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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454272/dealing-with-the-nucleus-during-cell-migration
#1
REVIEW
Francisco J Calero-Cuenca, Cátia S Janota, Edgar R Gomes
The position of the nucleus within cells is a key event during cell migration. The movement and positioning of the nucleus strongly impacts cell migration. Notably, the last two years largely contributed to emphasise the dynamicity of the nucleus-cytoskeleton interactions that occur during cell migration. Nuclei are under continuous tension from opposing intracellular forces and its tether to the cytoskeleton can be regulated at different levels. Interestingly, it was showed how nuclear positioning is highly related to cell function...
February 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453577/computational-methods-involved-in-evaluating-the-toxicity-of-the-reproductive-toxicants-in-sertoli-cell
#2
Pranitha Jenardhanan, Manivel Panneerselvam, Premendu P Mathur
The Sertoli cell, the somatic component of seminiferous tubule, provides nutritional support and immunological protection and supports overall growth and division of germ cells. Cytoskeletons, junction proteins, and kinases in Sertoli cells are prime targets for reproductive toxicants and other environmental contaminants. Among the varied targets, the kinases that are crucial for regulating varied activities in spermatogenesis such as assembly/disassembly of blood-testis barrier and apical ES and those that are involved in conferring polarity are highly targeted...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453575/regulation-of-blood-testis-barrier-btb-dynamics-role-of-actin-and-microtubule-based-cytoskeletons
#3
Qing Wen, Elizabeth I Tang, Nan Li, Dolores D Mruk, Will M Lee, Bruno Silvestrini, C Yan Cheng
The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is an important ultrastructure in the testis that supports meiosis and postmeiotic spermatid development since a delay in the establishment of a functional Sertoli cell barrier during postnatal development in rats or mice by 17-20 day postpartum (dpp) would lead to a delay of the first wave of meiosis. Furthermore, irreversible disruption of the BTB by toxicants also induces infertility in rodents. Herein, we summarize recent findings that BTB dynamics (i.e., disassembly, reassembly, and stabilization) are supported by the concerted efforts of the actin- and microtubule (MT)-based cytoskeletons...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453540/cellular-and-molecular-toxicity-of-iron-oxide-nanoparticles
#4
Blanca Laffon, Natalia Fernández-Bertólez, Carla Costa, Fátima Brandão, João Paulo Teixeira, Eduardo Pásaro, Vanessa Valdiglesias
Iron oxide nanoparticles (ION) have attracted much attention because of their particular physico-chemical properties, including superparamagnetism. These features make them suitable for many purposes and several interesting biomedical applications, such as to increase contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as drug delivery systems and as hyperthermia agents. However, they have also shown to be easily accumulated in diverse tissues and induce toxicity at different levels. This chapter reviews the different cellular and molecular effects induced by ION reported from in vitro studies with human and non-human cell lines...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452280/sticholysin-ii-mediated-cytotoxicity-involves-the-activation-of-regulated-intracellular-responses-that-anticipates-cell-death
#5
Carmen Soto, Gretchen Bergado, Rancés Blanco, Tania Griñán, Hermis Rodríguez, Uris Ros, Fabiola Pazos, María Eliana Lanio, Ana María Hernández, Carlos Álvarez
Sticholysin II (StII) is a pore-forming toxin of biomedical interest that belongs to the actinoporin protein family. Sticholysins are currently under examination as an active immunomodulating component of a vaccinal platform against tumoral cells and as a key element of a nucleic acids delivery system to cell cytosol. These proteins form pores in the plasma membrane leading to ion imbalance and cell lysis. However, the intracellular mechanisms triggered by actinoporins upon binding to membranes and its consequences for cell death are barely understood...
February 13, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452030/comparative-phylogenetic-and-expression-analysis-of-small-gtpases-families-in-legume-and-non-legume-plants
#6
Ana Claudia Flores, Virginia Dalla Via, Virginia Savy, Ulises Mancini Villagra, María Eugenia Zanetti, Flavio Blanco
BACKGROUND: Small monomeric GTPases act as molecular switches in several processes that involve polar cell growth, participating mainly in vesicle trafficking and cytoskeleton rearrangements. This gene superfamily has largely expanded in plants through evolution as compared with other Kingdoms, leading to the suggestion that members of each subfamily might have acquired new functions associated to plant-specific processes. Legume plants engage in a nitrogen-fixing symbiotic interaction with rhizobia in a process that involves polar growth processes associated with the infection throughout the root hair...
