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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089759/using-pupil-size-and-heart-rate-to-infer-affective-states-during-behavioral-neurophysiology-and-neuropsychology-experiments
#1
Andrew R Mitz, Ravi V Chacko, Philip T Putnam, Peter H Rudebeck, Elisabeth A Murray
BACKGROUND: Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are a valuable research model because of their behavioral, physiological and neuroanatomical similarities to humans. In the absence of language, autonomic activity can provide crucial information about cognitive and affective states during single-unit recording, inactivation and lesion studies. Methods standardized for use in humans are not easily adapted to NHPs and detailed guidance has been lacking. NEW METHOD: We provide guidance for monitoring heart rate and pupil size in the behavioral neurophysiology setting by addressing the methodological issues, pitfalls and solutions for NHP studies...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080966/active-interoceptive-inference-and-the-emotional-brain
#2
REVIEW
Anil K Seth, Karl J Friston
We review a recent shift in conceptions of interoception and its relationship to hierarchical inference in the brain. The notion of interoceptive inference means that bodily states are regulated by autonomic reflexes that are enslaved by descending predictions from deep generative models of our internal and external milieu. This re-conceptualization illuminates several issues in cognitive and clinical neuroscience with implications for experiences of selfhood and emotion. We first contextualize interoception in terms of active (Bayesian) inference in the brain, highlighting its enactivist (embodied) aspects...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076653/recent-advances-in-primate-nutritional-ecology
#3
Nicoletta Righini
Nutritional ecology seeks to explain, in an ecological and evolutionary context, how individuals choose, acquire, and process food to satisfy their nutritional requirements. Historically, studies of primate feeding ecology have focused on characterizing diets in terms of the botanical composition of the plants consumed. Further, dietary studies have demonstrated how patch and food choice in relation to time spent foraging and feeding are influenced by the spatial and temporal distribution of resources and by social factors such as feeding competition, dominance, or partner preferences...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073432/common-urologic-diseases-in-older-men-and-their-treatment-how-they-impact-fertility
#4
REVIEW
Gabriella Avellino, Didi Theva, Robert D Oates
As men age, medical and surgical diseases involving the genitourinary tract become more common. The conditions themselves, if not their treatments, can negatively impact the fertility potential of an affected man. Many older men maintain the desire to father children, so it is critical to understand the disturbed anatomy and physiology involved to properly counsel that individual. Should this or that treatment regimen be employed? Should sperm banking be undertaken before institution of a permanently ablative/suppressive therapy? What are the long-term consequences of one therapy over another vis-à-vis sperm production, sperm quality, and/or sperm transport? In this context, some of the more common genitourinary afflictions of the older male and the treatment options that are available will be discussed...
January 7, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065610/neural-circuit-inference-from-function-to-structure
#5
Esteban Real, Hiroki Asari, Tim Gollisch, Markus Meister
Advances in technology are opening new windows on the structural connectivity and functional dynamics of brain circuits. Quantitative frameworks are needed that integrate these data from anatomy and physiology. Here, we present a modeling approach that creates such a link. The goal is to infer the structure of a neural circuit from sparse neural recordings, using partial knowledge of its anatomy as a regularizing constraint. We recorded visual responses from the output neurons of the retina, the ganglion cells...
December 29, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062725/capacitive-water-release-and-internal-leaf-water-relocation-delay-drought-induced-cavitation-in-african-maesopsis-eminii
#6
Jackie Epila, Niels J F De Baerdemaeker, Lidewei L Vergeynst, Wouter H Maes, Hans Beeckman, Kathy Steppe
The impact of drought on the hydraulic functioning of important African tree species, like Maesopsis eminii Engl., is poorly understood. To map the hydraulic response to drought-induced cavitation, sole reliance on the water potential at which 50% loss of xylem hydraulic conductivity (ψ50) occurs might be limiting and at times misleading as the value alone does not give a comprehensive overview of strategies evoked by M. eminii to cope with drought. This article therefore uses a methodological framework to study the different aspects of drought-induced cavitation and water relations in M...
