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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921996/the-cns-connectome-of-a-tadpole-larva-of-ciona-intestinalis-l-highlights-sidedness-in-the-brain-of-a-chordate-sibling
#1
Kerrianne Ryan, Zhiyuan Lu, Ian A Meinertzhagen
Left-right asymmetries in brains are usually minor or cryptic. We report brain asymmetries in the tiny, dorsal tubular nervous system of the ascidian tadpole larva, Ciona intestinalis. Chordate in body plan and development, the larva provides an outstanding example of brain asymmetry. Although early neural development is well studied, detailed cellular organization of the swimming larva's CNS remains unreported. Using serial-section EM we document the synaptic connectome of the larva's 177 CNS neurons. These formed 6618 synapses including 1772 neuromuscular junctions, augmented by 1206 gap junctions...
December 6, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920466/joint-models-for-multiple-longitudinal-processes-and-time-to-event-outcome
#2
Lili Yang, Menggang Yu, Sujuan Gao
Joint models are statistical tools for estimating the association between time-to-event and longitudinal outcomes. One challenge to the application of joint models is its computational complexity. Common estimation methods for joint models include a two-stage method, Bayesian and maximum-likelihood methods. In this work, we consider joint models of a time-to-event outcome and multiple longitudinal processes and develop a maximum-likelihood estimation method using the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm...
2016: Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919570/agreement-between-multiple-breath-nitrogen-washout-systems-in-children-and-adults
#3
William Poncin, Florian Singer, Anne-Sophie Aubriot, Patrick Lebecque
BACKGROUND: Comparability of multiple breath washout (MBW) systems has been little explored. We assessed agreement in lung clearance index (LCI) from two similar, commercial nitrogen MBW setups in patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) and controls. METHODS: The EasyOne Pro (NDD) and Exhalyzer D (EM) were randomly applied in 85 adults (34 with CF) and 97 children (47 with CF and normal forced expiratory volume in one second). We assessed differences between setups in LCI, lung volumes and breathing pattern and diagnostic performance for detecting abnormal lung function...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917930/strongly-confined-spoof-surface-plasmon-polaritons-waveguiding-enabled-by-planar-staggered-plasmonic-waveguides
#4
Longfang Ye, Yifan Xiao, Yanhui Liu, Liang Zhang, Guoxiong Cai, Qing Huo Liu
We demonstrate a novel route to achieving highly efficient and strongly confined spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) waveguides at subwavelength scale enabled by planar staggered plasmonic waveguides (PSPWs). The structure of these new waveguides consists of an ultrathin metallic strip with periodic subwavelength staggered double groove arrays supported by a flexible dielectric substrate, leading to unique staggered EM coupling and waveguiding phenomenon. The spoof SPP propagation properties, including dispersion relations and near field distributions, are numerically investigated...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917623/impact-of-ige-mediated-food-allergy-on-parental-quality-of-life-in-iranian-patients
#5
Seyed Mohammad Fathi, Marzieh Tavakol, Nima Rezaei, Masoud Movahedi, Asghar Aghamohammadi, Mansoureh Shariat, Bamdad Sadeghi, Nasrin Behniafard, Behzad Darabi, Alireza Hajikhani, Ibrahim Abdollahpour, Mohammad Gharagozlou
Food allergy is a common disorder especially in the first years of life. Strict avoidance of the responsible food is the most effective therapeutic measure so far. But this continuous vigilance could be stressful for the patient and family and decreases their quality of life (QOL). This survey was designed to evaluate the impact of IgE-mediated food allergy on parental QOL in Iranian patients and to develop a valid Persian version of "Food Allergy Quality Of Life- Parental Burden (FAQL-PB) questionnaire". 90 patients (28 females, 62 males) and their parents who were referred to the clinic of Allergy in Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran were enrolled...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916082/-effects-of-ammonium-pyrrolidine-dithiocarbamate-pdtc-on-osteopontin-expression-and-autophagy-in-tubular-cells-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-nephropathy-rat
#6
S Gao, J Y Jia, T K Yan, Y M Yu, W Y Shang, L Wei, Z F Zheng, P Fang, B C Chang, S Lin
Objective: To investigate the effects of ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) on tubulointerstitial inflammatory molecules and autophagy in diabetic nephropathy (DN) rats. Methods: Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to DN group (n=6) and DN+ PDTC group (n=6, PDTC, ip, 100 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)), all received streptozotocin (STZ) 60 mg/kg intraperitoneally, and the other 12 rats were randomly divided into control group (n=6) and PDTC group (n=6). At the end of 12 weeks, after serum creatine (Scr) and 24-hour urinary protein were determined, rats were sacrificed to determined the renal pathological damages and the changes of nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65, p62, osteopontin (OPN), microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ, nuclear p-NF-κB p65 by immunohistological stainning and Western blot, and ultrastructural changes of autophagic process was observed by electron microscopy (EM)...