February 16, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451682/metabolic-regulation-of-leukocyte-motility-and-migration
#7
REVIEW
Federica M Marelli-Berg, Maryam Jangani
Dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeleton is essential for numerous cellular processes including leukocyte migration. This process presents a substantial bioenergetic challenge to migrating cells as actin polymerization is dependent on ATP hydrolysis. Hence, migrating cells must increase ATP production to meet the increased metabolic demands of cytoskeletal reorganization. Despite this long-standing evidence, the metabolic regulation of leukocyte motility and trafficking has only recently begun to be investigated...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450740/perfluorocarbon-induces-alveolar-epithelial-cell-response-through-structural-and-mechanical-remodeling
#8
Sofia André Dias, Emmanuelle Planus, Christelle Angely, Luc Lotteau, Renaud Tissier, Marcel Filoche, Bruno Louis, Gabriel Pelle, Daniel Isabey
During total liquid ventilation, lung cells are exposed to perfluorocarbon (PFC) whose chemophysical properties highly differ from standard aqueous cell feeding medium (DMEM). We herein perform a systematic study of structural and mechanical properties of A549 alveolar epithelial cells in order to characterize their response to PFC exposure, using DMEM as control condition. Changes in F-actin structure, focal adhesion density and glycocalyx distribution are evaluated by confocal fluorescent microscopy. Changes in cell mechanics and adhesion are measured by multiscale magnetic twisting cytometry (MTC)...
February 15, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450503/the-mechanical-contribution-of-vimentin-to-cellular-stress-generation
#9
Inge A E W van Loosdregt, Giulia Weissenberger, Marc P F H L van Maris, Cees W J Oomens, Sandra Loerakker, Oscar Stassen, Carlijn V C Bouten
Contractile stress generation by adherent cells is largely determined by the interplay of forces within their cytoskeleton. It is known that actin stress fibers, connected to focal adhesions, provide contractile stress generation, while microtubules and intermediate filaments provide cells compressive stiffness. Recent studies have shown the importance of the interplay between stress fibers and the intermediate filament vimentin. Therefore, the effect of the interplay between the stress fibers and vimentin on stress generation was quantified in this study...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449961/cadherin-26-cdh26-regulates-airway-epithelial-cell-cytoskeletal-structure-and-polarity
#10
Marrah E Lachowicz-Scroggins, Erin D Gordon, Agata Wesolowska-Andersen, Nathan D Jackson, Hannah J MacLeod, Louis Z Sharp, Matthew Sun, Max A Seibold, John V Fahy
Polarization of the airway epithelial cells (AECs) in the airway lumen is critical to the proper function of the mucociliary escalator and maintenance of lung health, but the cellular requirements for polarization of AECs are poorly understood. Using human AECs and cell lines, we demonstrate that cadherin-26 (CDH26) is abundantly expressed in differentiated AECs, localizes to the cell apices near ciliary membranes, and has functional cadherin domains with homotypic binding. We find a unique and non-redundant role for CDH26, previously uncharacterized in AECs, in regulation of cell-cell contact and cell integrity through maintaining cytoskeletal structures...
2018: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449678/cytoskeleton-stability-is-essential-for-the-integrity-of-the-cerebellum-and-its-motor-and-affective-related-behaviors
#11
Rodrigo Muñoz-Castañeda, David Díaz, Leticia Peris, Annie Andrieux, Christophe Bosc, José M Muñoz-Castañeda, Carsten Janke, José R Alonso, Marie-Jo Moutin, Eduardo Weruaga
The cerebellum plays a key role in motor tasks, but its involvement in cognition is still being considered. Although there is an association of different psychiatric and cognitive disorders with cerebellar impairments, the lack of time-course studies has hindered the understanding of the involvement of cerebellum in cognitive and non-motor functions. Such association was here studied using the Purkinje Cell Degeneration mutant mouse, a model of selective and progressive cerebellar degeneration that lacks the cytosolic carboxypeptidase 1 (CCP1)...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449322/actin-retrograde-flow-controls-natural-killer-cell-response-by-regulating-the-conformation-state-of-shp-1
#12
Omri Matalon, Aviad Ben-Shmuel, Jessica Kivelevitz, Batel Sabag, Sophia Fried, Noah Joseph, Elad Noy, Guy Biber, Mira Barda-Saad
Natural killer (NK) cells are a powerful weapon against viral infections and tumor growth. Although the actin-myosin (actomyosin) cytoskeleton is crucial for a variety of cellular processes, the role of mechanotransduction, the conversion of actomyosin mechanical forces into signaling cascades, was never explored in NK cells. Here, we demonstrate that actomyosin retrograde flow (ARF) controls the immune response of primary human NK cells through a novel interaction between β-actin and the SH2-domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1), converting its conformation state, and thereby regulating NK cell cytotoxicity...
