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anatomy physiology

Harry Whitaker, Gonia Jarema
An acerbic footnote in Volume 3 (1818) of the five-volume great work of Franz Joseph Gall and Johann Gaspar Spurzheim, Anatomy and Physiology of the Nervous System in General and of the Brain in Particular with Observations on the Possibility of Understanding the Many Moral and Intellectual Dispositions of Man and Animals by the Configuration of Their Heads, marked the end of the collaboration between Gall, the founder of organologie, and Spurzheim, promoter of phrenology. We discuss the background of this note and the nature of the rift that marked the end of Gall and Spurzheim's collaboration...
October 21, 2016: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
Federico Coccolini, Fausto Catena, Ernest E Moore, Rao Ivatury, Walter Biffl, Andrew Peitzman, Raul Coimbra, Sandro Rizoli, Yoram Kluger, Fikri M Abu-Zidan, Marco Ceresoli, Giulia Montori, Massimo Sartelli, Dieter Weber, Gustavo Fraga, Noel Naidoo, Frederick A Moore, Nicola Zanini, Luca Ansaloni
The severity of liver injuries has been universally classified according to the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grading scale. In determining the optimal treatment strategy, however, the haemodynamic status and associated injuries should be considered. Thus the management of liver trauma is ultimately based on the anatomy of the injury and the physiology of the patient. This paper presents the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) classification of liver trauma and the management Guidelines...
2016: World Journal of Emergency Surgery: WJES
Hasmet Yazici, Sedat Doğan, Mehmet Akif Sönmez, Olcay Eser
INTRODUCTION: Pituitary surgery involving different techniques is often applied to the excision of benign adenomas. Operative interventions involved various approaches and techniques. Endoscopic transsphenoidal approach is the less traumatic route to the sella turcica, avoiding brain retraction, and also permitting good visualization, with lower rates of morbidity and mortality. Although mortality of pituitary surgery decreased by advances in surgical techniques morbidities such as synechiae formation, anosmia, bleeding, nasal septal perforations, drying, and incrustation due to traumatization of the nasal structures such as septum, nasal mucosa, and middle concha are the current problems in pituitary surgery...
October 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Stefanie M Chan, Tatyana F Svitova, Meng C Lin
Contact lens discomfort is a common problem that can lead to unsuccessful or limited contact lens wear. Although many factors may contribute to contact lens discomfort, limited research has explored the influence of ethnicity-related differences in the anatomy and physiology of the ocular surface. Therefore, we performed a search of the literature in PubMed using key words related to "ocular surface" paired with the terms "race" and "ethnicity." The goal of this review was to determine potential areas of research regarding ethnicity differences, particularly between Asian and non-Asian eyes, in ocular surface integrity to advance our understanding of contact lens discomfort...
October 19, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
A G Balliana, B B Moura, R C Inckot, C Bona
Hydrocarbons are the main components of diesel oil and are toxic for the majority of plants. A few plant species, known as phytoremediators, are tolerant of hydrocarbons and can survive the stressful conditions of soils contaminated with diesel oil. Canavalia ensiformis, a plant species that is well distributed throughout the tropics, possesses advantageous features for a potential resistance to soil contamination, such as fast growth and a deep root system. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the tolerance of C...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
John S Halle, Rob J Halle
BACKGROUND: Dry needling (DN) is an evidence based treatment technique that is accepted and used by physical therapists in the United States. This clinical commentary is the second in a two-part series outlining some of the pertinent anatomy and other issues that are needed for optimal utilization of this treatment modality. Part one was an overview of the thorax with a summary of reported adverse effects (AEs) and the underlying anatomy that could be used to minimize patient risk. As is the case with any intervention, the technique of dry needling has some inherent patient risk...
October 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Eric L Vu, Craig G Rusin, Dan J Penny, Kathy K Kibler, Ronald Blaine Easley, Brendan Smith, Dean Andropoulos, Ken Brady
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated ST-segment monitoring to detect clinical decompensation in infants with single ventricle anatomy. We proposed a signal processing algorithm for ST-segment instability and hypothesized that instability is associated with cardiopulmonary arrests. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational study. SETTING: Tertiary children's hospital 21-bed cardiovascular ICU and 36-bed step-down unit. PATIENTS: Twenty single ventricle infants who received stage 1 palliation surgery between January 2013 and January 2014...