January 5, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057965/ultrasound-findings-of-the-physiological-changes-and-most-common-breast-diseases-during-pregnancy-and-lactation
#7
REVIEW
Antônio Arildo Reginaldo de Holanda, Ana Katherine da Silveira Gonçalves, Robinson Dias de Medeiros, António Manuel Gouveia de Oliveira, Técia Maria de Oliveira Maranhão
Because of the physiological changes that occur during pregnancy and lactation, diagnostic ultrasound of the breast during these periods is a challenge for physicians. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of imaging, anatomy, and physiology of the breast is important to effectively diagnosing diseases that can arise in women who are pregnancy or lactating. The aim of this article was to review the physiological changes that occur in the breasts during pregnancy and lactation, as well as to describe the main features of the breast diseases that occur most frequently during these periods...
November 2016: Radiologia Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056801/polyploidy-and-the-relationship-between-leaf-structure-and-function-implications-for-correlated-evolution-of-anatomy-morphology-and-physiology-in-brassica
#8
Robert L Baker, Yulia Yarkhunova, Katherine Vidal, Brent E Ewers, Cynthia Weinig
BACKGROUND: Polyploidy is well studied from a genetic and genomic perspective, but the morphological, anatomical, and physiological consequences of polyploidy remain relatively uncharacterized. Whether these potential changes bear on functional integration or are idiosyncratic remains an open question. Repeated allotetraploid events and multiple genomic combinations as well as overlapping targets of artificial selection make the Brassica triangle an excellent system for exploring variation in the connection between plant structure (anatomy and morphology) and function (physiology)...
January 5, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056123/the-interface-of-mechanics-and-nociception-in-joint-pathophysiology-insights-from-the-facet-temporomandibular-joints
#9
Megan M Sperry, Meagan E Ita, Sonia Kartha, Sijia Zhang, Ya-Hsin Yu, Beth Winkelstein
Chronic joint pain is a widespread problem that frequently occurs with aging and trauma. Pain occurs most often in synovial joints, the body's load bearing joints. The mechanical and molecular mechanisms contributing to synovial joint pain are reviewed using two examples, the cervical spinal facet joints and temporomandibular joint. Although much work has focused on the macroscale mechanics of joints in health and disease, the combined influence of tissue mechanics, molecular processes, and nociception in joint pain has only recently become a focus...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052582/magnetically-driven-nanoparticles-18-fdg-radiolabelling-and-positron-emission-tomography-biodistribution-study
#10
Mariarosaria De Simone, Daniele Panetta, Emilia Bramanti, Cristiana Giordano, Maria C Salvatici, Lisa Gherardini, Arianna Menciassi, Silvia Burchielli, Caterina Cinti, Piero A Salvadori
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have received increasing interest as contrast media in biomedical imaging and innovative therapeutic tools, in particular for loco-regional ablative treatments and drug delivery. The future of therapeutic applications would strongly benefit from improving the capability of the nanostructured constructs to reach the selected target, in particular beyond the intravascular space. Besides the decoration of SPIONs surface with ad hoc bioactive molecules, external magnetic fields are in principle able to remotely influence SPIONs' physiological biodistribution and concentrate them to a specific anatomical region or portion of a tissue...
January 4, 2017: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051829/apophyseal-and-epiphyseal-knee-injuries-in-the-adolescent-athlete
#11
P Persiani, F M Ranaldi, A Formica, M Mariani, O Mazza, M Crostelli, C Villani
OBJECTIVES: In the context of pediatric sports injuries, the epiphyseal and apophyseal knee fractures represent rather peculiar lesions. The most frequently involved anatomical area is the knee. The peculiar function of the physis and the need to preserve their integrity, makes choosing what treatment methods to employ very important. Objective of this study is to assess the kind and the effectiveness of the most suitable treatment in the apophyseal and epiphyseal knee lesions occurring in the adolescents...
