforms-p53%C3%AE-and-p47-%C3%AE-n40p53-in-senescent-human-fibroblasts
#5
Koji Nishio
BACKGROUND: Cytoskeleton anchoring of conformational mutant-like p53 is prominent in human senescent cell. The present research investigated the structural basis of vimentin cytoskeleton-anchoring of human p53. METHOD: GFP-fused wild type p53, mutant p53, those of the various truncated isoforms including p53β and p47, were expressed in the vimentin-expressing cells: mouse fibroblasts, COS-7 cells, young and senescent human fibroblasts, and HeLa cells (non-vimentin-expressing)...
May 23, 2017: Current Aging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544479/drinking-problems-mechanisms-of-macropinosome-formation-and-maturation
#6
REVIEW
Catherine M Buckley, Jason S King
Macropinocytosis is a mechanism for the non-specific bulk uptake and internalisation of extracellular fluid. This plays specific and distinct roles in diverse cell types such as macrophages, dendritic cells and neurons, by allowing cells to sample their environment, extract extracellular nutrients and regulate plasma membrane turnover. Macropinocytosis has recently been implicated in several diseases including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and atherosclerosis. Uptake by macropinocytosis is also exploited by several intracellular pathogens to gain entry into host cells...
May 24, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543319/glycocalyx-bending-by-an-electric-field-increases-cell-motility
#7
Francis X Hart, John R Palisano
The application of physiological strength electric fields may produce a wide range of effects on cells. The mechanisms by which cells detect the presence of these fields, however, are not fully understood. Previous experiments have shown that directionality of cells in the field is governed by an electromechanical mechanism in which the field exerts a torque on the negatively charged, inner glycocalyx that is then transmitted as a force on the cytoskeleton. This mechanism is similar to that by which cells detect fluid shear forces...
May 24, 2017: Bioelectromagnetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542566/proteomic-analysis-in-the-dufour-s-gland-of-africanized-apis-mellifera-workers-hymenoptera-apidae
#8
Aparecida das Dores Teixeira, Patricia D Games, Benjamin B Katz, John M Tomich, José C Zanuncio, José Eduardo Serrão
The colony of eusocial bee Apis mellifera has a reproductive queen and sterile workers performing tasks such as brood care and foraging. Chemical communication plays a crucial role in the maintenance of sociability in bees with many compounds released by the exocrine glands. The Dufour's gland is a non-paired gland associated with the sting apparatus with important functions in the communication between members of the colony, releasing volatile chemicals that influence workers roles and tasks. However, the protein content in this gland is not well studied...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542408/mocap-proteins-regulated-by-moark1-mediated-phosphorylation-coordinate-endocytosis-and-actin-dynamics-to-govern-development-and-virulence-of-magnaporthe-oryzae
#9
Lianwei Li, Xiaolin Chen, Shengpei Zhang, Jun Yang, Deng Chen, Muxing Liu, Haifeng Zhang, Xiaobo Zheng, Ping Wang, Youliang Peng, Zhengguang Zhang
Actin organization is a conserved cellular process that regulates the growth and development of eukaryotic cells. It also governs the virulence process of pathogenic fungi, such as the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, with mechanisms not yet fully understood. In a previous study, we found that actin-regulating kinase MoArk1 displays conserved functions important in endocytosis and actin organization, and MoArk1 is required for maintaining the growth and full virulence of M. oryzae. To understand how MoArk1 might function, we identified capping protein homologs from M...
May 25, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541472/homozygous-deletion-of-sun5-in-three-men-with-decapitated-spermatozoa
#10
Razan A Elkhatib, Marine Paci, Guy Longepied, Jacqueline Saias-Magnan, Blandine Courbiere, Marie-Roberte Guichaoua, Nicolas Levy, Catherine Metzler-Guillemain, Michael J Mitchell
A recent study of 17 men with decapitated spermatozoa found that 8 carried two rare SUN5 alleles, and concluded that loss of SUN5 function causes acephalic spermatozoa syndrome. Consistent with this, the SUN5 protein localises to the head-tail junction in normal spermatozoa, and SUN proteins are known to form links between the cytoskeleton and the nucleus. However, six of the ten SUN5 variants reported were missense with an unknown effect on function, and only one man carried two certain loss-of-function (LOF) alleles: p...
