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neural immunity

Rakesh Khilwani, Peter J Gilgunn, Takashi D Y Kozai, Xiao Chuan Ong, Emrullah Korkmaz, Pallavi K Gunalan, X Tracy Cui, Gary K Fedder, O Burak Ozdoganlar
Stable chronic functionality of intracortical probes is of utmost importance toward realizing clinical application of brain-machine interfaces. Sustained immune response from the brain tissue to the neural probes is one of the major challenges that hinder stable chronic functionality. There is a growing body of evidence in the literature that highly compliant neural probes with sub-cellular dimensions may significantly reduce the foreign-body response, thereby enhancing long term stability of intracortical recordings...
December 2016: Biomedical Microdevices
Dennis Grech, Zhifeng Li, Patrick Morcillo, Evelyne Kalyoussef, David D Kim, Alex Bekker, Luis Ulloa
Neuronal stimulation improves physiological responses to infection and trauma, but the clinical potential of this strategy is unknown. We hypothesized that transdermal neural stimulation through low-frequency electroacupuncture might control the immune responses to surgical trauma and expedite the postoperative recovery. However, the efficiency of electroacupuncture is questioned due to the placebo effect. Here, electroacupuncture was performed on anesthetized patients to avoid any placebo. This is a prospective double-blinded pilot trial to determine whether intraoperative electroacupuncture on anesthetized patients improves postoperative recovery...
October 2016: Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies
Apurva Kulkarni, Priya Ganesan, Lauren A O'Donnell
Interferon-gamma (IFNγ), a pleiotropic cytokine, is expressed in diverse neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory conditions. Its protective mechanisms are well documented during viral infections in the brain, where IFNγ mediates non-cytolytic viral control in infected neurons. However, IFNγ also plays both protective and pathological roles in other central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Of the many neural cells that respond to IFNγ, neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs), the only pluripotent cells in the developing and adult brain, are often altered during CNS insults...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pathology
Juliet Richetto, Renaud Massart, Ulrike Weber-Stadlbauer, Moshe Szyf, Marco A Riva, Urs Meyer
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to infectious or inflammatory insults increases the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders. Using a well-established mouse model of prenatal viral-like immune activation, we examined whether this pathological association involves genome-wide DNA methylation differences at single nucleotide resolution. METHODS: Prenatal immune activation was induced by maternal treatment with the viral mimetic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid in middle or late gestation...
August 12, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Richard McCarty
Major advances in behavioral neuroscience have been facilitated by the development of consistent and highly reproducible experimental paradigms that have been widely adopted. In contrast, many different experimental approaches have been employed to expose laboratory mice and rats to acute versus chronic intermittent stress. An argument is advanced in this review that more consistent approaches to the design of chronic intermittent stress experiments would provide greater reproducibility of results across laboratories and greater reliability relating to various neural, endocrine, immune, genetic, and behavioral adaptations...
October 15, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Swann Pichon, Raphael Guex, Patrik Vuilleumier
Unconscious processes are often assumed immune from attention influence. Recent behavioral studies suggest however that the processing of subliminal information can be influenced by temporal attention. To examine the neural mechanisms underlying these effects, we used a stringent masking paradigm together with fMRI to investigate how temporal attention modulates the processing of unseen (masked) faces. Participants performed a gender decision task on a visible neutral target face, preceded by a masked prime face that could vary in gender (same or different than target) and emotion expression (neutral or fearful)...
2016: PloS One
Prabesh Bhattarai, Alvin Kuriakose Thomas, Mehmet Ilyas Cosacak, Christos Papadimitriou, Violeta Mashkaryan, Cynthia Froc, Susanne Reinhardt, Thomas Kurth, Andreas Dahl, Yixin Zhang, Caghan Kizil
Human brains are prone to neurodegeneration, given that endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) fail to support neurogenesis. To investigate the molecular programs potentially mediating neurodegeneration-induced NSPC plasticity in regenerating organisms, we generated an Amyloid-β42 (Aβ42)-dependent neurotoxic model in adult zebrafish brain through cerebroventricular microinjection of cell-penetrating Aβ42 derivatives. Aβ42 deposits in neurons and causes phenotypes reminiscent of amyloid pathophysiology: apoptosis, microglial activation, synaptic degeneration, and learning deficits...