February 15, 2018: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447266/engineered-resistance-to-nosema-bombycis-by-in-vitro-expression-of-a-single-chain-antibody-in-sf9-iii-cells
#13
Yukang Huang, Jie Chen, Bin Sun, Rong Zheng, Boning Li, Zeng Li, Yaoyao Tan, Junhong Wei, Guoqing Pan, Chunfeng Li, Zeyang Zhou
Nosema bombycis is a destructive, obligate intracellular parasite of the Bombyx mori. In this study, a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) dependent technology is developed for the purpose of inhibiting parasite proliferation in insect cells. The scFv-G4, which we prepared from a mouse G4 monoclonal antibody, can target the N. bombycis spore wall protein 12 (NbSWP12). Indirect immunofluorescence assays showed that NbSWP12 located mainly on the outside of the N. bombycis cytoskeleton, although some of it co-localized with β-tubulin in the meront-stage of parasites...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446228/integrins-promote-axonal-regeneration-after-injury-of-the-nervous-system
#14
Bart Nieuwenhuis, Barbara Haenzi, Melissa R Andrews, Joost Verhaagen, James W Fawcett
Integrins are cell surface receptors that form the link between extracellular matrix molecules of the cell environment and internal cell signalling and the cytoskeleton. They are involved in several processes, e.g. adhesion and migration during development and repair. This review focuses on the role of integrins in axonal regeneration. Integrins participate in spontaneous axonal regeneration in the peripheral nervous system through binding to various ligands that either inhibit or enhance their activation and signalling...
February 15, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444849/amplification-of-pip3-signalling-by-macropinocytic-cups
#15
Robert R Kay, Thomas D Williams, Peggy Paschke
In a role distinct from and perhaps more ancient than that in signal transduction, PIP3 and Ras help to spatially organize the actin cytoskeleton into macropinocytic cups. These large endocytic structures are extended by actin polymerization from the cell surface and have at their core an intense patch of active Ras and PIP3, around which actin polymerizes, creating cup-shaped projections. We hypothesize that active Ras and PIP3 self-amplify within macropinocytic cups, in a way that depends on the structural integrity of the cup...
February 14, 2018: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444420/perineurial-barrier-glia-physically-respond-to-alcohol-in-an-akap200-dependent-manner-to-promote-tolerance
#16
Sarah J Parkhurst, Pratik Adhikari, Jovana S Navarrete, Arièle Legendre, Miguel Manansala, Fred W Wolf
Ethanol is the most common drug of abuse. It exerts its behavioral effects by acting on widespread neural circuits; however, its impact on glial cells is less understood. We show that Drosophila perineurial glia are critical for ethanol tolerance, a simple form of behavioral plasticity. The perineurial glia form the continuous outer cellular layer of the blood-brain barrier and are the interface between the brain and the circulation. Ethanol tolerance development requires the A kinase anchoring protein Akap200 specifically in perineurial glia...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444145/waggawagga-cli-a-command-line-tool-for-predicting-stable-single-%C3%AE-helices-sah-domains-and-the-sah-domain-distribution-across-eukaryotes
#17
Dominic Simm, Martin Kollmar
Stable single-alpha helices (SAH-domains) function as rigid connectors and constant force springs between structural domains, and can provide contact surfaces for protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions. SAH-domains mainly consist of charged amino acids and are monomeric and stable in polar solutions, characteristics which distinguish them from coiled-coil domains and intrinsically disordered regions. Although the number of reported SAH-domains is steadily increasing, genome-wide analyses of SAH-domains in eukaryotic genomes are still missing...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442770/analysis-of-colchicine-induced-effects-on-hepatoma-and-hepatocyte-cells-by-atomic-force-microscopy
#18
Lanjiao Liu, Zuobin Wang, Wenxiao Zhang, Xinyao Zhu, Li Li, Zhankun Weng
Biomechanical properties of cells are altered by many diseases. Cancer cell metastasis is related to the properties such as the cell stiffness that influences cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. In this paper, we used an atomic force microscope to analyze the colchicine-induced effects on the mechanical properties of hepatocyte (HL-7702 cells) and hepatoma cells (SMCC-7721 cells) in culture at the nanoscale. The cells were exposed to a solution with a normal dose of colchicine for two, four and six hours...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442706/human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-and-osteoblasts-interaction-with-fe-cr-nb-b-magnetic-nanoparticles
#19
Luminita Simion Labusca, Dumitru-Daniel Herea, Ecaterina Radu, Camelia Danceanu, Horia Chiriac, Nicoleta Lupu
The use of materials at nanoscale is currently of increasing interest for life sciences and medicine. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are under scrutiny for a large array of applications in nanomedicine as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Proprietary Fe-Cr-Nb-B MNPs display heating properties that recommends them as potent agents for delivery of local hyperthermia for the treatment of solid tumours. Stem cell mediated delivery represents a safe and accurate modality to target remote or metastatic tumour sites...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442467/intestinal-epithelial-barrier-the-target-for-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#20
REVIEW
Barbara Pawłowska, Beata M Sobieszczańska
Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains are included in 9 pathotypes (pathovars) that present different virulence factors responsible for the patomechanism of infections they cause. As all other intestinal pathogens, E. coli exerts a significant effect on intestinal epithelium. To initiate the infection, these microorganisms have evolved countless strategies to subvert the epithelial barrier and efficiently colonize the intestinal epithelium. The barrier function of the intestinal epithelium is achieved by the presence of a tight junction protein network surrounding individual cells around their circumference that links neighboring cells and seals the intracellular space...
December 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
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