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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775115/immunofluorescent-localization-of-non-myelinating-schwann-cells-and-their-interactions-with-immune-cells-in-mouse-thymus
#1
Dailun Hu, Philip K Nicholls, Changfu Yin, Khama Kelman, Qionglan Yuan, Wayne K Greene, Zhongli Shi, Bin Ma
The thymus is innervated by sympathetic/parasympathetic nerve fibers from the peripheral nervous system (PNS), suggesting a neural regulation of thymic function including T-cell development. Despite some published studies, data on the innervation and nerve-immune interaction inside the thymus remain limited. In the present study, we used immunofluorescent staining of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) coupled with confocal microscopy/three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction to reveal the distribution of non-myelinating Schwann cells (NMSC) and their interactions with immune cells inside mouse thymus...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767741/gateway-reflex-neural-activation-mediated-immune-cell-gateways-in-the-central-nervous-system
#2
Daisuke Kamimura, Takuto Ohki, Yasunobu Arima, Masaaki Murakami
The neural regulation of organs can be categorized as systemic or local. Whereas systemic regulation by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal gland-mediated release of steroid hormones has been well studied, the mechanisms for local regulation have only recently emerged. Two types of local neural regulation are known, the gateway reflex and the inflammatory reflex. The gateway reflex describes a mechanism that converts regional neural stimulations into inflammatory outputs by changing the state of specific blood vessels...
May 15, 2018: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760681/sex-steroids-adult-neurogenesis-and-inflammation-in-cns-homeostasis-degeneration-and-repair
#3
REVIEW
Tracy A Larson
Sex steroidal hormones coordinate the development and maintenance of tissue architecture in many organs, including the central nervous systems (CNS). Within the CNS, sex steroids regulate the morphology, physiology, and behavior of a wide variety of neural cells including, but not limited to, neurons, glia, endothelial cells, and immune cells. Sex steroids spatially and temporally control distinct molecular networks, that, in turn modulate neural activity, synaptic plasticity, growth factor expression and function, nutrient exchange, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760649/brain-region-dependent-rejection-of-neural-precursor-cell-transplants
#4
Nina Fainstein, Tamir Ben-Hur
The concept of CNS as an immune-privileged site has been challenged by the occurrence of immune surveillance and allogeneic graft rejection in the brain. Here we examined whether the immune response to allogeneic neural grafts is determined by the site of implantation in the CNS. Dramatic regional differences were observed between immune responses to allogeneic neural precursor/stem cell (NPC) grafts in the striatum vs. the hippocampus. Striatal grafts were heavily infiltrated with IBA-1+ microglia/macrophages and CD3+ T cells and completely rejected...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756681/neuronal-il-4r%C3%AE-modulates-neuronal-apoptosis-and-cell-viability-during-the-acute-phases-of-cerebral-ischemia
#5
Han Kyu Lee, Sehwon Koh, Donald C Lo, Douglas A Marchuk
Ischemic stroke caused by an embolus or local thrombosis results in neural tissue damage (an infarct) in the territory of the occluded cerebral artery. Decades of studies have increased our understanding of the molecular events during cerebral infarction; however, translation of these discoveries to druggable targets for ischemic stroke treatment has been largely disappointing. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a multifunctional cytokine that exerts its cellular activities via the interleukin-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα)...