November 29, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915121/predicting-individual-brain-functional-connectivity-using-a-bayesian-hierarchical-model
#7
Tian Dai, Ying Guo
Network-oriented analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), especially resting-state fMRI, has revealed important association between abnormal connectivity and brain disorders such as schizophrenia, major depression and Alzheimer's disease. Imaging-based brain connectivity measures have become a useful tool for investigating the pathophysiology, progression and treatment response of psychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Recent studies have started to explore the possibility of using functional neuroimaging to help predict disease progression and guide treatment selection for individual patients...
November 30, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914893/near-atomic-resolution-structure-determination-of-a-cypovirus-capsid-and-polymerase-complex-using-cryo-em-at-200kv
#8
Xiaowu Li, Niyun Zhou, Wenyuan Chen, Bin Zhu, Xurong Wang, Bin Xu, Jiawei Wang, Hongrong Liu, Lingpeng Cheng
Single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) allows high-resolution structural determination of biological assemblies in a near-native environment. However, all high-resolution (better than 3.5Å) cryo-EM structures reported to date were obtained by using 300kV transmission electron microscopes (TEMs). We report here the structures of a cypovirus capsid of 750Å diameter at 3.3Å resolution and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) complexes within the capsid at 3.9Å resolution using a 200kV TEM. The newly resolved structure revealed conformational changes of two subdomains in the RdRp...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913592/complexin-mutants-reveal-partial-segregation-between-recycling-pathways-that-drive-evoked-and-spontaneous-neurotransmission
#9
Nadezhda Sabeva, Richard W Cho, Alexander Vasin, Agustin Gonzalez, J Troy Littleton, Maria Bykhovskaia
: Synaptic vesicles fuse at morphological specializations in the presynaptic terminal termed active zones (AZs). Vesicle fusion can occur spontaneously or in response to an action potential. Following fusion, vesicles are retrieved and recycled within nerve terminals. It is still unclear whether vesicles that fuse spontaneously or following evoked release share similar recycling mechanisms. Genetic deletion of the SNARE-binding protein complexin dramatically increases spontaneous fusion, with the protein serving as the synaptic vesicle fusion clamp at Drosophila synapses...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913332/a-method-for-accurate-modeling-of-baw-filters-at-high-power-levels
#10
Andreas Tag, Vikrant Chauhan, Christian Huck, Bernhard Bader, Dominik Karolewski, F Maximilian Pitschi, Robert Weigel, Amelie Hagelauer
A novel approach for multiphysics modeling of bulk acoustic wave (BAW) filters is presented allowing accurate and at the same time efficient modeling of BAW filters at high power levels. The approach takes the different types of losses and their spatial distribution into account in order to provide the required input for thermal simulation. The temperature distribution determined by thermal simulation is used to modify the geometry and the layer stack of each single resonator of the filter. In this way, the required input for modeling of electromagnetic (EM) and acoustic behavior at high power level is generated...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913093/genome-of-the-carbapenemase-producing-clinical-isolate-elizabethkingia-miricola-em_chuv-and-comparative-genomics-with-elizabethkingia-meningoseptica-and-elizabethkingia-anophelis-evidence-for-intrinsic-multidrug-resistance-trait-of-emerging-pathogens
#11
Onya Opota, Seydina M Diene, Claire Bertelli, Guy Prod'hom, Philippe Eckert, Gilbert Greub
