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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340928/microbiota-signaling-pathways-that-influence-neurologic-disease
#1
REVIEW
Laura M Cox, Howard L Weiner
Though seemingly distinct and autonomous, emerging evidence suggests there is a bidirectional interaction between the intestinal microbiota and the brain. This crosstalk may play a substantial role in neurologic diseases, including anxiety, depression, autism, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and, potentially, Alzheimer's disease. Long hypothesized by Metchnikoff and others well over 100 years ago, investigations into the mind-microbe axis is now seeing a rapid resurgence of research. If specific pathways and mechanisms of interaction are understood, it could have broad therapeutic potential, as the microbiome is environmentally acquired and can be modified to promote health...
January 16, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339724/granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-controls-neural-and-behavioral-plasticity-in-response-to-cocaine
#2
Erin S Calipari, Arthur Godino, Emily G Peck, Marine Salery, Nicholas L Mervosh, Joseph A Landry, Scott J Russo, Yasmin L Hurd, Eric J Nestler, Drew D Kiraly
Cocaine addiction is characterized by dysfunction in reward-related brain circuits, leading to maladaptive motivation to seek and take the drug. There are currently no clinically available pharmacotherapies to treat cocaine addiction. Through a broad screen of innate immune mediators, we identify granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) as a potent mediator of cocaine-induced adaptations. Here we report that G-CSF potentiates cocaine-induced increases in neural activity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and prefrontal cortex...
January 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339325/induction-of-anti-agrin-antibodies-causes-myasthenia-gravis-in-mice
#3
Min Yan, Ziyang Liu, Erkang Fei, Wenbing Chen, Xinsheng Lai, Bin Luo, Peng Chen, Hongyang Jing, Jin-Xiu Pan, Michael H Rivner, Wen-Cheng Xiong, Lin Mei
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder ofthe neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Most cases of MG are caused by autoantibodies against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR),muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4). Recent studies have identified anti-agrin antibodies in MG patients lacking these three antibodies (i.e., triple negative MG). Agrin is a basal lamina protein that has two isoforms. Neural agrin (N-agrin) binds to LRP4 to activate MuSK to induce AChR clusters and is thus critical for NMJ formation...
January 12, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338380/transplantation-of-human-neural-progenitor-cells-reveals-structural-and-functional-improvements-in-the-spastic-han-wistar-rat-model-of-ataxia
#4
Ruslan L Nuryyev, Toni L Uhlendorf, Wesley Tierney, Suren Zatikyan, Oleg Kopyov, Alex Kopyov, Jessica Ochoa, William Van Trigt, Cindy S Malone, Randy W Cohen
The use of regenerative medicine to treat nervous system disorders like ataxia has been proposed to either replace or support degenerating neurons. In this study, we assessed the ability of human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) to repair and restore the function of dying neurons within the spastic Han-Wistar rat (sHW), a model of ataxia. The sHW rat suffers from neurodegeneration of specific neurons, including cerebellar Purkinje cells and hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells leading to the observed symptoms of forelimb tremor, hind-leg rigidity, gait abnormality, motor incoordination, and a shortened life span...