October 18, 2016: Cell Reports
Kenneth I Strauss, Kost V Elisevich
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy patients have distinct immune/inflammatory cell profiles and inflammatory mediator levels in the blood. Although the neural origin of inflammatory cells and mediators has been implied, few studies have measured these inflammatory components in the human brain itself. This study examines the brain levels of chemokines (8), cytokines (14), and vascular injury mediators (3) suspected of being altered in epilepsy. METHODS: Soluble protein extracts of fresh frozen resected hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and temporal cortex from 58 medically refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy subjects and 4 nonepileptic neurosurgical subjects were assayed for 25 inflammation-related mediators using ultrasensitive low-density arrays...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Dalia Shendi, Dirk Albrecht, Anjana Jain
Central nervous system (CNS) injuries and diseases result in neuronal damage, and loss of function. Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) has been shown to improve locomotor function after transplantation. However, due to the immune and inflammatory response at the injury site, the survival rate of the engrafted cells is low. Engrafted cell viability has been shown to increase when transplanted within a hydrogel. Hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels have natural anti-inflammatory properties and the backbone can be modified to introduce bioactive agents, such as anti-Fas, which we have previously shown to promote NSC survival while suppressing immune cell activity in bulk hydrogels in vitro...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Ryota Araki, Yosuke Hiraki, Shoji Nishida, Yuka Inatomi, Takeshi Yabe
Emotional impairments such as depressive symptoms often develop in patients with sustained and systemic immune activation. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of gomisin N, a dibenzocyclooctadiene lignan isolated from the dried fruits of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., which exhibited inhibitory effects of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production in a screening assay, on inflammation-induced depressive symptoms. We examined the effects of gomisin N on inflammation induced by LPS in murine microglial BV-2 cells and on LPS-induced behavioral changes in mice...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Erli Zhang, Mingquan Li, Jianjun Zhao, Yuxiang Dong, Xueqin Yang, Jingbo Huang
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of Yisui Tongjing (YSTJ) prescription on motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) and microstructure of the sciatic nerve in experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) rats, the Guillain-Barré syndrome classic animal models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we established an EAN model in Lewis rats by immunization. We evaluated the potential clinical application of a traditional Chinese medicine YSTJ by intragastric administration and compared its effect with immunoglobulin...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Qiang Shao, Stephanie Herrlinger, Si-Lu Yang, Fan Lai, Julie M Moore, Melinda A Brindley, Jian-Fu Chen
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection of pregnant women can result in fetal brain abnormalities. It has been established that ZIKV disrupts neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and leads to embryonic microcephaly. However, the fate of other cell types in the developing brain and their contributions to ZIKV-associated brain abnormalities remain largely unknown. Using intracerebral inoculation of embryonic mouse brains, we found that ZIKV infection leads to postnatal growth restriction including microcephaly. In addition to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of NPCs, ZIKV infection causes massive neuronal death and axonal rarefaction which phenocopy fetal brain abnormalities in humans...
October 11, 2016: Development
Jun Udagawa, Kodai Hino
Epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to prenatal stressors, including malnutrition, maternal immune activation (MIA), and adverse life events, is associated with increased risks of schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are unclear. The first trimester of pregnancy is particularly a vulnerable period. During this period, the self-renewal of neural stem cells and neurogenesis vigorously occur, and synaptic connections are partially formed in the telencephalon...