Elizabethkingia miricola is a Gram-negative non-fermenting rod emerging as a life-threatening human pathogen. The multidrug-resistant (MDR) carbapenemase-producing clinical isolate E. miricola EM_CHUV was recovered in the setting of severe nosocomial pneumonia. In this study, the genome of E. miricola EM_CHUV was sequenced and a functional analysis was performed, including a comparative genomic study with Elizabethkingia meningoseptica and Elizabethkingia anophelis. The resistome of EM_CHUV revealed the presence of a high number of resistance genes, including the presence of the blaGOB-13 and blaB-9 carbapenemase-encoding genes...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912063/structure-of-mammalian-respiratory-supercomplex-i1iii2iv1
#12
Meng Wu, Jinke Gu, Runyu Guo, Yushen Huang, Maojun Yang
The mammalian respiratory chain complexes assemble into supercomplexes (SCs) and reside in the inner mitochondrial membrane to transfer electrons and establish the proton gradient for complex V to synthesize ATP. The precise arrangement of SCs is largely unknown. Here, we report a 4.0-Å cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the major SC in porcine heart, the 1.7-MDa SCI1III2IV1. The complex III (CIII) dimer and complex IV (CIV) bind at the same side of the L-shaped complex I (CI). Several accessory or supernumerary subunits of CI, such as NDUFA11, NDUFB4, NDUFB8, and NDUFB9, directly contribute to the oligomerization of CI, CIII, and CIV...
December 1, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912054/inner-secrets-of-the-respirasome
#13
Andrew Melber, Dennis R Winge
Structure determination by cryo-electron microscopy has approached atomic resolution and helped solve structures of large membrane-protein complexes that resisted crystallography. The 4.0 Å cryo-EM structure of one of the most intricate enzyme systems, the respirasome, in the mitochondrial inner membrane is reported in this issue of Cell.
December 1, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909983/4-4-%C3%A3-resolution-cryo-em-structure-of-human-mtor-complex-1
#14
Huirong Yang, Jia Wang, Mengjie Liu, Xizi Chen, Min Huang, Dan Tan, Meng-Qiu Dong, Catherine C L Wong, Jiawei Wang, Yanhui Xu, Hong-Wei Wang
Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) integrates signals from growth factors, cellular energy levels, stress and amino acids to control cell growth and proliferation through regulating translation, autophagy and metabolism. Here we determined the cryo-electron microscopy structure of human mTORC1 at 4.4 Å resolution. The mTORC1 comprises a dimer of heterotrimer (mTOR-Raptor-mLST8) mediated by the mTOR protein. The complex adopts a hollow rhomboid shape with 2-fold symmetry. Notably, mTORC1 shows intrinsic conformational dynamics...
December 1, 2016: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909035/randomised-controlled-pilot-study-to-investigate-the-effectiveness-of-thoracic-epidural-and-paravertebral-blockade-in-reducing-chronic-post-thoracotomy-pain-topic-feasibility-study-protocol
#15
Joyce Yeung, Teresa Melody, Amy Kerr, Babu Naidu, Lee Middleton, Kostas Tryposkiadis, Jane Daniels, Fang Gao
INTRODUCTION: Open chest surgery (thoracotomy) is considered the most painful of surgical procedures. Forceful wound retraction, costochondral dislocation, posterior costovertebral ligament disruption, intercostal nerve trauma and wound movement during respiration combine to produce an acute, severe postoperative pain insult and persistent chronic pain many months after surgery is common. Three recent systematic reviews conclude that unilateral continuous paravertebral blockade (PVB) provides analgesia at least equivalent to thoracic epidural blockade (TEB) in the postoperative period, has a lower failure rate, and symptom relief that lasted months...