November 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327205/nociceptive-roles-of-trpm2-ion-channel-in-pathologic-pain
#5
REVIEW
Yongwoo Jang, Pyung Sun Cho, Young Duk Yang, Sun Wook Hwang
Pain is a protective mechanism that enables us to avoid potentially harmful environments. However, when pathologically persisted and aggravated under severely injured or inflamed conditions, pain often reduces the quality of life and thus is considered as a disease to eliminate. Inflammatory and/or neuropathic mechanisms may exaggerate interactions between damaged tissues and neural pathways for pain mediation. Similar mechanisms also promote the communication among cellular participants in synapses at spinal or higher levels, which may amplify nociceptive firing and subsequent signal transmission, deteriorating the pain sensation...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323152/unravelling-the-effects-of-mechanical-physiological-conditioning-on-cardiac-adipose-tissue-derived-progenitor-cells-in-vitro-and-in-silico
#6
Aida Llucià-Valldeperas, Ramon Bragós, Carolina Soler-Botija, Santiago Roura, Carolina Gálvez-Montón, Cristina Prat-Vidal, Isaac Perea-Gil, Antoni Bayes-Genis
Mechanical conditioning is incompletely characterized for stimulating therapeutic cells within the physiological range. We sought to unravel the mechanism of action underlying mechanical conditioning of adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells (ATDPCs), both in vitro and in silico. Cardiac ATDPCs, grown on 3 different patterned surfaces, were mechanically stretched for 7 days at 1 Hz. A custom-designed, magnet-based, mechanical stimulator device was developed to apply ~10% mechanical stretching to monolayer cell cultures...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323053/roles-of-neural-stem-cells-in-the-repair-of-peripheral-nerve-injury
#7
REVIEW
Chong Wang, Chang-Feng Lu, Jiang Peng, Cheng-Dong Hu, Yu Wang
Currently, researchers are using neural stem cell transplantation to promote regeneration after peripheral nerve injury, as neural stem cells play an important role in peripheral nerve injury repair. This article reviews recent research progress of the role of neural stem cells in the repair of peripheral nerve injury. Neural stem cells can not only differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, but can also differentiate into Schwann-like cells, which promote neurite outgrowth around the injury...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321396/-molecular-and-cellular-mechanisms-underlying-the-sterile-inflammation-after-ischemic-stroke
#8
Takashi Shichita
Inflammation is an essential step for the pathology of ischemic stroke, and is also an important therapeutic target for developing novel therapeutic methods which have a wide therapeutic time window. Since there is no pathogen in the brain, the inflammation will be triggered by some endogenous molecules which are called as danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). So far two important DAMPs, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and peroxiredoxin (PRX), have been recently identified in the ischemic brain. HMGB1 exaggerates the disruption of blood brain barrier; on the other hand, PRX activates mononuclear phagocytes and induces the inflammatory cytokine production through the activation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317311/concomitant-use-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-neural-stem-cells-for-treatment-of-spinal-cord-injury-a-combo-cell-therapy-approach
#9
Seyed Mojtaba Hosseini, Mahsa Sani, Kh Husnanin Haider, Mohammadreza Dorvash, Seyyed Mohyeddin Ziaee, Aliasghar Karimi, Mohmmad Reza Namavar
with neural stem cells (NSCs) provides a hope to recover the neural damage and compensate for the lost neural structures for restoration of interrupted neural communications above and below the site of injury. However, cell-based therapy approach suffers from many biological barriers and technical caveats which severely hamper the prognosis. The biochemically-rich microenvironment at the site of spinal cord injury (SCI), the continuing neuro-degenerative process and infiltrating immune cells offer a serious barrier to the donor cells...
January 6, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311619/in-situ-immune-response-and-mechanisms-of-cell-damage-in-central-nervous-system-of-fatal-cases-microcephaly-by-zika-virus
#10
Raimunda S S Azevedo, Jorge R de Sousa, Marialva T F Araujo, Arnaldo J Martins Filho, Bianca N de Alcantara, Fernanda M C Araujo, Maria G L Queiroz, Ana C R Cruz, Beatriz H Baldez Vasconcelos, Jannifer O Chiang, Lívia C Martins, Livia M N Casseb, Eliana V da Silva, Valéria L Carvalho, Barbara C Baldez Vasconcelos, Sueli G Rodrigues, Consuelo S Oliveira, Juarez A S Quaresma, Pedro F C Vasconcelos
Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently caused a pandemic disease, and many cases of ZIKV infection in pregnant women resulted in abortion, stillbirth, deaths and congenital defects including microcephaly, which now has been proposed as ZIKV congenital syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the in situ immune response profile and mechanisms of neuronal cell damage in fatal Zika microcephaly cases. Brain tissue samples were collected from 15 cases, including 10 microcephalic ZIKV-positive neonates with fatal outcome and five neonatal control flavivirus-negative neonates that died due to other causes, but with preserved central nervous system (CNS) architecture...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302837/up-regulated-pro-inflammatory-micrornas-mirnas-in-alzheimer-s-disease-ad-and-age-related-macular-degeneration-amd
#11
Aileen I Pogue, Walter J Lukiw
Alzheimer's disease (AD) of the brain neocortex and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) of the retina are two complex neurodegenerative disorders, which (i) involve the progressive dysregulation and deterioration of multiple neurobiological signaling pathways, (ii) exhibit the temporal accumulation of pro-inflammatory lesions including the amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide-containing senile plaques of AD and the drusen of AMD, and (iii) culminate in an insidious inflammatory neurodegeneration ending, respectively, in neural cell atrophy and death and progressive loss of cognition and central visual function...
