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Guillermo Chiappe, Enrique Louis, J A Verges
Electronic polarizability of finite chains is accurately calculated from the total energy
 variation of the system produced by small but finite static electric fields applied
 along the chain direction. Normalized polarizability, that is, polarizability divided
 by chain length, diverges as the second power of length for metallic systems but
 approaches a constant value for insulating systems. This behaviour provides a very convenient
 way to characterize the wave--function malleability of finite systems as it avoids the
 need of attaching infinite contacts to the chain ends...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Caitlin Weaver, Alexander Baker, Matthew Davis, Anna Miller, Joel D Stitzel
Pelvic fractures are serious injuries resulting in high mortality and morbidity. The objective of this study is to develop and validate local pelvic anatomical, cross-section-based injury risk metrics for a finite element (FE) model of the human body. Cross-sectional instrumentation was implemented in the pelvic region of the Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC M50-O) 50th percentile detailed male FE model (v4.3). In total, 25 lateral impact FE simulations were performed using input data from cadaveric lateral impact tests performed by Bouquet et al...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Fareen Zaver, Nicole Battaglioli, William Denq, Anne Messman, Arlene Chung, Michelle Lin, Emberlynn L Liu
Introduction: Burnout, depression, and suicidality among residents of all specialties have become a critical focus for the medical education community, especially among learners in graduate medical education. In 2017 the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) updated the Common Program Requirements to focus more on resident wellbeing. To address this issue, one working group from the 2017 Resident Wellness Consensus Summit (RWCS) focused on wellness program innovations and initiatives in emergency medicine (EM) residency programs...
March 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Nicole Battaglioli, Felix Ankel, Christopher I Doty, Arlene Chung, Michelle Lin
Introduction: Physician wellness has recently become a popular topic of conversation and publication within the house of medicine and specifically within emergency medicine (EM). Through a joint collaboration involving Academic Life in Emergency Medicine's (ALiEM) Wellness Think Tank, Essentials of Emergency Medicine (EEM), and the Emergency Medicine Residents' Association (EMRA), a one-day Resident Wellness Consensus Summit (RWCS) was organized. Methods: The RWCS was held on May 15, 2017, as a pre-day event prior to the 2017 EEM conference in Las Vegas, Nevada...
March 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Xuejuan Wang, Salar Ahmad, Zhihui Zhang, Jacques Côté, Gang Cai
The NuA4/TIP60 acetyltransferase complex is required for gene regulation, DNA repair and cell cycle progression. The limited structural information impeded understanding of NuA4/TIP60 assembly and regulatory mechanism. Here, we report the 4.7 Å cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of a NuA4/TIP60 TEEAA assembly (Tra1, Eaf1, Eaf5, actin and Arp4) and the 7.6 Å cryo-EM structure of a TEEAA-piccolo assembly (Esa1, Epl1, Yng2 and Eaf6). The Tra1 and Eaf1 constitute the assembly scaffold. The Eaf1 SANT domain tightly binds to the LBE and FATC domains of Tra1 by ionic interactions...
March 20, 2018: Nature Communications
Reyhan Amode, Saskia Ingen-Housz-Oro, Nicolas Ortonne, Touda Bounfour, Sabine Pereyre, Frédéric Schlemmer, Emilie Bequignon, Gérard Royer, Pierre Wolkenstein, Olivier Chosidow
BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) infection has been documented in erythema multiforme (EM) and Stevens-Johnson syndrome-toxic epidermal necrosis (SJS-TEN). Clinical aspects of MP-related EM (MP-EM) have been poorly described in the literature. OBJECTIVE: To highlight differences between MP-EM and non-MP-EM. METHODS: This monocenter retrospective cohort study included all the patients admitted for EM from 2000 to 2015 in our dermatology department...
