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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913854/the-role-of-macromolecules-in-the-formation-of-kidney-stones
#1
REVIEW
Jeffrey D Rimer, Ann M Kolbach-Mandel, Michael D Ward, Jeffrey A Wesson
The formation of crystal aggregates, one of the critical processes in kidney stone pathogenesis, involves interactions between crystals (predominantly calcium oxalate monohydrate, COM) and urinary constituents (e.g., proteins), which serve as an adhesive "glue" between crystals in stones. To develop a better understanding of the protein-crystal interactions that lead to crystal aggregation, we have measured the effect of model proteins on bulk COM crystal properties as well as their adsorption on crystal surfaces using three synthetic polyanions: poly(aspartic acid) (polyD), poly(glutamic acid) (polyE), and poly(acrylic acid) (polyAA)...
December 2, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900407/do-inhibitors-of-crystallisation-play-any-role-in-the-prevention-of-kidney-stones-a-critique
#2
REVIEW
William G Robertson
A critical examination of data in the literature and in as yet unpublished laboratory records on the possible role of so-called inhibitors of crystallisation in preventing the formation of calcium-containing kidney stones leads to the following conclusions. So-called inhibitors of spontaneous "self-nucleation" are unlikely to play any role in the initiation of the crystallisation of CaOx or CaP in urine because excessive urinary supersaturation of urine with respect to these salts dominates the onset of "self-nucleation" within the normal time frame of the transit of tubular fluid through the nephron (3-4 min)...
November 29, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894216/bone-effects-of-canagliflozin-a-sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-inhibitor-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#3
Thomas C Blevins, Azeez Farooki
Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), lowers blood glucose by inhibiting renal glucose reabsorption and increasing urinary glucose excretion. It has been reported that SGLT2 inhibitors may have potential adverse effects on bone, including increased fracture risk and decreased bone mineral density (BMD). Across clinical studies, canagliflozin was not associated with meaningful changes in serum or urine calcium, vitamin D, or parathyroid hormone...
November 28, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889417/dietary-zinc-and-incident-calcium-kidney-stones-in-adolescence
#4
Gregory E Tasian, Michelle E Ross, Lihai Song, Robert W Grundmeier, James Massey, Michelle R Denburg, Lawrence Copelovitch, Steven Warner, Thomas Chi, David W Killilea, Marshall L Stoller, Susan L Furth
PURPOSE: To determine the association between dietary zinc intake and incident calcium kidney stones and examine the relationship between dietary zinc intake and urinary zinc excretion among adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was a nested case-control study conducted within a large pediatric healthcare system. Three 24-hour dietary recalls and spot urine chemistries were obtained for 30 participants aged 12-18 years with a first idiopathic calcium-based kidney stone and 30 healthy controls, matched on age, sex, race, and month of enrollment...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882414/systemic-endothelial-function-measured-by-flow-mediated-dilation-is-impaired-in-patients-with-urolithiasis
#5
Esin Yencilek, Hakan Sarı, Faruk Yencilek, Ezgi Yeşil, Hasan Aydın
Some in vitro and animal studies have shown endothelial dysfunction in hyperoxaluria models indicating its role in pathogenesis of urolithiasis and relation to CVD. The aim of this study was to investigate endothelial function in patients with urolithiasis in relation to urinary stone risk factors and metabolic parameters. A total of 120 subjects without any known CVD (60 with urolithiasis and 60 healthy subjects) were included into study. Fasting blood and 24-h urine samples were collected to study metabolic parameters (glucose and lipids) and urine stone risk factors (oxalate, citrate, uric acid, and calcium, pH)...
November 23, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882229/risk-factors-for-osteoporosis-in-patients-with-end-stage-liver-disease
#6
Shinjiro Uchida, Hisamitsu Miyaaki, Tatsuki Ichikawa, Naota Taura, Satoshi Miuma, Takuya Honda, Hidetaka Shibata, Masafumi Haraguchi, Takemasa Senoo, Kazuhiko Nakao
Patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) were evaluated and their clinical features were compared with the aim of identifying risk factors for osteoporosis. Seventy-nine patients with ESLD were enrolled in the current study. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and compared with clinical features in patients with ESLD. BMD was identified to be significantly correlated with body mass index (r=0.430; P=0.001) and inversely correlated with total bile acid (r=-0.228; P=0...
November 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877062/systemic-abnormalities-of-psoriatic-patients-a-retrospective-study
#7
Li Yin, Jia-Li Xu, Ying-Ying Hu, Andrew Johnston, Zhi-Qiang Yin
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory disease related to the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and other comorbidities. However, so far there has been no specific research concerning systemic abnormalities in psoriatic patients. OBJECTIVE: A retrospective study was conducted focusing on the detailed systemic abnormalities in psoriatic patients. METHODS: Psoriatic inpatients data was collected from July 2009 to September 2015...