January 4, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299389/cd226-deficiency-improves-cognitive-functions-and-ameliorates-anxiety-like-behaviors-in-mice
#12
Liang Fang, Jingyi Jin, Ping Chen, Ning Wang, Hanyu Zeng, Boquan Jin, Hui Li, Lihua Chen
Background: CD226 is a cell surface adhesion molecule expressed in the immune system and central nervous system. Although the role of CD226 in the function of immune cells has been well studied, there has been no report on the potential functional significance of CD226 in neural cells. Methods: We investigated the role of CD226 on the cognitive function and behaviors using CD226 knockout (CD226KO) and wild-type mice. The spatial learning and memory were characterized using Morris water maze test, and the behaviors were evaluated using open field and elevated plus maze tests...
December 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298609/interferon-%C3%AE-promotes-neuronal-repair-by-transplanted-neural-stem-cells-in-ischemic-rats
#13
Guilong Zhang, Xiaoyuan Guo, Lukui Chen, Bingqian Li, Bin Gu, Hong Wang, Guojian Wu, Jun Kong, Wanghao Chen, Yongbo Yu
Ischemic stroke represents the leading cause of adult neurological disability, with no effective therapeutic strategy. Stem cell transplantation promises a new promising for treating stroke, via cell replacement and cytokines paracrine. However, due to the effect of hostile immune microenvironment, the survival and differentiation of stem cells is limited in vivo. Furthermore, the delayed inflammatory response to stroke induced secondary neurological injury. IFN-γ as pro-inflammatory cytokine has the potential to protect stem cell population during inflammatory response, as well stimulates neurogenesis of stem cells...
January 3, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298542/the-role-of-alpha7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-involvement-of-different-cellular-pathways
#14
Mohammad Seyedabadi, Reza Rahimian, Jean-Eric Ghia
Autonomic imbalance plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The central nervous system (CNS) cooperates dynamically with the immune system to regulate inflammation through humoral and neural pathways. In particular, acetylcholine (Ach), the main neurotransmitter in the vagus nerve, decreases the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines through a mechanism dependent on the α7 nicotinic Ach receptors (α7nAChRs). Areas covered: Here, we review the evidence for involvement of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) in IBD...
January 3, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288743/the-good-and-bad-faces-of-the-cxcr4-chemokine-receptor
#15
REVIEW
Joaquin Teixidó, Mónica Martínez-Moreno, Marta Díaz-Martínez, Silvia Sevilla-Movilla
Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines that promote cell migration and activation under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. Chemokines bind to seven transmembrane-spanning receptors that are coupled to heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding (G) proteins, which are the responsible for intracellularly transmitting the activating signals for cell migration. Hematopoiesis, vascular development, lymphoid organ morphogenesis, cardiogenesis and neural differentiation are amongst the processes involving chemokine function...