May 14, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756516/transplantation-of-a-peripheral-nerve-with-neural-stem-cells-plus-lithium-chloride-injection-promote-the-recovery-of-rat-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Li-Qun Zhang, Wen-Ming Zhang, Lingxiao Deng, Zi-Xing Xu, Wen-Bin Lan, Jian-Hua Lin
Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) holds great potential for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). However, transplanted NSCs poorly survive in the SCI environment. We injected NSCs into tibial nerve and transplanted tibial nerve into a hemisected spinal cord and investigated the effects of lithium chloride (LiCl) on the survival of spinal neurons, axonal regeneration, and functional recovery. Our results show that most of the transplanted NSCs expressed glial fibrillary acidic protein, while there was no obvious expression of nestin, neuronal nuclei, or acetyltransferase found in NSCs...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755449/immunization-elicits-antigen-specific-antibody-sequestration-in-dorsal-root-ganglia-sensory-neurons
#7
Manojkumar Gunasekaran, Prodyot K Chatterjee, Andrew Shih, Gavin H Imperato, Meghan Addorisio, Gopal Kumar, Annette Lee, John F Graf, Dan Meyer, Michael Marino, Christopher Puleo, Jeffrey Ashe, Maureen A Cox, Tak W Mak, Chad Bouton, Barbara Sherry, Betty Diamond, Ulf Andersson, Thomas R Coleman, Christine N Metz, Kevin J Tracey, Sangeeta S Chavan
The immune and nervous systems are two major organ systems responsible for host defense and memory. Both systems achieve memory and learning that can be retained, retrieved, and utilized for decades. Here, we report the surprising discovery that peripheral sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) of immunized mice contain antigen-specific antibodies. Using a combination of rigorous molecular genetic analyses, transgenic mice, and adoptive transfer experiments, we demonstrate that DRGs do not synthesize these antigen-specific antibodies, but rather sequester primarily IgG1 subtype antibodies...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755395/early-onset-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-mimicking-immune-mediated-encephalitis
#8
Wietse A Wiels, Stephanie Du Four, Laura Seynaeve, Anja Flamez, Thomas Tousseyn, Dietmar Thal, Miguel D'Haeseleer
Objectives: The objective of this study is to explore the clinical, radiological, and pathological manifestations of a rare subtype of prion disease and their implication for differential diagnosis in case of an early onset neuropsychiatric deterioration. Methods: We discuss a patients' clinical history, as well as the string of investigations and symptomatological evolution that finally led to a pathological diagnosis. Results: Our patient had the extremely rare VV1 type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751028/role-of-c1-neurons-in-anti-inflammatory-reflex-mediation-between-afferents-and-efferents
#9
REVIEW
Chikara Abe, Tsuyoshi Inoue
Neuroimmune communication, the connection between the autonomic regulatory pathway and immune cells, has been implicated in the regulation of immune function and inflammation. The role of afferents (vagal afferent and somatic sensory nerves) and efferents (autonomic nervous and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal systems) in the inflammatory reflex has been well studied; however, the central pathway remains unknown. C1 neurons include both catecholaminergic and glutamatergic neurons, which are located in the rostral ventrolateral medulla...
May 8, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749627/white-matter-pathways-as-both-a-target-and-mediator-of-health-behaviors
#10
REVIEW
Alexis Porter, Regina Leckie, Timothy Verstynen
Health behaviors arise from the dynamics of highly interconnected networks in the brain and variability in these networks drives individual differences in behavior. In this review, we show how many factors that predict the physical health of the body also correlate with variability of the myelinated fascicles, called white matter, that connect brain regions together. The general pattern present in the literature is that as predictors of physical health decline, there is often a coincident reduction in the integrity of major white matter pathways...