October 13, 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Volkan Coskun, Ellen M Carpenter
The last 40 years have seen a remarkable increase in the teaching of neuroscience at the undergraduate level. From its origins as a component of anatomy or physiology departments to its current status as an independent interdisciplinary field, neuroscience has become the chosen field of study for many undergraduate students, particularly for those interested in medical school or graduate school in neuroscience or related fields. We examined how life science-based neuroscience education is offered at large public universities in the Western United States...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
David G Reuter, Yuk Law, Wayne C Levy, Stephen P Seslar, R Eugene Zierler, Mark Ferguson, James Chattra, Tim McQuinn, Lenna L Liu, Mark Terry, Patricia S Coffey, Jane A Dimer, Coral Hanevold, Joseph T Flynn, F Bruder Stapleton
The morbidity and mortality associated with preeclampsia is staggering. The physiology of the Page kidney, a condition in which increased intrarenal pressure causes hypertension, appears to provide a unifying framework to explain the complex pathophysiology. Page kidney hypertension is renin-mediated acutely and ischemia-mediated chronically. Renal venous outflow obstruction also causes a Page kidney phenomenon, providing a hypothesis for the increased vulnerability of a subset of women who have what we are hypothesizing is a "renal compartment syndrome" due to inadequate ipsilateral collateral renal venous circulation consistent with well-known variation in normal venous anatomy...
September 15, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
Ayumi Shiraki, Wakana Azuma, Keiko Kuroda, H Roaki Ishii
Cupressoid (scale-like) leaves are morphologically and functionally intermediate between stems and leaves. While past studies on height acclimation of cupressoid leaves have focused on acclimation to the vertical light gradient, the relationship between morphology and hydraulic function remains unexplored. Here, we compared physiological and morphological characteristics between treetop and lower-crown leaves of 100-year-old Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl. trees (~27 m tall) to investigate whether height-acclimation compensates for hydraulic constraints...
October 15, 2016: Tree Physiology
V Kocaba, O Damour, C Auxenfans, C Burillon
Limbal stem cell deficiency is predominantly caused by severe eye burns resulting in a decreased or a complete ablation of the regenerative potential of these stem cells. The inability to reconstruct the corneal epithelium further leads conjunctivalization of the gimbal-epithelial barrier. These abnormalities collectively result in the progressive opacification of the cornea responsible for blindness that is driven by chronic corneal ulceration and neovascularization. The underlying pathology of the cornea affects the homeostasis of the neighboring conjunctiva, eyelids, and tear film...
October 11, 2016: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
J Stephen Huff, Everett W Austin
Understanding the anatomy and physiology of the eye, the orbit, and the central connections is key to understanding neuro-ophthalmologic emergencies. Anisocoria is an important sign that requires a systematic approach to avoid misdiagnosis of serious conditions, including carotid dissection (miosis) and aneurysmal third nerve palsy (mydriasis). Ptosis may be a sign of either Horner syndrome or third nerve palsy. An explanation should be pursued for diplopia since the differential diagnosis ranges from the trivial to life-threatening causes...
November 2016: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Peter B Terry, Richard J Traystman
Oxygen delivery and carbon dioxide removal being critical to cell survival, mammals have developed collateral vascular and ventilation systems to ensure tissue viability. Collateral ventilation, defined as ventilation of alveoli via pathways that bypass normal airways, is present in humans and many other species. The presence of collateral ventilation can be beneficial in certain disease states, while its relative absence can predispose to other diseases. These well defined anatomical pathways contribute little to ventilation in normal humans, but modulate ventilation perfusion imbalance in a variety of diseases including obstructive diseases such as asthma and emphysema...
October 14, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
José M Torres-Ruiz, Hervé Cochard, Maurizio Mencuccini, Sylvain Delzon, Eric Badel
Xylem embolism is one of the main processes involved in drought-related plant mortality. Although its consequences for plant physiology are already well described, embolism formation and spread are poorly evaluated and modelled, especially for tracheid-based species. The aim of this study was to assess the embolism formation and spread in Pinus sylvestris as a case study using X-ray microtomography and hydraulics methods. We also evaluated the potential effects of cavitation fatigue on vulnerability to embolism and the micro-morphology of the bordered pits using Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to test for possible links between xylem anatomy and embolism spread...
