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Diabetes, Hypertension, Obesity

Isabel E Kenny, Sahrai Saeed, Eva Gerdts, Helga Midtbø, Hilde Halland, Mai T Lønnebakken
BACKGROUND: Masked hypertension (MHT), defined as normal office blood pressure (BP) but high ambulatory BP, has been associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Although MHT has been associated with obesity, there is limited knowledge on the prevalence and covariates of MHT in obese cohorts. METHODS: Office and ambulatory BP recordings and other cardiovascular risk factors were assessed in 323 obese participants included in the fat-associated cardiovascular dysfunction study (mean age 48...
October 21, 2016: Blood Pressure Monitoring
Mariangela Marrelli, Filomena Conforti, Fabrizio Araniti, Giancarlo A Statti
Obesity is one of the greatest public health problems. This complex condition has reached epidemic proportions in many parts of the world, and it constitutes a risk factor for several chronic disorders, such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. In the last few decades, several studies dealt with the potential effects of natural products as new safe and effective tools for body weight control. Saponins are naturally-occurring surface-active glycosides, mainly produced by plants, whose structure consists of a sugar moiety linked to a hydrophobic aglycone (a steroid or a triterpene)...
October 20, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Hojjat Rouhi-Boroujeni, Esfandiar Heidarian, Hamid Rouhi-Boroujeni, Fatemeh Deris, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei
INTRODUCTION: Hyperlipidemia, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes are the most important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this systematic review article is to introduce the medicinal plants that exert significant clinical effects on hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and diabetes. METHODS: In this review article, the international research databases including MEDLINE, Google scholar, EBSCO, Academic Search, Web of Science, SciVerse, Scopus (SCOPUS), EBSCO, Academic Search, Cochrane, Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and a Chinese database (China Network Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI]) were searched using the key words hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, herbal, obesity, and phytomedicine, matched by MESH, from their respective inceptions up to March, 2016...
October 21, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Kwame Yeboah, Daniel A Antwi, Ben Gyan
Background. Increased arterial stiffness is an independent cardiovascular risk factor in diabetes patients and general population. However, the contribution of diabetes to arterial stiffness is often masked by coexistent obesity and hypertension. In this study, we assessed arterial stiffness in nonhypertensive, nonobese type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients in Ghana. Methods. In case-control design, 166 nonhypertensive, nonobese participants, comprising 96 T2DM patients and 70 nondiabetes controls, were recruited...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
Prakash Chand Negi, Raman Chauhan, Vivek Rana, Vidyasagar, Kavinder Lal
BACKGROUND: There are no data available on the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD) risk factors among the tribal population of hill state of Himachal Pradesh (HP). The epidemiological study of NCD risk factors was done in the tribal population of district Kinnaur of HP to estimate the burden of NCD risk factors and their risk determinants. METHODS: WHO STEP wise approach was used for screening of the core NCD risk indicators in 3582 randomly selected natives of Kinnaur aged 20-70 years by trained Health workers of the district health services...
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
Vasileios Charalampakis, Abd A Tahrani, Ahmed Helmy, Janesh K Gupta, Rishi Singhal
One of the most effective methods to tackle obesity and its related comorbidities is bariatric surgery. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and endometrial hyperplasia (EH), which are associated with increased risk of endometrial carcinoma, have been identified as potentially new indications for bariatric surgery. PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder in women in the reproductive age and is associated with several components of the metabolic syndrome such as obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension. EH is a pre-cancerous condition which arises in the presence of chronic exposure to estrogen unopposed by progesterone such as both in PCOS and obesity...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Alejandro R Chade, John E Hall
Obesity is largely responsible for the growing incidence and prevalence of diabetes, cardiovascular and renal diseases. Current strategies to prevent and treat obesity and its consequences have been insufficient to reverse the ongoing trends. Lifestyle modification or pharmacological therapies often produce modest weight loss which is not sustained and recurrence of obesity is frequently observed, leading to progression of target organ damage in many obese subjects. Therefore, research efforts have focused not only on the factors that regulate energy balance, but also on understanding mechanisms of target organ injury in obesity...
October 22, 2016: American Journal of Nephrology
S Pscherer, A Nüssler, C Bahrs, M Reumann, C Ihle, U Stöckle, S Ehnert, T Freude, B G Ochs, I Flesch, P Ziegler
Background: The increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus is also reflected in the patient population of a trauma and orthopaedic centre. Diabetics also exhibit more comorbidities than non-diabetics. In addition to surgical problems in these patients, hospitalisation is often accompanied by complications, which can prolong treatment and increase costs. The aim of this retrospective study is to analyse hospitalisation of diabetics compared to non-diabetics, as well as differences in treatment costs, depending on associated age and comorbidities...
October 21, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Finja Jockenhöfer, Katharina Herberger, Jörg Schaller, Katja Christina Hohaus, Maren Stoffels-Weindorf, Philipp Al Ghazal, Matthias Augustin, Joachim Dissemond
INTRODUCTION: Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare neutrophilic, ulcerative skin disease of largely unknown pathophysiology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study, potentially relevant cofactors and comorbidities in patients with PG from three dermatological wound care centers in Germany were evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 121 patients assessed, women (66.9 %) were more frequently affected than men. Patient age ranged from 18 to 96 years (mean 59...
