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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533402/behavioral-and-neural-correlates-to-multisensory-detection-of-sick-humans
#1
Christina Regenbogen, John Axelsson, Julie Lasselin, Danja K Porada, Tina Sundelin, Moa G Peter, Mats Lekander, Johan N Lundström, Mats J Olsson
Throughout human evolution, infectious diseases have been a primary cause of death. Detection of subtle cues indicating sickness and avoidance of sick conspecifics would therefore be an adaptive way of coping with an environment fraught with pathogens. This study determines how humans perceive and integrate early cues of sickness in conspecifics sampled just hours after the induction of immune system activation, and the underlying neural mechanisms for this detection. In a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design, the immune system in 22 sample donors was transiently activated with an endotoxin injection [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)]...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530662/pd-l1-inhibits-acute-and-chronic-pain-by-suppressing-nociceptive-neuron-activity-via-pd-1
#2
Gang Chen, Yong Ho Kim, Hui Li, Hao Luo, Da-Lu Liu, Zhi-Jun Zhang, Mark Lay, Wonseok Chang, Yu-Qiu Zhang, Ru-Rong Ji
Programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) is typically produced by cancer cells and suppresses immunity through the receptor PD-1 expressed on T cells. However, the role of PD-L1 and PD-1 in regulating pain and neuronal function is unclear. Here we report that both melanoma and normal neural tissues including dorsal root ganglion (DRG) produce PD-L1 that can potently inhibit acute and chronic pain. Intraplantar injection of PD-L1 evoked analgesia in naive mice via PD-1, whereas PD-L1 neutralization or PD-1 blockade induced mechanical allodynia...
May 22, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529699/evolution-immunity-and-the-emergence-of-brain-superautoantigens
#3
Serge Nataf
While some autoimmune disorders remain extremely rare, others largely predominate the epidemiology of human autoimmunity. Notably, these include psoriasis, diabetes, vitiligo, thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Thus, despite the quasi-infinite number of "self" antigens that could theoretically trigger autoimmune responses, only a limited set of antigens, referred here as superautoantigens, induce pathogenic adaptive responses. Several lines of evidence reviewed in this paper indicate that, irrespective of the targeted organ (e...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527212/apolipoprotein-e4-gender-body-mass-index-inflammation-insulin-resistance-and-air-pollution-interactions-recipe-for-alzheimer-s-disease-development-in-mexico-city-young-females
#4
Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas, Suzanne M de la Monte
Given the epidemiological trends of increasing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and growing evidence that exposure and lifestyle factors contribute to AD risk and pathogenesis, attention should be paid to variables such as air pollution, in order to reduce rates of cognitive decline and dementia. Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) above the US EPA standards is associated with AD risk. Mexico City children experienced pre- and postnatal high exposures to PM2.5, O3, combustion-derived iron-rich nanoparticles, metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and endotoxins...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527062/the-prokineticin-system-an-interface-between-neural-inflammation-and-pain
#5
Silvia Franchi, Paola Sacerdote, Alberto Panerai
Prokineticins (PK) 1 and 2 belong to a new family of chemokines capable to interact with two different G coupled receptors: Prokineticin receptor (PKR)1 and 2. Both prokineticins and their receptors are widely distributed in different tissues and regulate several biological functions. In particular, a role of the PK system in inflammation and nociception has been established. PKRs are expressed in regions of the nervous system associated with pain and in primary sensitive neurons they colocalize with transient potential receptor vanilloid-TRPV1 providing an anatomical interaction in nociceptor sensitization...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509388/proteomic-explorations-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Nicholas Szoko, Adam J McShane, Marvin R Natowicz
Proteomics, the large-scale study of protein expression in cells and tissues, is a powerful tool to study the biology of clinical conditions and has provided significant insights in many experimental systems. Herein, we review the basics of proteomic methodology and discuss challenges in using proteomic approaches to study autism. Unlike other experimental approaches, such as genomic approaches, there have been few large-scale studies of proteins in tissues from persons with autism. Most of the proteomic studies on autism used blood or other peripheral tissues; few studies used brain tissue...
May 16, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506594/fingolimod-and-teriflunomide-attenuate-neurodegeneration-in-mouse-models-of-neuronal-ceroid-lipofuscinosis
#7
Janos Groh, Kristina Berve, Rudolf Martini
CLN diseases are rare lysosomal storage diseases characterized by progressive axonal degeneration and neuron loss in the CNS, manifesting in disability, blindness, and premature death. We have previously demonstrated that, in animal models of infantile and juvenile forms of CLN disease (CLN1 and CLN3, respectively), secondary neuroinflammation in the CNS substantially amplifies neural damage, opening the possibility that immunomodulatory treatment might improve disease outcome. First, we recapitulated the inflammatory phenotype, originally seen in mice in autopsies of CLN patients...