December 1, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908169/flexible-mini-gamma-camera-reconstructions-of-extended-sources-using-step-and-shoot-and-list-mode
#16
José Gardiazabal, Philipp Matthies, Jakob Vogel, Benjamin Frisch, Nassir Navab, Sibylle Ziegler, Tobias Lasser
PURPOSE: Hand- and robot-guided mini gamma cameras have been introduced for the acquisition of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. Less cumbersome than whole-body scanners, they allow for a fast acquisition of the radioactivity distribution, for example, to differentiate cancerous from hormonally hyperactive lesions inside the thyroid. This work compares acquisition protocols and reconstruction algorithms in an attempt to identify the most suitable approach for fast acquisition and efficient image reconstruction, suitable for localization of extended sources, such as lesions inside the thyroid...
December 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908149/real-time-electromagnetic-seed-drop-detection-for-permanent-implants-brachytherapy-technology-overview-and-performance-assessment
#17
E Racine, G Hautvast, D Binnekamp, L Beaulieu
PURPOSE: To describe the principles and report on the performance of a novel real-time electromagnetic (EM) seed drop detection technology for permanent implants brachytherapy procedures. METHODS: A novel EM hollow needle prototype was recently developed by Philips. It possesses standard 3D tracking capability as well as a seed drop detection mechanism, both performed from a single custom built EM sensor. The detection mechanism is based on the magnetic permeability changes in the sensor as the seeds pass through...
December 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906353/achieving-flexible-low-scattering-metasurface-based-on-randomly-distribution-of-meta-elements
#18
Junming Zhao, Boyu Sima, Nan Jia, Cheng Wang, Bo Zhu, Tian Jiang, Yijun Feng
In the paper, a flexible low-scattering metasurface is proposed and realized. The layout is composed of similar "#" shaped elements with variable sizes which are randomly distributed along the surface. The various dimensions of the meta-elements lead to different reflection phases for the meta-elements with respect to the incident plane wave, resulting a diffuse reflection surface and exhibiting a broadband backward low-scattering property. In consideration of the flexibility, metasurfaces composed of printed metallic element films attaching with flexible substrate are designed, fabricated and measured in microwave domain...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905588/phase-specific-dispersion-of-functional-nanoparticles-in-soft-nanocomposites-resulting-in-enhanced-electromagnetic-screening-ability-dominated-by-absorption
#19
Aishwarya V Menon, Giridhar Madras, Suryasarathi Bose
The effect of phase specific localisation of MWNTs (multiwalled carbon nanotubes) and magnetic FeNi (iron-nickel) alloy particles on bulk electrical conductivity and electromagnetic (EM) wave attenuation was investigated in biphasic co-continuous blends of PVDF/SMA (polyvinylidene fluoride/styrene maleic anhydride). It is envisaged that packing different functional nanoparticles in a given phase of a co-continuous blend can impede the charge transport phenomenon and the overall dispersion state. Therefore, phase specific localisation can facilitate the tuning of the functional properties in biphasic blends...
December 1, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905396/atomic-structure-of-the-innexin-6-gap-junction-channel-determined-by-cryo-em
#20
Atsunori Oshima, Kazutoshi Tani, Yoshinori Fujiyoshi
Innexins, a large protein family comprising invertebrate gap junction channels, play an essential role in nervous system development and electrical synapse formation. Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy structures of Caenorhabditis elegans innexin-6 (INX-6) gap junction channels at atomic resolution. We find that the arrangements of the transmembrane helices and extracellular loops of the INX-6 monomeric structure are highly similar to those of connexin-26 (Cx26), despite the lack of significant sequence similarity...
December 1, 2016: Nature Communications
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