May 11, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743869/alpha-power-modulates-perception-independently-of-endogenous-factors
#11
Sasskia Brüers, Rufin VanRullen
Oscillations are ubiquitous in the brain. Alpha oscillations in particular have been proposed to play an important role in sensory perception. Past studies have shown that the power of ongoing EEG oscillations in the alpha band is negatively correlated with visual outcome. Moreover, it also co-varies with other endogenous factors such as attention, vigilance, or alertness. In turn, these endogenous factors influence visual perception. Therefore, it remains unclear how much of the relation between alpha and perception is indirectly mediated by such endogenous factors, and how much reflects a direct causal influence of alpha rhythms on sensory neural processing...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743351/survival-of-syngeneic-and-allogeneic-ipsc-derived-neural-precursors-after-spinal-grafting-in-minipigs
#12
Jan Strnadel, Cassiano Carromeu, Cedric Bardy, Michael Navarro, Oleksandr Platoshyn, Andreas N Glud, Silvia Marsala, Jozef Kafka, Atsushi Miyanohara, Tomohisa Kato, Takahiro Tadokoro, Michael P Hefferan, Kota Kamizato, Tetsuya Yoshizumi, Stefan Juhas, Jana Juhasova, Chak-Sum Ho, Taba Kheradmand, PeiXi Chen, Dasa Bohaciakova, Marian Hruska-Plochan, Andrew J Todd, Shawn P Driscoll, Thomas D Glenn, Samuel L Pfaff, Jiri Klima, Joseph Ciacci, Eric Curtis, Fred H Gage, Jack Bui, Kazuhiko Yamada, Alysson R Muotri, Martin Marsala
The use of autologous (or syngeneic) cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) holds great promise for future clinical use in a wide range of diseases and injuries. It is expected that cell replacement therapies using autologous cells would forego the need for immunosuppression, otherwise required in allogeneic transplantations. However, recent studies have shown the unexpected immune rejection of undifferentiated autologous mouse iPSCs after transplantation. Whether similar immunogenic properties are maintained in iPSC-derived lineage-committed cells (such as neural precursors) is relatively unknown...
May 9, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742813/mutated-cancer-autoantigen-implicated-cause-of-paraneoplastic-myasthenia-gravis
#13
Anastasia Zekeridou, Guy E Griesmann, Vanda A Lennon
INTRODUCTION: Anti-tumor immune responses are postulated to initiate paraneoplastic neurological disorders when proteins normally restricted to neural cells are expressed as oncoproteins. Mutated oncopeptides could bypass self-tolerant T-cells to activate cytotoxic effector T-lymphocytes and requisite helper T-lymphocytes to stimulate autoantibody production by B-lymphocytes. METHODS: We investigated muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antigen expression at transcriptional and protein levels in a small-cell lung cancer line (SCLC) established from a patient with AChR-IgG-positive myasthenia gravis...
May 9, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742058/neurological-manifestations-in-autoinflammatory-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Antonio Uccelli, Marco Gattorno
Autoinflammatory diseases (AIDs) are a distinct group of diseases characterised by a dysregulation of the innate immune response leading to systemic inflammation. The clinical spectrum of these conditions is extremely variable and possibly every system and tissue can be involved, including the central nervous system (CNS). Indeed, neurological manifestations may dominate the clinical picture from disease onset in some rare conditions. However, the involvement of the CNS in AIDs is not a disease in itself, but represents a rare complication which is consequent to a systemic or local immune response, mainly involving cells of the innate immunity...
January 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741791/the-trophic-effect-of-nerve-growth-factor-in-primary-cultures-of-rat-hippocampal-neurons-is-associated-to-an-anti-inflammatory-and-immunosuppressive-transcriptional-program
#15
Barbara Maino, Antonio G Spampinato, Cinzia Severini, Carla Petrella, Maria Teresa Ciotti, Velia D'Agata, Pietro Calissano, Sebastiano Cavallaro
Nerve growth factor, the prototype of a family of neurotrophins, elicits differentiation and survival of peripheral and central neuronal cells. Although its neural mechanisms have been studied extensively, relatively little is known about the transcriptional regulation governing its effects. We have previously observed that in primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons treatment with nerve growth factor for 72 hr increases neurite outgrowth and cell survival. To obtain a comprehensive view of the underlying transcriptional program, we performed whole-genome expression analysis by microarray technology...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739872/chemical-compound-based-direct-reprogramming-for-future-clinical-applications
#16
REVIEW
Yukimasa Takeda, Yoshinori Harada, Toshikazu Yoshikawa, Ping Dai
Recent studies have revealed that a combination of chemical compounds enables direct reprogramming from one somatic cell type into another without the use of transgenes by regulating cellular signaling pathways and epigenetic modifications. The generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells generally requires virus vector-mediated expression of multiple transcription factors, which might disrupt genomic integrity and proper cell functions. The direct reprogramming is a promising alternative to rapidly prepare different cell types by bypassing the pluripotent state...