May 13, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506502/autonomic-dysreflexia-after-spinal-cord-injury-systemic-pathophysiology-and-methods-of-management
#8
REVIEW
Khalid C Eldahan, Alexander G Rabchevsky
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) has widespread physiological effects beyond the disruption of sensory and motor function, notably the loss of normal autonomic and cardiovascular control. Injury at or above the sixth thoracic spinal cord segment segregates critical spinal sympathetic neurons from supraspinal modulation which can result in a syndrome known as autonomic dysreflexia (AD). AD is defined as episodic hypertension and concomitant baroreflex-mediated bradycardia initiated by unmodulated sympathetic reflexes in the decentralized cord...
May 8, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501003/phytochemicals-for-taming-agitated-immune-endocrine-neural-axis
#9
REVIEW
Seema Patel
Homeostasis of immune-endocrine-neural axis is paramount for human health. If this axis gets agitated due to age, genetic variations, environmental exposures or lifestyle assaults, a cascade of adverse reactions occurs in human body. Cytokines, hormones and neurotransmitters, the effector molecules of this axis behave erratically, leading to a gamut of neural, endocrine, autoimmune, and metabolic diseases. Current panel of drugs can tackle some of them but not in a sustainable, benign way as a myriad of side effects, causal of them have been documented...
May 10, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499901/antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-nutrient-status-supplementation-and-mechanisms-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#10
REVIEW
Sumedha Mitra, Radhika Natarajan, Douglas Ziedonis, Xiaoduo Fan
Over 50 million people around the world suffer from schizophrenia, a severe mental illness characterized by misinterpretation of reality. Although the exact causes of schizophrenia are still unknown, studies have indicated that inflammation and oxidative stress may play an important role in the etiology of the disease. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are crucial for normal central nervous development and proper functioning of neural networks and neurotransmitters. Patients with schizophrenia tend to have abnormal immune activation resulting in elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, ultimately leading to functional brain impairments...
May 9, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494747/new-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-aspects-of-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#11
Harald Mangge, Tobias Niedrist, Wilfried Renner, Stefan Lyer, Christoph Alexiou, Johannes Haybaeck
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is devastating. Because of its silent nature, the disease is often only diagnosed once it has reached an advanced, frequently inoperable stage. To date, we have no biomarkers that facilitate earlier diagnosis, leaving sufficient time for curative therapy that effectively lowers the very high mortality rate of this cancer entity. Because of this, the life expectancy of patients with PDAC is low (i.e. < 6% five-year survival rates). New data, including particular genetic signatures and features of the stromal architecture of PDAC tumors, may better explain their aggressiveness, their relatively long-lasting painless expansion, and why chemotherapy so frequently fails...
May 10, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494285/effects-of-in-situ-exposure-to-tritiated-natural-environments-a-multi-biomarker-approach-using-the-fathead-minnow-pimephales-promelas
#12
B Gagnaire, C Adam-Guillermin, A Festarini, I Cavalié, C Della-Vedova, C Shultz, S B Kim, H Ikert, C Dubois, S Walsh, F Farrow, D Beaton, E Tan, K Wen, M Stuart
Aquatic ecosystems are chronically exposed to radionuclides as well as other pollutants. Increased concentrations of pollutants in aquatic environments can present a risk to exposed organisms, including fish. The goal of this study was to characterize the effects of tritium, in the context of natural environments, on the health of fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas. Fish were exposed to tritium (activity concentrations ranging from 2 to 23,000Bq/L) and also to various concentrations of several metals to replicate multiple-stressor environments...
May 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494166/ocular-safety-of-intravitreal-connective-tissue-growth-factor-neutralizing-antibody
#13
Tahmineh Motevasseli, Narsis Daftarian, Mozhgan Rezaei Kanavi, Hamid Ahmadieh, Abouzar Bagheri, Seyed Bagher Hosseini, Shabnam Ansari, Zahra-Soheila Soheili
PURPOSE: To detect the safety of intravitreal injection of anti-connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) (IVAC) in rat eyes in order to apply this neutralizing antibody for experimental animal studies. METHODS: Forty-five Lister Hooded male pigmented rats were divided into five groups that received IVAC (2 μl) corresponding to the doses of 10 (B), 20 (C), 50 (D), and 100 μg/ml (E), equal to 1.25, 2.5, 6.25, and 12.5 µg/ml of antibody concentration in rat vitreous, respectively...
May 11, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494100/paracrine-regulation-of-melanogenesis
#14
REVIEW
X H Yuan, Z H Jin
Melanocytes are generally characterized by the basic ability of melanin synthesis and transfer to adjacent keratinocytes to constitute individual skin phenotype and provide epidermal protection from various stimuli, such as ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, through a complex process called melanogenesis, which can be regulated by autocrine or paracrine factors. Recent evidences have revealed the paracrine effects of keratinocytes on melanogenesis by secreting cytokines, including alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and endothelin-1...