October 14, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Ricardo Zorron, Alcides Branco, Jose Sampaio, Claudia Bothe, Tido Junghans, Gyurdzhan Rasim, Johann Pratschke, Safak Guel-Klein
BACKGROUND: The anatomical and physiological changes after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity can lead to severe hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia with neuroglycopenia in a small percentage of patients. The exact physiologic mechanism is not completely understood. Surgical reversal to the original anatomy and distal or total pancreatectomy are current therapeutic options to reverse the hypoglycemic effect, with substantial associated morbidity. Our group reports a pilot clinical series of a novel surgical technique using one-anastomosis jejunal interposition with gastric remnant resection (Branco-Zorron Switch)...
October 13, 2016: Obesity Surgery
Hong-Hao Yu, Heng Zhao, Yu-Bo Qing, Wei-Rong Pan, Bao-Yu Jia, Hong-Ye Zhao, Xing-Xu Huang, Hong-Jiang Wei
Dystrophinopathy, including Duchenne muscle dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscle dystrophy (BMD) is an incurable X-linked hereditary muscle dystrophy caused by a mutation in the DMD gene in coding dystrophin. Advances in further understanding DMD/BMD for therapy are expected. Studies on mdx mice and dogs with muscle dystrophy provide limited insight into DMD disease mechanisms and therapeutic testing because of the different pathological manifestations. Miniature pigs share similar physiology and anatomy with humans and are thus an excellent animal model of human disease...
October 9, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kenna Degner, Ronald R Magness, Dinesh M Shah
The uterine vasculature undergoes marked changes during pregnancy in order to provide the necessary increase in blood flow to support growth and nutrition of the uterus, placenta, and developing fetus. Pregnancy-associated uterine vascular transformations are orchestrated by a complex array of endocrine and cellular mechanisms to bring about structural modifications at the maternal-fetal interface, which collectively lead to development of the uteroplacental circulation. Understanding intrinsic uterine vascular remodeling in pregnancy is essential for understanding the physiologic and pathophysiologic regulation of maternal uterine blood flow...
October 12, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
Melissa Yit Yee Kam, Li Chin Chai, Chiew Foan Chin
Aponogeton ulvaceus Baker (Aponogetonaceae) is a commercially important ornamental aquatic plant species with traditional medicinal uses. Due to the low survival rate of seedlings, propagation by conventional means has been met with many difficulties. In this study, botanical aspects of A. ulvaceus were examined with regards to the morphology, anatomy and physiology of the plant and an efficient protocol for its in vitro propagation using immature tuber explants has been established. The existence of glandular trichomes on the leaves was discovered and the occurrence of circumnutation in A...
2016: SpringerPlus
Giuseppe Sangiorgi, Riccardo Colantonio, Gabriele Antonini, Antonio Savino, Massimiliano Sperandio
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is defined as the inability to get and maintain a sufficient erection to ensure an acceptable sexual activity for the subject and the partner. Although ED does not represent per se a serious disease, it carries a notable and severe influence on quality of life, with significant implications on familiar and social relationship; DE may cause depression, shame, impairment of personal esteem and relational problems. Among many possible etiologies of ED, atherosclerotic disease of penile arteries represents one of the most frequent causes, so it should always be looked for in patients with multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease or an established coronary or peripheral artery disease...
October 2016: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
Robert J Gillies, Thomas Beyer
Over the past decades, imaging in oncology has been undergoing a "quiet" revolution to treat images as data, not as pictures. This revolution has been sparked by technological advances that enable capture of images that reflect not only anatomy, but also of tissue metabolism and physiology in situ Important advances along this path have been the increasing power of MRI, which can be used to measure spatially dependent differences in cell density, tissue organization, perfusion, and metabolism. In parallel, PET imaging allows quantitative assessment of the spatial localization of positron-emitting compounds, and it has also been constantly improving in the number of imageable tracers to measure metabolism and expression of macromolecules...
October 11, 2016: Cancer Research
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