May 25, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541273/nonlinear-mechanics-of-hybrid-polymer-networks-that-mimic-the-complex-mechanical-environment-of-cells
#11
Maarten Jaspers, Sarah L Vaessen, Pim van Schayik, Dion Voerman, Alan E Rowan, Paul H J Kouwer
The mechanical properties of cells and the extracellular environment they reside in are governed by a complex interplay of biopolymers. These biopolymers, which possess a wide range of stiffnesses, self-assemble into fibrous composite networks such as the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix. They interact with each other both physically and chemically to create a highly responsive and adaptive mechanical environment that stiffens when stressed or strained. Here we show that hybrid networks of a synthetic mimic of biological networks and either stiff, flexible and semi-flexible components, even very low concentrations of these added components, strongly affect the network stiffness and/or its strain-responsive character...
May 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539337/altered-expression-and-modulation-of-the-two-pore-domain-k2p-mechano-gated-potassium-channel-trek-1-in-overactive-human-detrusor
#12
Ricardo H Pineda, Balachandar Nedumaran, Joseph A Hypolite, Xiao-Qing Pan, Shandra Wilson, Randall B Meacham, Anna P Malykhina
Background Detrusor overactivity (DO) is the abnormal response of the urinary bladder to physiological stretch during the filling phase of the micturition cycle. The mechanisms of bladder smooth muscle compliance upon the wall stretch are poorly understood. We previously reported that the function of normal detrusor is regulated by TREK-1, a member of the mechano-gated subfamily of two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channels. In the present study, we aimed to identify the changes in expression and function of TREK-1 channels under pathological conditions associated with DO, evaluate the potential relationship between TREK-1 channels and cytoskeletal proteins in the human bladder, and test the possibility of modulation of TREK-1 channel expression by small RNAs...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538690/dysregulation-of-mirna-expression-in-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-cafs-and-its-consequences-on-the-tumor-microenvironment
#13
REVIEW
Maren Schoepp, Anda Jana Ströse, Jörg Haier
The tumor microenvironment, including cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF), has developed as an important target for understanding tumor progression, clinical prognosis and treatment responses of cancer. Cancer cells appear to transform normal fibroblasts (NF) into CAFs involving direct cell-cell communication and epigenetic regulations. This review summarizes the current understanding on miR involvement in cancer cell-tumor environment/stroma communication, transformation of NFs into CAFs, their involved targets and signaling pathways in these interactions; and clinical relevance of CAF-related miR expression profiles...
May 24, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538170/yap-regulates-actin-dynamics-through-arhgap29-and-promotes-metastasis
#14
Yiting Qiao, Jianxiang Chen, Ying Bena Lim, Megan Louise Finch-Edmondson, Veerabrahma Pratap Seshachalam, Lei Qin, Tingting Jiang, Boon Chuan Low, Himanshu Singh, Chwee Teck Lim, Marius Sudol
Yes-associated protein (YAP) is regulated by mechanical cues via the interaction of the Hippo pathway with cytoskeleton. Previous studies showed that YAP plays a role in regulating the actomyosin network by suppressing Rho GTPase in medaka fish. Here, we identify Rho GTPase activating protein 29 (ARHGAP29) as a transcriptional target of YAP in a human gastric cancer cell line. YAP promotes the expression of ARHGAP29 to suppress the RhoA-LIMK-cofilin pathway, destabilizing F-actin. The overexpression of YAP causes cytoskeletal rearrangement by altering the dynamics of F-actin/G-actin turnover, thus promoting migration...
May 23, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538143/openrbc-a-fast-simulator-of-red-blood-cells-at%C3%A2-protein-resolution
#15
Yu-Hang Tang, Lu Lu, He Li, Constantinos Evangelinos, Leopold Grinberg, Vipin Sachdeva, George Em Karniadakis
We present OpenRBC, a coarse-grained molecular dynamics code, which is capable of performing an unprecedented in silico experiment-simulating an entire mammal red blood cell lipid bilayer and cytoskeleton as modeled by multiple millions of mesoscopic particles-using a single shared memory commodity workstation. To achieve this, we invented an adaptive spatial-searching algorithm to accelerate the computation of short-range pairwise interactions in an extremely sparse three-dimensional space. The algorithm is based on a Voronoi partitioning of the point cloud of coarse-grained particles, and is continuously updated over the course of the simulation...