March 17, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Weilin Zeng, Ling Sun, Zheng Xiang, Na Li, Jie Zhang, Yongshu He, Qing Li, Fang Yang, Jingling Song, James Morris, Benjamin M Rosenthal, Le Sun, Huaie Liu, Zhaoqing Yang
While Sarcocystis parasites from the muscles of donkey and horse have been characterized as different species, similarities between the parasites in these host raises questions about this assignment (Levine and Tadros, 1980; Matuschka, 1983; Odening et al., 1995b). To resolve this, we examined the tissue cysts of Sarcocystis collected from donkeys and horses were studied by morphological and molecular methods. Morphological studies performed by light microscopy (LM) revealed that each of two types of cysts were present in samples from each host type...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Tiffany L Hutchins, Patricia A Prelock
Episodic memory (EM) and scene construction are critical for organizing and understanding personally experienced events and for developing several aspects of social cognition including self-concept, identity, introspection, future thinking, counterfactual reasoning, theory of mind, self-regulation, flexible problem-solving, and socially adaptive behavior. This article challenges the reader to think differently about EM in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as we expand our understanding of autobiographical memory that requires an ability to travel back in time and re-experience an event...
April 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Caixia Hou, Tapan Biswas, Oleg Tsodikov
Bacterial primase DnaG is an essential nucleic acid polymerase that generates primers for replication of chromosomal DNA. The mechanism of DnaG remains unclear, due to the paucity of structural information on DnaG in complexes with other replisome components. Here we report the first crystal structures of noncovalent DnaG-DNA complexes, obtained with the RNA polymerase domain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DnaG and various DNA ligands. One structure, obtained with ds DNA, reveals interactions with DnaG as it slides on ds DNA and suggests how DnaG binds template for primer synthesis...
March 20, 2018: Biochemistry
Dejian Zhou, Xing Zhu, Sanduo Zheng, Dan Tan, Meng-Qiu Dong, Keqiong Ye
Assembly of eukaryotic ribosome is a complicated and dynamic process that involves a series of intermediates. It is unknown how the highly intertwined structure of 60S large ribosomal subunits is established. Here, we report the structure of an early nucleolar pre-60S ribosome determined by cryo-electron microscopy at 3.7 Å resolution, revealing a half-assembled subunit. Domains I, II and VI of 25S/5.8S rRNA pack tightly into a native-like substructure, but domains III, IV and V are not assembled. The structure contains 12 assembly factors and 19 ribosomal proteins, many of which are required for early processing of large subunit rRNA...
March 19, 2018: Protein & Cell
Hui Ye
Bone cells sense mechanical load, which is essential for bone growth and remodeling. In a fracture, this mechanism is compromised. Electromagnetic stimulation has been widely used to assist in bone healing, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. A recent hypothesis suggests that electromagnetic stimulation could influence tissue biomechanics; however, a detailed quantitative understanding of EM-induced biomechanical changes in the bone is unavailable. This paper used a muscle/bone model to study the biomechanics of the bone under EM exposure...
March 19, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Maria Alejo, Laia Alemany, Omar Clavero, Beatriz Quiros, Susana Vighi, Muhieddine Seoud, Chou Cheng-Yang, Suzanne M Garland, Nuria Juanpere, Josep Lloreta, Sara Tous, Jo Ellen Klaustermeier, Wim Quint, F Xavier Bosch, Silvia de Sanjosé, Belen Lloveras
AIMS: Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of the cervix are rare tumors with a very aggressive course. The human papillomavirus (HPV) has been linked to its etiology. The objective of this study is to describe HPV prevalence and genotype distribution of NET. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-nine tumors with histological neuroendocrine features were identified among 10,575 invasive cervical cancer (ICC) cases from an international study. HPV DNA detection was done using SPF10/DEIA /LiPA25 system...
March 16, 2018: Papillomavirus Research
Manar Hamed Arafa, Hebatallah Husseini Atteia
Our objective was to figure out whether CYP2D6 gene polymorphisms may account for long term tramadol-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in 60 patients receiving chronic tramadol treatment in Neurology and Rheumatology Outpatients Clinic, Zagazig University Hospitals, Egypt. As expected, CYP2D6*1 allele (wild type) frequency was significantly greater than CYP2D6*DUP, CYP2D6*4 and CYP2D6*10 alleles in both chronically tramadol-treated and control groups. CYP2D6*DUP allele carriers followed by those carrying CYP2D6*1, displayed higher levels of urinary tramadol major active metabolite O-desmethyltramadol (M1) and serum lipid peroxidation along with lower levels of total antioxidants than those carrying other impaired function alleles (CYP2D6*4&*10) in tramadol-treated patients, suggesting oxidative stress...
