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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332169/measuring-cochlear-duct-length-in-asian-population-worth-giving-a-thought
#1
Mohnish Grover, Shitanshu Sharma, Shashank Nath Singh, Tanmaya Kataria, Rajendra Singh Lakhawat, Man Prakash Sharma
INTRODUCTION: The anatomy of the cochlea forms the basis for a successful cochlear implantation. Cochlear duct length (CDL) is defined as the length of the scala media as measured from the middle of the round window to helicotrema. Preoperative measurement of CDL is particularly important when precise intracochlear electrode array placement is desired. It can be done both histologically and radiologically. Preoperative high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scan which forms an integral part of cochlear implant workup is a useful tool to calculate CDL using 3D reconstructions...
January 13, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332083/deep-brain-stimulation-interventional-and-intraoperative-mri-approaches
#2
Paul S Larson, Philip A Starr, Alastair J Martin
Interventional and intraoperative MRI approaches to deep brain stimulator implantation are relatively new, and in their purest form represent a distinct departure from traditional stereotactic techniques. They employ a novel means of stereotaxis based on regions of interest in the MR space and simple geometric principles, which eliminate the need for a stereotactic frame. This approach is appropriate for targets that are MR visible, and for whom the local anatomy and function are well characterized. It may also be appropriate for targets that do not have a well-described physiologic signature and for which clinical response to macrostimulation does not play a critical role...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330950/comparative-anatomy-of-bat-jaw-musculature-via-diffusible-iodine-based-contrast-enhanced-computed-tomography
#3
Sharlene E Santana
Noctilionoid bats exhibit an extraordinary array of cranial specializations that match diverse diets, including variation in jaw musculature physiological cross-sectional areas (PCSA), lever arms, and relative contribution to bite force. Although previous research in this group has linked variation in skull shape and muscle mechanics to biting performance, there are still important gaps about the anatomical underpinnings of noctilionoid dietary adaptations, including the degree of compartmentalization of the jaw musculature, and whether and how muscle attachment sites have evolved across noctilionoid species that specialize on derived diets...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327202/transient-disruption-of-adenosine-signaling-during-embryogenesis-triggers-a-pro-epileptic-phenotype-in-adult-zebrafish
#4
Fabiano Peres Menezes, Felipe Machado Torresini, Laura Roesler Nery, Rosane Souza da Silva
Adenosinergic signaling has important effects on brain function, anatomy, and physiology in both late and early stages of development. Exposure to caffeine, a non-specific blocker of adenosine receptor, has been indicated as a developmental risk factor. Disruption of adenosinergic signaling during early stages of development can change the normal neural network formation and possibly lead to an increase in susceptibility to seizures. In this work, morpholinos (MO) temporarily blocked the translation of adenosine receptor transcripts, adora1, adora2aa, and adora2ab, during the embryonic phase of zebrafish...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317040/molecular-breast-imaging-a-comprehensive-review
#5
Ashley I Huppe, Anita K Mehta, Rachel F Brem
Molecular breast imaging (MBI), also called breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI), has been an integral component of our breast imaging practice for over a decade. Unlike mammography and ultrasound that are based on anatomy, MBI is a physiologic approach to breast cancer detection. MBI detects additional foci of occult breast cancer in 9.0% of women with newly diagnosed breast cancer, has a high sensitivity for detecting high-risk lesions, and detects 98% of invasive breast cancer and 91.0% of ductal carcinoma in situ...
February 2018: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310560/staged-palliation-of-cyanotic-obstructive-lesions-with-a-modified-right-ventricular-outflow-procedure
#6
Sarosh P Batlivala, Mary K Hood, Jannika Dodge-Khatami, Divya Shakti, Mary B Taylor, Makram R Ebeid, Jorge D Salazar, Ali Dodge-Khatami
BACKGROUND: Traditional palliation for biventricular cyanotic congenital heart lesions often involves staging with systemic-to-pulmonary arterial shunts to secure pulmonary blood flow (PBF) in the newborn period prior to complete repair. However, shunts may lead to life-threatening events secondary to shunt occlusion or acute coronary steal. They may be associated with morbidity secondary to diastolic runoff, systemic steal and volume loading, and do not provide pulsatile flow which has the potential to promote pulmonary artery (PA) growth...
January 2018: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306738/midwifery-students-understanding-and-knowledge-of-normal-birth-before-delivery-of-curriculum
#7
Clare Davison, Clare Davison, Sadie Geraghty, Sara Morris
OBJECTIVE: To generate new knowledge that describes and explains the views and understanding, regarding midwifery and normal birth, that newly enrolled midwifery students hold at the commencement of their midwifery education. DESIGN: A qualitative descriptive approach was used in conjunction with an anonymous questionnaire. SETTING: A tertiary University in Western Australia FINDINGS: Eighteen postgraduate midwifery students (PG), and twenty undergraduate midwifery students (UG), completed the questionnaire...