June 29, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736562/evaluation-of-brain-nuclear-medicine-imaging-tracers-in-a-murine-model-of-sepsis-associated-encephalopathy
#17
Dávid Szöllősi, Nikolett Hegedűs, Dániel S Veres, Ildikó Futó, Ildikó Horváth, Noémi Kovács, Bernadett Martinecz, Ádám Dénes, Daniel Seifert, Ralf Bergmann, Ondřej Lebeda, Zoltán Varga, Zoltán Kaleta, Krisztián Szigeti, Domokos Máthé
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a set of widely used nuclear medicine imaging agents as possible methods to study the early effects of systemic inflammation on the living brain in a mouse model of sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE). The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine systemic inflammation model was selected as a model of SAE. PROCEDURES: C57BL/6 mice were used. A multimodal imaging protocol was carried out on each animal 4 h following the intravenous administration of LPS using the following tracers: [99m Tc][2,2-dimethyl-3-[(3E)-3-oxidoiminobutan-2-yl]azanidylpropyl]-[(3E)-3-hydroxyiminobutan-2-yl]azanide ([99m Tc]HMPAO) and ethyl-7-[125 I]iodo-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine-3-carboxylate ([125 I]iomazenil) to measure brain perfusion and neuronal damage, respectively; 2-deoxy-2-[18 F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18 F]FDG) to measure cerebral glucose uptake...
May 7, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735654/identification-of-cytokine-specific-sensory-neural-signals-by-decoding-murine-vagus-nerve-activity
#18
Theodoros P Zanos, Harold A Silverman, Todd Levy, Tea Tsaava, Emily Battinelli, Peter W Lorraine, Jeffrey M Ashe, Sangeeta S Chavan, Kevin J Tracey, Chad E Bouton
The nervous system maintains physiological homeostasis through reflex pathways that modulate organ function. This process begins when changes in the internal milieu (e.g., blood pressure, temperature, or pH) activate visceral sensory neurons that transmit action potentials along the vagus nerve to the brainstem. IL-1β and TNF, inflammatory cytokines produced by immune cells during infection and injury, and other inflammatory mediators have been implicated in activating sensory action potentials in the vagus nerve...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729254/physical-exercise-reserved-amyloid-beta-induced-brain-dysfunctions-by-regulating-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-inflammatory-response-via-mapk-signaling
#19
Li-Na Sun, Jin-Shun Qi, Rong Gao
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the leading causes of dementia that induced by aggregation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) in brain tissue. With high structural and functional plasticity, hippocampus plays fundamental roles in cognitive regulation. Moreover, impaired hippocampal functions present during early onset of AD. Hence, targeting on improving hippocampal plasticity would be recognized as the effective strategy in AD therapy. Physical exercise is widely encouraged healthy life style. However, whether exercise could reserve the neural dysfunctions in AD model and the possible neurobiological mechanism still need for better understanding...
May 2, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720538/sympathetic-innervation-regulates-macrophage-activity-in-rat-with-polycystic-ovary
#20
Florencia Figueroa, Gisela Mendoza, Dario Cardozo, Fabian Mohamed, Liliana Oliveros, Myriam Liliana Forneris
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a low grade inflammatory disease characterized by hyperandrogenism and ovarian hyperinnervation. The aim of this work is to investigate whether in vivo bilateral superior ovarian nerve (SON) section in adult rats with estradiol valerate induced polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCO rats) affects macrophage spleen cells (MФ) and modifies the steroidogenic ability of their secretions. Culture media of MФ from PCO rats and PCO rats with SON section (PCO-SON rats) were used to stimulate in vitro intact ovaries...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
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