October 2016: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
M Bryant Howren, Jeffrey S Gonzalez
The current issue is devoted broadly to research on treatment adherence and chronic illness self-management behavior. As the prevalence of chronic illness increases, the pervasive problem of treatment nonadherence is increasingly viewed as having a major impact on treatment outcomes, public health and healthcare costs, making this issue particularly timely. Sixteen articles spanning an array of topics are presented; articles include empirical studies, statistical simulations, systematic reviews, and theoretical commentaries...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Almudena Gómez-Hernández, Nuria Beneit, Sabela Díaz-Castroverde, Óscar Escribano
This review focuses on the contribution of white, brown, and perivascular adipose tissues to the pathophysiology of obesity and its associated metabolic and vascular complications. Weight gain in obesity generates excess of fat, usually visceral fat, and activates the inflammatory response in the adipocytes and then in other tissues such as liver. Therefore, low systemic inflammation responsible for insulin resistance contributes to atherosclerotic process. Furthermore, an inverse relationship between body mass index and brown adipose tissue activity has been described...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
Andrew J Beamish, Torsten Olbers, Aaron S Kelly, Thomas H Inge
Obesity is a major global health problem, and its multisystem effects are inextricably linked with elevated cardiovascular risk and adverse outcomes. The cardiovascular benefits of reversing obesity in adults are well-established. Compared with other weight-loss strategies, programmes that incorporate bariatric surgery for weight loss are beneficial for sustained BMI reduction. A marked improvement in cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, dyslipidaemia, inflammation, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, has been observed after bariatric surgery...
October 20, 2016: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Fiona H McKay, Christina Cheng, Annemarie Wright, Jane Shill, Hugh Stephens, Mary Uccellini
INTRODUCTION: Increasing smartphones access has allowed for increasing development and use of smart phone applications (apps). Mobile health interventions have previously relied on voice or text-based short message services (SMS), however, the increasing availability and ease of use of apps has allowed for significant growth of smartphone apps that can be used for health behaviour change. This review considers the current body of knowledge relating to the evaluation of apps for health behaviour change...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
Gisele Farias, Rubia D Thieme, Laila M Teixeira, Maria Emilia V D Heyde, Solange C Bettini, Rosana B Radominski
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is one of the main treatments for severity obesity, but weight regain after surgery is an important issue. OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical and nutritional profiles of good and poor weight loss responders in the late postoperative period after bariatric surgery. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in a University Hospital. Patients were divided into good weight loss responders (GWLR) and poor weight loss responders (PWLR) defined as ≥ 50% or < 50% excess weight loss (EWL), respectively, at least 2 years post-surgery...
September 20, 2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
M Jija Jose, Vipin Varkey, R Chandni, P A Zubaida, Jean Maliekkal
OBJECTIVE: To study the relation of smoking and abnormal renal function in type 2 diabetes mellitus by estimating urine protein- creatinine ratio, blood urea, serum creatinine, glomerular filtration rate and serum lipid profile in selected subjects. METHODS: Diabetic patients who attended the Diabetic Clinic, Medical College, Kozhikode were enrolled in the study. The study duration was 6 months, from July 2008 to December 2008. It was conducted in four groups of 40 subjects: diabetic smokers, diabetic non-smokers, non-diabetic smokers and non-diabetic non-smokers...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Rajkumar Bharatia, Manoj Chitale, Ganesh Narain Saxena, Raman Ganesh Kumar, Chikkalingaiah, Abhijit Trailokya, Kalpesh Dalvi, Suhas Talele
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension (HTN), being a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), is an important issue of medical and public health. High blood pressure (BP) is ranked as the third most important risk factor for attributable burden of disease in south Asia (2010). Hypertension (HTN) exerts a substantial public health burden on cardiovascular health status and healthcare systems in India. Uncontrolled hypertension among adults with hypertension is associated with increased mortality...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Kunal K Sindhu
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by the progressive reduction of glomerular filtration rate and subsequent retention of organic waste compounds called uremic toxins. While patients with CKD are at a higher risk of premature death due to cardiovascular complications, this increased risk cannot be completely explained by classical cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Instead, recent research suggests that uremic toxins may play a key role in explaining this marked increase in cardiovascular mortality in patients with CKD...
October 19, 2016: Renal Failure
Petra Rust, Cem Ekmekcioglu
Excessive dietary salt (sodium chloride) intake is associated with an increased risk for hypertension, which in turn is especially a major risk factor for stroke and other cardiovascular pathologies, but also kidney diseases. Besides, high salt intake or preference for salty food is discussed to be positive associated with stomach cancer, and according to recent studies probably also obesity risk. On the other hand a reduction of dietary salt intake leads to a considerable reduction in blood pressure, especially in hypertensive patients but to a lesser extent also in normotensives as several meta-analyses of interventional studies have shown...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Shou-Wu Lee, Han-Chung Lien, Chi-Sen Chang, Teng-Yu Lee, Yen-Chun Peng, Hong-Zen Yeh
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome has been highlighted as a risk factor for several gastrointestinal diseases, including gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus (BE). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of metabolic syndrome with erosive esophagitis (EE) and BE. METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected from patients who visited the Medical Screening Center at Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan from January 2006 to December 2009...
October 15, 2016: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
Tanmay Mahapatra, Kaushik Chakraborty, Sanchita Mahapatra, Umakanta Mahapatra, Naren Pandey, Peter L Thomson, Arthur W Musk, Ramendra N Mitra
BACKGROUND: Progressive burden of diabetes mellitus is a major concern in India. Data on the predictors of poor glycemic control among diabetics are scanty. A population-based cross-sectional study nested in an urban cohort was thus conducted in West Bengal, India to determine the burden and correlates of total and uncontrolled abnormalities in glucose metabolism (AGM) in a representative population. METHODS: From 9046 adult cohort-members, 269 randomly selected consenting subjects (non-response = 7...
2016: PloS One
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