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neural immunity

Riccardo Calvani, Anna Picca, Maria Rita Lo Monaco, Francesco Landi, Roberto Bernabei, Emanuele Marzetti
In recent years, an extensive body of literature focused on the gut-brain axis and the possible role played by the gut microbiota in modulating brain morphology and function from birth to old age. Gut microbiota has been proposed as a relevant player during the early phases of neurodevelopment, with possible long-standing effects in later life. The reduction in gut microbiota diversity has also become one of the hallmarks of aging, and disturbances in its composition are associated with several (age-related) neurological conditions, including depression, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Andrzej T Slominski, Michal A Zmijewski, Przemyslaw M Plonka, Jerzy P Szaflarski, Ralf Paus
The skin, a self-regulating protective barrier organ, is empowered with sensory and computing capabilities to counteract the environmental stressors to maintain/restore disrupted cutaneous homeostasis. These complex functions are coordinated by a cutaneous neuro-endocrine system that also communicates in a bidirectional fashion with the central nervous, endocrine and immune systems, all acting in concert to control body homeostasis. While ultraviolet energy (UV) has played an important role in the origin and evolution of life, UV absorption by the skin not only triggers mechanisms that defend skin integrity and regulate global homeostasis, but also induces skin pathology (e...
March 12, 2018: Endocrinology
Richard Lindqvist, Chaitanya Kurhade, Jonathan D Gilthorpe, Anna K Överby
BACKGROUND: Flaviviruses are a group of diverse and emerging arboviruses and an immense global health problem. A number of flaviviruses are neurotropic, causing severe encephalitis and even death. Type I interferons (IFNs) are the first line of defense of the innate immune system against flavivirus infection. IFNs elicit the concerted action of numerous interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) to restrict both virus infection and replication. Viperin (virus-inhibitory protein, endoplasmic reticulum-associated, IFN-inducible) is an ISG with broad-spectrum antiviral activity against multiple flaviviruses in vitro...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Marion Griton, Jan Pieter Konsman
Although the immune and nervous systems have long been considered independent biological systems, they turn out to mingle and interact extensively. The present review summarizes recent insights into the neural pathways activated by and involved in infection-induced inflammation and discusses potential clinical applications. The simplest activation concerns a reflex action within C-fibers leading to neurogenic inflammation. Low concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines or bacterial fragments may also act on these afferent nerve fibers to signal the central nervous system and bring about early fever, hyperalgesia and sickness behavior...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
Kylie D Rock, Heather B Patisaul
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders on the rise, it is imperative to identify and understand the mechanisms by which environmental contaminants can impact the developing brain and heighten risk. Here, we report on recent findings regarding novel mechanisms of developmental neurotoxicity and highlight chemicals of concern, beyond traditionally defined neurotoxicants. RECENT FINDINGS: The perinatal window represents a critical and extremely vulnerable period of time during which chemical insult can alter the morphological and functional trajectory of the developing brain...
March 13, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
C G Bien
The paraneoplastic and autoimmune encephalitides are now well-established entities. Detection of neural autoantibodies enables specific diagnoses, provides information on the underlying disease pathophysiology, immunological treatability and the likelihood of a tumor being the underlying cause. This is true for the "high ranking" neural antibodies that have been established in the context of circumscribed clinical images and in consideration of large control groups, have been found in the same way by other laboratories and they respond to immunotherapy...
March 13, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Zhaoqun Liu, Lingling Wang, Zhao Lv, Zhi Zhou, Weilin Wang, Meijia Li, Qilin Yi, Limei Qiu, Linsheng Song
It is becoming increasingly clear that neurotransmitters impose direct influence on regulation of the immune process. Recently, a simple but sophisticated neuroendocrine-immune (NEI) system was identified in oyster, which modulated neural immune response via a "nervous-hemocyte"-mediated neuroendocrine immunomodulatory axis (NIA)-like pathway. In the present study, the de novo synthesis of neurotransmitters and their immunomodulation in the hemocytes of oyster Crassostrea gigas were investigated to understand the autocrine/paracrine pathway independent of the nervous system...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Nellihela Leel, Hemanshoo S Thakkar, David Drake, Nordeen Bouhadiba
Anti-N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a paraneoplastic, immune-mediated encephalopathy with a known association with ovarian teratomas. We present the first case in the UK of a 7-year-old patient presenting with this condition. Having been previously fit and healthy, the patient presented with an acute onset of cognitive disturbances. The initial suspicion was that of an infective encephalopathy; however, the lumbar puncture results were negative. Electroencephalography reported diffuse background slowing, supporting a diagnosis of encephalopathy...
March 13, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Cristian Cuadra, Angelo Bartsch, Paula Tiemann, Sasha Reschechtko, Mark L Latash
We explored whether the synergic control of the hand during multi-finger force production tasks depends on the hand muscles involved. Healthy subjects performed accurate force production tasks and targeted force pulses while pressing against loops positioned at the level of fingertips, middle phalanges, and proximal phalanges. This varied the involvement of the extrinsic and intrinsic finger flexors. The framework of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis was used to analyze the structure of inter-trial variance, motor equivalence, and anticipatory synergy adjustments prior to the force pulse in the spaces of finger forces and finger modes (hypothetical finger-specific control signals)...