December 26, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306473/shedding-light-on-functional-lesion-severity-is-there-a-clinically-relevant-association-between-coronary-anatomy-and-physiology
#8
EDITORIAL
Nils Witt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305610/flow-structure-interaction-simulations-of-the-aortic-heart-valve-at-physiologic-conditions-the-role-of-tissue-constitutive-model
#9
Anvar Gilmanov, Henryk Stolarski, Fotis Sotiropoulos
The blood flow patterns in the region around the aortic valve depend on the geometry of the aorta and on the complex flow-structure interaction between the pulsatile flow and the valve leaflets. Consequently, the flow depends strongly on the constitutive properties of the tissue, which can be expected to vary between healthy and diseased heart valves or native and prosthetic valves. In this work we seek to demonstrate the role of tissue constitutive model on aortic valve hemodynamics. We employ the Curvilinear Immersed Boundary - Finite Element - Fluid Structure Interaction (CURVIB-FE-FSI) method developed by Gilmanov et al...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298341/3d-reconstruction-of-coronary-arteries-from-2d-angiographic-projections-using-non-uniform-rational-basis-splines-nurbs-for-accurate-modelling-of-coronary-stenoses
#10
Francesca Galassi, Mohammad Alkhalil, Regent Lee, Philip Martindale, Rajesh K Kharbanda, Keith M Channon, Vicente Grau, Robin P Choudhury
OBJECTIVE: Assessment of coronary stenosis severity is crucial in clinical practice. This study proposes a novel method to generate 3D models of stenotic coronary arteries, directly from 2D coronary images, and suitable for immediate assessment of the stenosis severity. METHODS: From multiple 2D X-ray coronary arteriogram projections, 2D vessels were extracted. A 3D centreline was reconstructed as intersection of surfaces from corresponding branches. Next, 3D luminal contours were generated in a two-step process: first, a Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) circular contour was designed and, second, its control points were adjusted to interpolate computed 3D boundary points...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298295/synchrotron-microtomography-of-a-nothosaurus-marchicus-skull-informs-on-nothosaurian-physiology-and-neurosensory-adaptations-in-early-sauropterygia
#11
Dennis F A E Voeten, Tobias Reich, Ricardo Araújo, Torsten M Scheyer
Nothosaurs form a subclade of the secondarily marine Sauropterygia that was well represented in late Early to early Late Triassic marine ecosystems. Here we present and discuss the internal skull anatomy of the small piscivorous nothosaur Nothosaurus marchicus from coastal to shallow marine Lower Muschelkalk deposits (Anisian) of Winterswijk, The Netherlands, which represents the oldest sauropterygian endocast visualized to date. The cranial endocast is only partially encapsulated by ossified braincase elements...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297313/a-compendium-and-functional-characterization-of-mammalian-genes-involved-in-adaptation-to-arctic-or-antarctic-environments
#12
Nikolay S Yudin, Denis M Larkin, Elena V Ignatieva
BACKGROUND: Many mammals are well adapted to surviving in extremely cold environments. These species have likely accumulated genetic changes that help them efficiently cope with low temperatures. It is not known whether the same genes related to cold adaptation in one species would be under selection in another species. The aims of this study therefore were: to create a compendium of mammalian genes related to adaptations to a low temperature environment; to identify genes related to cold tolerance that have been subjected to independent positive selection in several species; to determine promising candidate genes/pathways/organs for further empirical research on cold adaptation in mammals...
December 28, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291495/prenatal-and-early-postnatal-stress-and-later-life-inflammation
#13
Jolene Masters Pedersen, Erik Lykke Mortensen, Dinne Skjærlund Christensen, Maarten Rozing, Helle Brunsgaard, Rikke Hodal Meincke, Gitte Lindved Petersen, Rikke Lund
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that maternal psychological and social stress during the prenatal period and in childhood represent an important condition that may adversely impact the anatomy and physiology of the developing child with implications for a number of health-related conditions and disorders. In a large prospective study, we aim to address if social stressors in the prenatal and early postnatal periods, as individual exposures as well as their accumulation, are associated with a range of inflammatory markers in late middle-aged offspring...
December 21, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291241/pseudoneglect-in-visual-search-behavioral-evidence-and-connectional-constraints-in-simulated-neural-circuitry
#14
Onofrio Gigliotta, Tal Seidel Malkinson, Orazio Miglino, Paolo Bartolomeo
Most people tend to bisect horizontal lines slightly to the left of their true center (pseudoneglect) and start visual search from left-sided items. This physiological leftward spatial bias may depend on hemispheric asymmetries in the organization of attentional networks, but the precise mechanisms are unknown. Here, we modeled relevant aspects of the ventral and dorsal attentional networks (VAN and DAN) of the human brain. First, we demonstrated pseudoneglect in visual search in 101 right-handed psychology students...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287139/fetal-interventions-for-structural-heart-disease
#15
David N Schidlow, Lindsay Freud, Kevin Friedman, Wayne Tworetzky
Fetal cardiac intervention (FCI) offers the potential to alter in utero anatomy and physiology. For aortic stenosis with evolving hypoplastic left heart syndrome and pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum with evolving hypoplastic right heart syndrome, FCI may result in maintenance of a biventricular circulation, thus avoiding single-ventricle palliation and its attendant complications. In the case of hypoplastic left heart syndrome with intact atrial septum, FCI may ameliorate in utero pathophysiology and portend a more favorable postnatal prognosis...