November 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050345/functional-mri-vs-navigated-tms-to-optimize-m1-seed-volume-delineation-for-dti-tractography-a-prospective-study-in-patients-with-brain-tumours-adjacent-to-the-corticospinal-tract
#12
Carolin Weiss Lucas, Irada Tursunova, Volker Neuschmelting, Charlotte Nettekoven, Ana-Maria Oros-Peusquens, Gabriele Stoffels, Andrea Maria Faymonville, Shah N Jon, Karl Josef Langen, Hannah Lockau, Roland Goldbrunner, Christian Grefkes
BACKGROUND: DTI-based tractography is an increasingly important tool for planning brain surgery in patients suffering from brain tumours. However, there is an ongoing debate which tracking approaches yield the most valid results. Especially the use of functional localizer data such as navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) seem to improve fibre tracking data in conditions where anatomical landmarks are less informative due to tumour-induced distortions of the gyral anatomy...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048477/we-de-206-04-mri-pulse-sequences-spin-echo-gradient-echo-epi-non-cartesia
#13
R Pooley
: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an essential part of clinical imaging due to its ability to render high soft tissue contrast. Instead of ionizing radiation, MRI use strong magnetic field, radio frequency waves and field gradients to create diagnostic useful images. It can be used to image the anatomy and also functional and physiological activities within the human body. Knowledge of the basic physical principles underlying MRI acquisition is vitally important to successful image production and proper image interpretation...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048365/we-de-206-00-mri-physics
#14
Yunhong Shu
: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an essential part of clinical imaging due to its ability to render high soft tissue contrast. Instead of ionizing radiation, MRI use strong magnetic field, radio frequency waves and field gradients to create diagnostic useful images. It can be used to image the anatomy and also functional and physiological activities within the human body. Knowledge of the basic physical principles underlying MRI acquisition is vitally important to successful image production and proper image interpretation...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047719/we-de-206-01-mri-signal-in-biological-tissues-proton-spin-t1-t2-t2
#15
K Gorny
: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an essential part of clinical imaging due to its ability to render high soft tissue contrast. Instead of ionizing radiation, MRI use strong magnetic field, radio frequency waves and field gradients to create diagnostic useful images. It can be used to image the anatomy and also functional and physiological activities within the human body. Knowledge of the basic physical principles underlying MRI acquisition is vitally important to successful image production and proper image interpretation...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047070/we-de-206-02-mri-hardware-magnet-gradient-rf-coils
#16
A Kocharian
: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an essential part of clinical imaging due to its ability to render high soft tissue contrast. Instead of ionizing radiation, MRI use strong magnetic field, radio frequency waves and field gradients to create diagnostic useful images. It can be used to image the anatomy and also functional and physiological activities within the human body. Knowledge of the basic physical principles underlying MRI acquisition is vitally important to successful image production and proper image interpretation...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046410/we-de-206-03-mri-image-formation-slice-selection-phase-encoding-frequency-encoding-k-space-snr
#17
C Lin
: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an essential part of clinical imaging due to its ability to render high soft tissue contrast. Instead of ionizing radiation, MRI use strong magnetic field, radio frequency waves and field gradients to create diagnostic useful images. It can be used to image the anatomy and also functional and physiological activities within the human body. Knowledge of the basic physical principles underlying MRI acquisition is vitally important to successful image production and proper image interpretation...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045225/impact-of-correction-factors-in-human-brain-lesion-behavior-inference
#18
Christoph Sperber, Hans-Otto Karnath
Statistical voxel-based lesion-behavior mapping (VLBM) in neurological patients with brain lesions is frequently used to examine the relationship between structure and function of the healthy human brain. Only recently, two simulation studies noted reduced anatomical validity of this method, observing the results of VLBM to be systematically misplaced by about 16 mm. However, both simulation studies differed from VLBM analyses of real data in that they lacked the proper use of two correction factors: lesion size and "sufficient lesion affection...
January 3, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042819/retroareolar-carcinomas-in-breast-ultrasound-pearls-and-pitfalls
#19
REVIEW
Romuald Ferré, Martine Paré, Lisa Smith, Mélanie Thériault, Ann Aldis, Ellen Kao, Benoit Mesurolle
Breast Ultrasound (US) is an important tool for both screening and diagnostic examinations. Although breast US has benefitted from significant recent technical improvements, its use for the retroareolar region is known to be more challenging than for other locations. The retroareolar location was defined by Giess et al. in 1998 as the region where any lesion is situated at less than two cm from the nipple and/or involves the nipple-areolar complex on mammogram. Understanding of the complex anatomy and physiology of the nipple-areolar region is important to avoid misinterpretation and misdiagnosis...
December 30, 2016: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039880/hunger-games-interactive-ultrasound-imaging-for-learning-gastrointestinal-physiology
#20
Ilana Kafer, William Rennie, Ali Noor, John S Pellerito
Ultrasound is playing an increasingly important role in medical student education. Although most uses of ultrasound have focused on learning purely anatomic relationships or augmentation of the physical examination, there is little documentation of the value of ultrasound as a learning tool regarding physiology alone or in association with anatomy. We devised an interactive learning session for first-year medical students using ultrasound to combine both anatomic and physiologic principles as an integration of gastrointestinal and vascular function...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
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