May 11, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493351/human-zika-and-west-nile-virus-neurological-infections-what-is-the-difference
#15
REVIEW
Clayton A Wiley, Leila Chimelli
The recent epidemic of West Nile Virus (WNV) infection in the United States was associated with severe neurological disease in immunocompromised hosts, while the emergence of Zika virus infection in the Americas has been notable for an association with increased microcephaly in the fetuses of infected mothers. Rare autopsies of WNV infected humans have shown multiple organ involvement with a clear neurotropism. We have recently had the opportunity to examine the distribution of Zika virus in autopsies of newborns from infected pregnancies...
May 11, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484594/adipose-tissue-lipolysis-and-remodeling-during-the-transition-period-of-dairy-cows
#16
REVIEW
G Andres Contreras, Clarissa Strieder-Barboza, William Raphael
Elevated concentrations of plasma fatty acids in transition dairy cows are significantly associated with increased disease susceptibility and poor lactation performance. The main source of plasma fatty acids throughout the transition period is lipolysis from adipose tissue depots. During this time, plasma fatty acids serve as a source of calories mitigating the negative energy balance prompted by copious milk synthesis and limited dry matter intake. Past research has demonstrated that lipolysis in the adipose organ is a complex process that includes not only the activation of lipolytic pathways in response to neural, hormonal, or paracrine stimuli, but also important changes in the structure and cellular distribution of the tissue in a process known as adipose tissue remodeling...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484451/hello-from-the-other-side-how-autoantibodies-circumvent-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-autoimmune-encephalitis
#17
REVIEW
Maryann P Platt, Dritan Agalliu, Tyler Cutforth
Antibodies against neuronal receptors and synaptic proteins are associated with autoimmune encephalitides (AE) that produce movement and psychiatric disorders. In order to exert their pathological effects on neural circuits, autoantibodies against central nervous system (CNS) targets must gain access to the brain and spinal cord by crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a tightly regulated gateway formed by endothelial cells lining CNS blood vessels. To date, the pathogenic mechanisms that underlie autoantibody-triggered encephalitic syndromes are poorly understood, and how autoantibodies breach the barrier remains obscure for almost all AE syndromes...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482920/stage-and-tissue-expression-patterns-of-schistosoma-mansoni-venom-allergen-like-proteins-smval-4-13-16-and-24
#18
Rafaela Sachetto Fernandes, Tereza Cristina Barbosa, Mayra Mara Ferrari Barbosa, Patrícia Aoki Miyasato, Eliana Nakano, Luciana Cezar Cerqueira Leite, Leonardo Paiva Farias
BACKGROUND: Schistosoma mansoni venom allergen-like protein (SmVAL) is a gene family composed of 29 members divided into group 1 encoding proteins potentially secreted, and group 2 encoding intracellular components. Some members were found to be upregulated in the transition of germ ball - cercariae - day 3 schistosomula, suggesting that group 1 SmVAL proteins are associated with the invasion of the human host, although their functions are not completely established. Recently, we have described the localization of SmVAL7 (group 1) and SmVAL6 (group 2) transcripts in the oesophageal gland and in the oral and ventral suckers of adult parasites, respectively...
May 8, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482311/tryptophan-breakdown-and-cognition-in-bipolar-disorder
#19
Martina Platzer, Nina Dalkner, Frederike T Fellendorf, Armin Birner, Susanne A Bengesser, Robert Queissner, Nora Kainzbauer, René Pilz, Simone Herzog-Eberhard, Carlo Hamm, Christa Hörmanseder, Alexander Maget, Philipp Rauch, Harald Mangge, Dietmar Fuchs, Sieglinde Zelzer, Gregor Schütze, Natalie Moll, Markus J Schwarz, Rodrigo B Mansur, Roger S McIntyre, Eva Z Reininghaus
INTRODUCTION: It has been demonstrated that bipolar disorder (BD) is often accompanied by cognitive deficits across all subdomains including verbal memory, attention and executive functioning. Cognitive deficits are observed both during episodes of mania or depression, as well as during the euthymic phase. It has been proposed that chronic immune-mediated inflammation in the central nervous system results in alterations in neural structures that subserve cognitive function. Kynurenine is an intermediate in the inflammatory cascade and can be peripherally measured to proxy inflammatory activity...
April 27, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478814/fragrance-compounds-the-wolves-in-sheep-s-clothings
#20
Seema Patel
In the past few decades, synthetic fragrance compounds have become ubiquitous components of personal care and household cleaning products. Overwhelming consumerism trends have led to the excess usage of these chemicals. It has been observed that this fragrance-laden unhealthy lifestyle runs parallel with the unprecedented rates of diabetes, cancer, neural ailments, teratogenicity, and transgender instances. The link between fragrances as and the multiplicity of pathogens remained latent for decades. However, now this health hazard and its role in homeostasis breakdown is getting attention...
May 2017: Medical Hypotheses
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