2016: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876212/alteration-in-oxidative-nitrosative-imbalance-histochemical-expression-of-osteopontin-and-antiurolithiatic-efficacy-of-xanthium-strumarium-l-in-ethylene-glycol-induced-urolithiasis
#8
Padma Nibash Panigrahi, Sahadeb Dey, Monalisa Sahoo, Shyam Sundar Choudhary, Sumit Mahajan
Xanthium strumarium has traditionally been used in the treatment of urolitiasis especially by the rural people in India, but its antiurolithiatic efficacy was not explored scientifically till now. Therefore, the present study was designed to validate the ethnic practice scientifically, and explore the possible antiurolithiatic effect to rationalize its medicinal use. Urolitiasis was induced in hyperoxaluric rat model by giving 0.75% ethylene glycol (EG) for 28days along with 1% ammonium chloride (AC) for first 14days...
November 18, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875079/comparison-of-body-condition-score-and-urinalysis-variables-between-dogs-with-and-without-calcium-oxalate-uroliths
#9
Stephanie M Kennedy, Jody P Lulich, Michelle G Ritt, Eva Furrow
OBJECTIVE To compare body condition score (BCS) and urinalysis variables between dogs with and without calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths. DESIGN Case-control study. ANIMALS 46 Miniature Schnauzers, 16 Bichons Frises, and 6 Shih Tzus. PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed for Miniature Schnauzers, Bichons Frises, and Shih Tzus that were examined between January 2001 and November 2014 for another urolithiasis study or for a urolith removal procedure. Dogs with CaOx uroliths were classified as cases. Dogs without a history of urinary tract disease and with no evidence of radiopaque uroliths on abdominal radiographs were classified as controls...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864113/chenopodium-album-linn-leaves-prevent-ethylene-glycol-induced-urolithiasis-in-rats
#10
Indu Sikarwar, Yadu Nandan Dey, Manish M Wanjari, Ajay Sharma, Sudesh N Gaidhani, Ankush D Jadhav
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The leaves of Chenopodium album Linn. are traditionally used for correction of kidney diseases and urinary stones. The present work investigated the effect of methanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves of Chenopodium album on experimentally induced urolithiasis in rats to substantiate its traditional use as antilithiatic agent. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The leaf extract was standardized by HPLC. Urolithiasis was induced in rats by administration 0...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862070/are-ultrasound-renal-aspects-associated-with-urinary-biochemistry-in-fetuses-with-lower-urinary-tract-obstruction
#11
Ahmed A Nassr, Chester Koh Koh, Alireza A Shamshirsaz, Jimmy Espinoza, Haleh Sangi-Haghpeykar, Dina Sharhan, Stephen Welty, Joseph Angelo, David Roth, Michael A Belfort, Michael Braun, Rodrigo Ruano
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between ultrasonographic renal parameters and urine biochemistry in fetuses with lower urinary tract obstruction (LUTO). METHODS: Data were collected prospectively from 31 consecutive fetuses with LUTO that underwent vesicocentesis for fetal urinary biochemistry between April 2013 and September 2015. The following renal ultrasound markers were assessed immediately before the vesicocentesis: renal echogenicity, presence of cortical cysts, presence of findings suggestive of 'renal dysplasia' (hyperechogenic cystic kidneys with no cortical-medullary differentiation) and severe oligohydramnios (amniotic fluid < 5th percentile)...
November 12, 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853528/recent-advances-in-understanding-and-managing-urolithiasis
#12
REVIEW
Walter L Strohmaier
During the last few years, there has been relevant progress in both understanding and managing urolithiasis. Our knowledge of stone formation has changed; although the importance of urine biochemistry was questioned by several investigators years ago, the decisive role of cellular processes (induced by oxidative stress) and the renal papilla has only recently been generally accepted as the most important step in stone formation. For calcium oxalate urolithiasis, the formation of papillary calcifications plays a key role and is of prognostic relevance...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847293/clinical-value-of-crystalluria-and-quantitative-morphoconstitutional-analysis-of-urinary-calculi
#13
REVIEW
Vincent Frochot, Michel Daudon
Crystalluria is a marker of urine supersaturation with substances deriving from metabolic disorders, inherited diseases or drugs. The investigation of crystalluria must be done according to a protocol which includes the delivery to the laboratory of a proper urine sample, the use of a microscope equipped with polarized light, the accurate knowledge of urine pH, and a comprehensive examination of the crystals, which is based on their identification, quantification and size measurement. For unusual crystals, infrared spectroscopy may also be needed...