May 23, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537879/increased-expression-of-calponin-2-is-a-positive-prognostic-factor-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#16
Zhaoyan Qiu, Yi Chu, Bing Xu, Qian Wang, Mingzuo Jiang, Xiaowei Li, Gang Wang, Pengfei Yu, Guoxiao Liu, Hua Wang, Huijie Kang, Jiayu Liu, Yu Zhang, Jian-Ping Jin, Kaichun Wu, Jie Liang
Calponin 2 plays an important role in regulating actin cytoskeleton, which is critical for cell division and migration. Previous studies have demonstrated that calponin 2 inhibits prostate cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. However, the role of calponin 2 in pancreatic tumor growth, metastasis and patient survival remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the level of calponin 2 is a positive prognostic factor for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Patients with high calponin 2 expression in the tumor presented less lymph node metastasis and longer survival...
May 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536953/rhoa-and-rhoc-are-involved-in-stromal-cell-derived-factor-1-induced-cell-migration-by-regulating-f-actin-redistribution-and-assembly
#17
Jixian Luo, Dingyun Li, Dan Wei, Xiaoguang Wang, Lan Wang, Xianlu Zeng
Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) signaling is important to the maintenance and progression of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia by inducing chemotaxis migration. To identify the mechanism of SDF-1 signaling in the migration of T-ALL, Jurkat acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells were used. Results showed that SDF-1 induces Jurkat cell migration by F-actin redistribution and assembly, which is dependent on Rho activity. SDF-1 induced RhoA and RhoC activation, as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which was inhibited by Rho inhibitor...
May 23, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536678/the-role-and-mechanism-of-erythrocyte-invasion-by-francisella-tularensis
#18
Deanna M Schmitt, Rebecca Barnes, Taylor Rogerson, Ashley Haught, Leanne K Mazzella, Matthew Ford, Tricia Gilson, James W-M Birch, Anders Sjöstedt, Douglas S Reed, Jonathan M Franks, Donna B Stolz, James Denvir, Jun Fan, Swanthana Rekulapally, Donald A Primerano, Joseph Horzempa
Francisella tularensis is an extremely virulent bacterium that can be transmitted naturally by blood sucking arthropods. During mammalian infection, F. tularensis infects numerous types of host cells, including erythrocytes. As erythrocytes do not undergo phagocytosis or endocytosis, it remains unknown how F. tularensis invades these cells. Furthermore, the consequence of inhabiting the intracellular space of red blood cells (RBCs) has not been determined. Here, we provide evidence indicating that residing within an erythrocyte enhances the ability of F...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536506/axonal-membranes-and-their-domains-assembly-and-function-of-the-axon-initial-segment-and-node-of-ranvier
#19
REVIEW
Andrew D Nelson, Paul M Jenkins
Neurons are highly specialized cells of the nervous system that receive, process and transmit electrical signals critical for normal brain function. Here, we review the intricate organization of axonal membrane domains that facilitate rapid action potential conduction underlying communication between complex neuronal circuits. Two critical excitable domains of vertebrate axons are the axon initial segment (AIS) and the nodes of Ranvier, which are characterized by the high concentrations of voltage-gated ion channels, cell adhesion molecules and specialized cytoskeletal networks...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535417/ezrin-nf-kb-activation-regulates-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-induced-by-egf-and-promotes-metastasis-of-colorectal-cancer
#20
Yingru Li, Zhaoyu Lin, Bin Chen, Shuang Chen, Zhipeng Jiang, Taicheng Zhou, Zehui Hou, Youyuan Wang
There is growing evidence that epithelial mesenchymal-transition (EMT) plays significant roles in terms of tumor metastasis. There are a lot of cytokines inducing EMT of tumor cells, EGF is one of the important cytokines.Ezrin is a connexin between the cytoskeleton and the cell membrane, which is closely related to the morphological movement and metastasis of tumor cells.EGF can activate Ezrin and affects cell motility. In recent years, many studies have shown that NF-kB acts as an important transcription factor, involving in the process of EMT...
May 20, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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