2016: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
José de Jesús Guerrero-García, Lucrecia Carrera-Quintanar, Rocío Ivette López-Roa, Ana Laura Márquez-Aguirre, Argelia Esperanza Rojas-Mayorquín, Daniel Ortuño-Sahagún
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder of the Central Nervous System that has been associated with several environmental factors, such as diet and obesity. The possible link between MS and obesity has become more interesting in recent years since the discovery of the remarkable properties of adipose tissue. Once MS is initiated, obesity can contribute to increased disease severity by negatively influencing disease progress and treatment response, but, also, obesity in early life is highly relevant as a susceptibility factor and causally related risk for late MS development...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Tomoyuki Masuda, Masahiko Taniguchi
Semaphorins are a large family of proteins characterized by sema domains and play a key role not only in the formation of neural circuits, but in the immune system, angiogenesis, tumor progression, and bone metabolism. To date, 15 semaphorins have been reported to be involved in the formation of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) in higher vertebrates. A number of experiments have revealed their functions in the PNS, where they act mainly as axonal guidance cues (as repellents or attractants). Semaphorins also play an important role in the migration of neurons and formation of sensory-motor connections in the PNS...
October 7, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Paras R Patel, Huanan Zhang, Matthew T Robbins, Justin B Nofar, Shaun P Marshall, Michael J Kobylarek, Takashi D Y Kozai, Nicholas A Kotov, Cynthia A Chestek
OBJECTIVE: Individual carbon fiber microelectrodes can record unit activity in both acute and semi-chronic (∼1 month) implants. Additionally, new methods have been developed to insert a 16 channel array of carbon fiber microelectrodes. Before assessing the in vivo long-term viability of these arrays, accelerated soak tests were carried out to determine the most stable site coating material. Next, a multi-animal, multi-month, chronic implantation study was carried out with carbon fiber microelectrode arrays and silicon electrodes...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Jana M Ritter, Roosecelis B Martines, Sherif R Zaki
Context .- As the number of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections continues to grow, so, too, does the spectrum of recognized clinical disease, in both adult and congenital infections. Defining the tissue pathology associated with the various disease manifestations provides insight into pathogenesis and diagnosis, and potentially future prevention and treatment, of ZIKV infections. Objective .- To summarize the syndromes and pathology associated with ZIKV infection, the implications of pathologic findings in pathogenesis of ZIKV disease, and the use of pathology specimens for diagnosis of ZIKV infection...
October 5, 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Christopher T Banek, Mark M Knuepfer, Jason D Foss, Jessica K Fiege, Ninitha Asirvatham-Jeyaraj, Dusty Van Helden, Yoji Shimizu, John W Osborn
Renal sympathetic denervation (RDNx) has emerged as a novel therapy for hypertension; however, the therapeutic mechanisms remain unclear. Efferent renal sympathetic nerve activity has recently been implicated in trafficking renal inflammatory immune cells and inflammatory chemokine and cytokine release. Several of these inflammatory mediators are known to activate or sensitize afferent nerves. This study aimed to elucidate the roles of efferent and afferent renal nerves in renal inflammation and hypertension in the deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) salt rat model...
October 3, 2016: Hypertension
Veena A Nair, Poonam Beniwal-Patel, Ifeanyi Mbah, Brittany M Young, Vivek Prabhakaran, Sumona Saha
Background: Crohn's disease (CD) is a subtype of inflammatory bowel disease caused by immune-mediated inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. The extent of morphologic brain alterations and their associated cognitive and affective impairments remain poorly characterized. Aims: We used magnetic resonance imaging to identify structural brain differences between patients with Crohn's disease in remission compared to age-matched healthy controls and evaluated for structural-behavioral correlates. Methods: Nineteen patients and 20 healthy, age-matched controls were recruited in the study...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Xiujuan Zhang, Ying Chen, Ying Ye, Jianfeng Wang, Hong Wang, Guohong Yuan, Zhe Lin, Yihui Wu, Yan Zhang, Xinhua Lin
Wnt signaling plays essential roles in both embryonic pattern formation and postembryonic tissue homoestasis. High levels of Wnt activity repress foregut identity and facilitate hindgut fate through forming a gradient of Wnt signaling activity along the anterior-posterior axis. Here, we examined the mechanisms of Wnt signaling in hindgut development by differentiating human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into the hindgut progenitors. We observed severe morphological changes when Wnt signaling was blocked by using Wnt antagonist Dkk1...
September 29, 2016: Cellular Signalling
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