November 12, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826645/surgery-alters-parameters-of-vitamin-d-status-and-other-laboratory-results
#14
N Binkley, D Coursin, D Krueger, P Iglar, J Heiner, R Illgen, M Squire, J Lappe, P Watson, K Hogan
: Fracture liaison services often perform laboratory testing, but these results may be altered by surgery. In 40 hip arthroplasty patients, many laboratory parameters of bone health relevance were reduced by 8-22% on the first post-operative day. Laboratory results obtained in the immediate post-surgery interval do not reliably ascertain baseline status. INTRODUCTION: As secondary causes of osteoporosis are common, fracture liaison services often perform laboratory testing in the immediate post-fracture interval...
November 8, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825989/antilithiatic-effect-of-peucedanum-grande-c-b-clarke-in-chemically-induced-urolithiasis-in-rats
#15
B N Kumar, Abdul Wadud, Nasreen Jahan, Ghulamuddin Sofi, Humaira Bano, Shaikh Ajij Ahmed Makbul, Sadique Husain
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Duqu (Peucedanum grande C. B. Clarke) has been used by Unani physicians since ancient times in retention of urine, renal and bladder calculi, nephritis and other associated disorders in different dosage forms. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the study was to evaluate the antiurolithiatic activity of Peucedanum grande C. B. Clarke in experimental model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The experiment was carried out in male Sprague Dawley rats divided into 5 groups of 8 animals each...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821896/vitamin-d-25-oh-d-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-stages-2-5
#16
César Augusto Restrepo Valencia, José Vicente Aguirre Arango
OBJECTIVE: To establish the impact the chronic kidney disease stage has in the native vitamin D levels in patients not undergoing dialysis treatment. METHODS: A study performed in Manizales, Colombia, a city located 2,200 meters above sea level, without important stational variations. Patients with 18 years of age or more, with chronic kidney disease stages 2 to 5 and not undergoing dialysis treatment were recruited for this study. Demographic and anthropometric variations were evaluated as well as solar exposure, CKD etiology and laboratory variables related to bone and mineral diseases...
September 30, 2016: Colombia Médica: CM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813709/serum-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d-as-a-biomarker-of-the-absence-of-hypercalciuria-in-postsurgical-hypoparathyroidism
#17
Luis García-Pascual, María José Barahona, Verónica Perea, Rafael Simó
CONTEXT: Hypercalciuria is an adverse event of postsurgical hypoparathyroidism treatment which can lead to renal complications. The collection of 24-hour urine to detect hypercalciuria is often considered unreliable. OBJECTIVE: To find useful predictive biomarkers of hypercalciuria in patients with permanent postsurgical hypoparathyroidism under treatment with oral calcium and calcitriol supplements. DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804256/urothelium-update-how-the-bladder-mucosa-measures-bladder-filling
#18
REVIEW
D A W Janssen, J A Schalken, J P F A Heesakkers
AIM: This review critically evaluates the evidence on mechanosreceptors and pathways in the bladder urothelium that are involved in normal bladder filling signaling. METHODS: Evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies on 1) signaling pathways like the adenosine triphosphate pathway, cholinergic pathway and Nitrc Oxide and adrenergic pathway will be evaluated and 2) different urothelial receptors that are involved in bladder filling signaling like purinergic receptors, sodium channels and TRP channels will be evaluated...
November 2, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785747/is-chronic-alkali-therapy-in-orthotopic-ileal-neobladders-necessary-a-prospective-controlled-study
#19
Osama Mahmoud, Ahmed El-Assmy, Mohamed Kamal, Albeer Ashamallah, Hassan Abol-Enein
PURPOSE: To evaluate the necessity of chronic alkali therapy in non-complicated orthotopic ileal neobladders with normal renal function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective study that included 200 male patients who underwent radical cystectomy and ileal W neobladder for invasive bladder carcinoma between January 1993 and December 2013. The studied patients included 100 consecutive patients who were maintained on regular alkali therapy since surgery and 100 consecutive patients who stopped the use of alkali treatment after initial 3 months postoperative with minimum postoperative observation time of 1 year...
October 26, 2016: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778049/geographic-location-is-an-important-determinant-of-risk-factors-for-stone-disease
#20
Ethan B Fram, Matthew D Sorensen, Vincent G Bird, Joshua M Stern
Some regions are known to have an increased burden of urolithiasis. Urolithiasis is known to be affected by weather patterns, particularly high ambient temperatures. To identify geographic differences in risk factors, we compared metabolic information for 1254 patients in two geographically distinct regions, New York and Florida, with per sample adjustment for ambient weather. We observed that patients in New York were more likely to have low urine volume, but also lower total urinary calcium (168 vs 216 mg, p = 0...
October 24, 2016: Urolithiasis
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