December 27, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285679/human-neural-stem-cell-extracellular-vesicles-improve-tissue-and-functional-recovery-in-the-murine-thromboembolic-stroke-model
#16
Robin L Webb, Erin E Kaiser, Shelley L Scoville, Tyler A Thompson, Sumbul Fatima, Chirayukumar Pandya, Karishma Sriram, Raymond L Swetenburg, Kumar Vaibhav, Ali S Arbab, Babak Baban, Krishnan M Dhandapani, David C Hess, M N Hoda, Steven L Stice
Over 700 drugs have failed in stroke clinical trials, an unprecedented rate thought to be attributed in part to limited and isolated testing often solely in "young" rodent models and focusing on a single secondary injury mechanism. Here, extracellular vesicles (EVs), nanometer-sized cell signaling particles, were tested in a mouse thromboembolic (TE) stroke model. Neural stem cell (NSC) and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) EVs derived from the same pluripotent stem cell (PSC) line were evaluated for changes in infarct volume as well as sensorimotor function...
December 28, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283023/neuroinflammation-mast-cells-and-glia-dangerous-liaisons
#17
Stephen D Skaper, Laura Facci, Morena Zusso, Pietro Giusti
The perspective of neuroinflammation as an epiphenomenon following neuron damage is being replaced by the awareness of glia and their importance in neural functions and disorders. Systemic inflammation generates signals that communicate with the brain and leads to changes in metabolism and behavior, with microglia assuming a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Identification of potential peripheral-to-central cellular links is thus a critical step in designing effective therapeutics. Mast cells may fulfill such a role...
October 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282807/blocking-of-cytokines-signalling-attenuates-evoked-and-spontaneous-neuropathic-pain-behaviours-in-the-paclitaxel-rat-model-of-chemotherapy-induced-neuropathy
#18
S Al-Mazidi, M Alotaibi, T Nedjadi, A Chaudhary, M Alzoghaibi, L Djouhri
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathic pain (CIPNP) is a serious dose-limiting neurotoxic effect of cancer drug treatment. The underlying mechanism(s) of this debilitating condition, which lacks effective drug treatment, is incompletely understood. However, neural-immune interactions, involving increased expression and release of cytokines, are believed to be involved. Here, we examined, in the paclitaxel rat model of CIPNP, whether plasma levels of 24 cytokines/chemokines change after paclitaxel treatment, and whether blocking of signalling of some of those cytokines would reverse/attenuate behavioural signs of CIPNP...
December 27, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278464/the-sinonasal-microbiota-neural-signaling-and-depression-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#19
Michael Hoggard, Angela Nocera, Kristi Biswas, Michael W Taylor, Richard G Douglas, Benjamin S Bleier
BACKGROUND: The complex relationships between the human microbiota, the immune system, and the brain play important roles in both health and disease, and have been of increasing interest in the study of chronic inflammatory mucosal conditions. We hypothesized that the sinonasal microbiota may act as a modifier of interkingdom neural signaling and, subsequently, mental health, in the upper respiratory inflammatory condition chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). In this study we investigated associations between the sinonasal microbiota; local concentrations of the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA); and depression severity in a cohort of 14 CRS patients and 12 healthy controls...
December 26, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276513/multidimensional-analysis-integrating-human-t-cell-signatures-in-lymphatic-tissues-with-sex-of-humanized-mice-for-prediction-of-responses-after-dendritic-cell-immunization
#20
Valery Volk, Andreas I Reppas, Philippe A Robert, Loukia M Spineli, Bala Sai Sundarasetty, Sebastian J Theobald, Andreas Schneider, Laura Gerasch, Candida Deves Roth, Stephan Klöss, Ulrike Koehl, Constantin von Kaisenberg, Constanca Figueiredo, Haralampos Hatzikirou, Michael Meyer-Hermann, Renata Stripecke
Mice transplanted with human cord blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) became a powerful experimental tool for studying the heterogeneity of human immune reconstitution and immune responses in vivo. Yet, analyses of human T cell maturation in humanized models have been hampered by an overall low immune reactivity and lack of methods to define predictive markers of responsiveness. Long-lived human lentiviral induced dendritic cells expressing the cytomegalovirus pp65 protein (iDCpp65) promoted the development of pp65-specific human CD8+ T cell responses in NOD...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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