March 16, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Bogdan Muresan, Édouard Metzger, Didier Jézéquel, Daniel Cossa
This study investigated, on both metric and centimetric scales, mercury (Hg) transformations and dynamics within a water column chemocline of a tropical reservoir. Data collected included conventional measurement of Hg in water samples, diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) assessments, and thermodynamic speciation modeling in order to portray the biogeochemical processes that control elemental Hg (EM) and dissolved monomethylated Hg (MeHgD ) production. The primary contribution of this study is demonstration that the DGT technique can be successfully implemented to examine labile Hg compound mobilization, and estimation of how local substratum facilitates Hg reduction and methylation reactions...
March 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Janelle Robertson, Jason Susong, Emily B Wong
In 2002, the United States implemented a new program for smallpox vaccinations among military personnel using a live vaccinia virus product. Approximately 2.4 million US military service members and health care workers have since been inoculated, with considerable numbers experiencing adverse reactions. Military dermatologists are at the forefront of describing and treating these reactions, from relatively benign generalized vaccinia (GV) and erythema multiforme (EM) to more severe progressive vaccinia (PV) and eczema vaccinatum (EV)...
February 2018: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
Martin Cheung, Hidehito Adaniya, Cathal Cassidy, Masao Yamashita, Kun-Lung Li, Seita Taba, Tsumoru Shintake
For many macromolecular complexes, the inability to uniformly disperse solubilized specimen particles within vitreous ice films precludes their analysis by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). Here, we introduce a sample preparation process using "perpetually-hydrated" graphene oxide flakes as particle support films, and report vastly improved specimen dispersion. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the presence of graphene oxide flakes in vitreous ice results in a significant reduction in electron beam-induced specimen decomposition...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Structural Biology
Roberta Gualdani, Maria Maddalena Cavalluzzi, Francesco Tadini-Buoninsegni, Marino Convertino, Philippe Gailly, Anna Stary-Weinzinger, Giovanni Lentini
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Lubeluzole is a benzothiazole derivative that has shown neuroprotective properties in preclinical models of ischemic stroke. However, clinical research on lubeluzole is now at a standstill, since lubeluzole seems to be associated with the acquired long QT syndrome and ventricular arrhythmias. Since the cardiac cellular effects of lubeluzole have not been described thus far, an explanation for the lubeluzole-induced QT interval prolongation is lacking. METHODS: We tested the affinity of lubeluzole, its enantiomer, and the racemate for hERG channel using the patch-clamp technique...
March 10, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Xiangyang Liu, Lucas Farnung, Christoph Wigge, Patrick Cramer
RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is the central enzyme that transcribes eukaryotic protein-coding genes to produce mRNA. The mushroom toxin α-amanitin binds Pol II and inhibits transcription at the step of RNA chain elongation. Pol II from yeast binds α-amanitin with micromolar affinity, whereas metazoan Pol II enzymes exhibit nanomolar affinities. Here, we present the high-resolution cryo-EM structure of α-amanitin bound to and inhibited by its natural target, the mammalian Pol II elongation complex. The structure revealed that the toxin is located in a pocket previously identified in yeast Pol II, but forms additional contacts with metazoan-specific residues, which explain why its affinity to mammalian Pol II is ~3000 times higher than for yeast Pol II...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yasmin Guler, Stephen Short, Amaia Green Etxabe, Peter Kille, Alex T Ford
Phylogenetically distant parasites often infect the same host. Indeed, co-infections can occur at levels greater than expected by chance and are sometimes hyperparasitic. The amphipod Echinogammarus marinus presents high levels of co-infection by two intracellular and vertically transmitted parasites, a paramyxid (Paramarteilia sp. Em) and a microsporidian strain (Dictyocoela duebenum Em). This co-infection may be hyperparasitic and result from an exploitative 'hitchhiking' or a symbiotic relationship between the parasites...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Vincenzo de Sanctis, Michail Matalliotakis, Ashraf T Soliman, Heba Elsefdy, Salvatore Di Maio, Bernadette Fiscina
Endometriosis (EM) occurring in adolescents presents distinct clinical and histologic characteristics compared to the disease in women. Because the symptoms of EM are nonspecific, often overlapping with those experienced in a range of gynecological and gastrointestinal conditions, the process of reaching a diagnosis of EM is often delayed. The diagnosis of EM is suspected depending on the history and the symptoms and signs, is corroborated by physical examination and imaging techniques, and is finally proved by histological examination of specimens collected during laparoscopy...
February 19, 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
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