December 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286529/unanticipated-difficult-airway-management-in-children-the-consensus-statement-of-the-paediatric-anaesthesiology-and-intensive-care-section-and-the-airway-management-section-of-the-polish-society-of-anaesthesiology-and-intensive-therapy-and-the-polish-so
#16
Wojciech Walas, Dawid Aleksandrowicz, Maria Borszewska-Kornacka, Tomasz Gaszyński, Ewa Helwich, Marek Migdał, Andrzej Piotrowski, Grażyna Siejka, Tomasz Szczapa, Alicja Bartkowska-Śniatkowska
Tracheal intubation may be defined as an artificial airway established in order to provide mechanical ventilation of the lungs during surgical procedures under general anaesthesia, treatment in an intensive care unit, as well as in emergency situations. Difficulties encountered during intubation may cause hypoxia, hypoxic brain injury and, in extreme situations, may result in the patient's death. There may be unanticipated and anticipated difficult airway. Children form a specific group of patients as there are significant differences in both anatomy and physiology...
2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259556/the-oncopig-cancer-model-as-a-complementary-tool-for-phenotypic-drug-discovery
#17
REVIEW
Natalia V Segatto, Mariana H Remião, Kyle M Schachtschneider, Fabiana K Seixas, Lawrence B Schook, Tiago Collares
The screening of potential therapeutic compounds using phenotypic drug discovery (PDD) is being embraced once again by researchers and pharmaceutical companies as an approach to enhance the development of new effective therapeutics. Before the genomics and molecular biology era and the consecutive emergence of targeted-drug discovery approaches, PDD was the most common platform used for drug discovery. PDD, also known as phenotypic screening, consists of screening potential compounds in either in vitro cellular or in vivo animal models to identify compounds resulting in a desirable phenotypic change...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249974/computational-modeling-in-liver-surgery
#18
REVIEW
Bruno Christ, Uta Dahmen, Karl-Heinz Herrmann, Matthias König, Jürgen R Reichenbach, Tim Ricken, Jana Schleicher, Lars Ole Schwen, Sebastian Vlaic, Navina Waschinsky
The need for extended liver resection is increasing due to the growing incidence of liver tumors in aging societies. Individualized surgical planning is the key for identifying the optimal resection strategy and to minimize the risk of postoperative liver failure and tumor recurrence. Current computational tools provide virtual planning of liver resection by taking into account the spatial relationship between the tumor and the hepatic vascular trees, as well as the size of the future liver remnant. However, size and function of the liver are not necessarily equivalent...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246381/the-nuts-and-bolts-of-breastfeeding-anatomy-and-physiology-of-lactation
#19
Natasha K Sriraman
Breastmilk is the physiologic norm for infant nutrition. Despite recommendations from major health organizations, many women in the U.S. are not achieving this metric. Understanding breast anatomy and lactation physiology will allow physicians to gain knowledge of the processes, which control lactation enabling physicians to appropriately manage the breastfeeding dyad. The interplay of hormones involved in lactation and milk management affect milk initiation, as well as ongoing milk production (galactopoesis)...
December 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242276/oral-sodium-butyrate-impacts-brain-metabolism-and-hippocampal-neurogenesis-with-limited-effects-on-gut-anatomy-and-function-in-pigs
#20
David Val-Laillet, Sylvie Guérin, Nicolas Coquery, Isabelle Nogret, Michèle Formal, Véronique Romé, Laurence Le Normand, Paul Meurice, Gwénaëlle Randuineau, Paul Guilloteau, Charles-Henri Malbert, Patricia Parnet, Jean-Paul Lallès, Jean-Pierre Segain
Butyrate can improve gut functions, whereas histone deacetylase inhibitors might alleviate neurocognitive alterations. Our aim was to assess whether oral butyrate could modulate brain metabolism and plasticity and if this would relate to gut function. Sixteen pigs were subjected to sodium butyrate (SB) supplementation via beverage water or water only [control (C)]. All pigs had blood sampled after 2 and 3 wk of treatment, and were subjected to a brain positron emission tomography after 3 wk. Animals were euthanized after 4 wk to sample pancreas, intestine, and brain for gut physiology and anatomy measurements, as well as hippocampal histology, Ki67, and doublecortin (DCX) immunohistochemistry...
December 14, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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