March 12, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Guosong Hong, Robert D Viveros, Theodore J Zwang, Xiao Yang, Charles M Lieber
Electrophysiology tools have contributed substantially to understanding brain function, yet the capabilities of conventional electrophysiology probes have remained limited in key ways due to large structural and mechanical mismatches with respect to neural tissue. In this Perspective, we discuss how the general goal of probe design in biochemistry - that the probe or label has a minimal impact on the properties and function of the system being studied - can be realized by minimizing structural, mechanical and topological differences between neural probes and brain tissue, thus leading to a new paradigm of tissue-like mesh electronics...
March 12, 2018: Biochemistry
Carrie J Finno, Matthew H Bordbari, Giuliana Gianino, Brittni Ming-Whitfield, Erin Burns, Janel Merkel, Monica Britton, Blythe Durbin-Johnson, Erica A Sloma, Marissa McMackin, Gino Cortopassi, Victor Rivas, Marietta Barro, Cecilia K Tran, Ingrid Gennity, Hadi Habib, Libin Xu, Birgit Puschner, Andrew D Miller
Mice with deficiency in tocopherol (alpha) transfer protein gene develop peripheral tocopherol deficiency and sensory neurodegeneration. Ttpa-/- mice maintained on diets with deficient α-tocopherol (α-TOH) had proprioceptive deficits by six months of age, axonal degeneration and neuronal chromatolysis within the dorsal column of the spinal cord and its projections into the medulla. Transmission electron microscopy revealed degeneration of dorsal column axons. We addressed the potential pathomechanism of α-TOH deficient neurodegeneration by global transcriptome sequencing within the spinal cord and cerebellum...
March 8, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Gabriel Shimizu Bassi, Luis Ulloa, Victor Rodrigues Santos, Flávio Del Vecchio, Polianna Delfino-Pereira, Gerson Jonathan Rodrigues, Jaci Airton Castania, Fernando Queiróz Cunha, Hélio Cesar Salgado, Thiago Mattar Cunha, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Alexandre Kanashiro
The neuronal control of the immune system is fundamental to the development of new therapeutic strategies for inflammatory disorders. Recent studies reported that afferent vagal stimulation attenuates peripheral inflammation by activating specific sympathetic central and peripheral networks, but only few subcortical brain areas were investigated. In the present study, we report that afferent vagal stimulation also activates specific cortical areas, as the parietal and cingulate cortex. Since these cortical structures innervate sympathetic-related areas, we investigate whether electrical stimulation of parietal cortex can attenuate knee joint inflammation in non-anesthetized rats...
March 6, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Kyung-Joo Seong, Hyeong-Jun Kim, Bangrong Cai, Min-Suk Kook, Ji-Yeon Jung, Won-Jae Kim
The subgranular zone (SGZ) of hippocampal dentate gyrus (HDG) is a primary site of adult neurogenesis. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), are involved in neural system development of Drosophila and innate immune response of mammals. TLR2 is expressed abundantly in neurogenic niches such as adult mammalian hippocampus. It regulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis. However, the role of TLR2 in adult neurogenesis is not well studied in global or focal cerebral ischemia. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the role of TLR2 in adult neurogenesis after photochemically induced cerebral ischemia...
March 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Monica Manglani, Dorian B McGavern
Innate and adaptive immune interactions within the central nervous system (CNS) and surrounding meninges contribute significantly to neural homeostasis as well as a variety of different neurological disorders. Two-photon laser scanning microscopy is a deep tissue imaging technique that provides a means to image immune cell dynamics and interactions in the living CNS with high spatial and temporal resolution. Optical access to the brain and meninges can be achieved through the creation of thinned skull windows, which can be made without inducing damage and inflammation in the underlying tissue...
February 21, 2018: Current Protocols in Immunology
Maria Maryanovich, Shoichiro Takeishi, Paul S Frenette
Bones provide both skeletal scaffolding and space for hematopoiesis in its marrow. Previous work has shown that these functions were tightly regulated by the nervous system. The central and peripheral nervous systems tightly regulate compact bone remodeling, its metabolism, and hematopoietic homeostasis in the bone marrow (BM). Accumulating evidence indicates that the nervous system, which fine-tunes inflammatory responses and alterations in neural functions, may regulate autoimmune diseases. Neural signals also influence the progression of hematological malignancies such as acute and chronic myeloid leukemias...
March 2, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Namhee Kim, Misun Yun, Young Joon Oh, Hak-Jong Choi
It is increasingly evident that bidirectional interactions exist among the gastrointestinal tract, the enteric nervous system, and the central nervous system. Recent preclinical and clinical trials have shown that gut microbiota plays an important role in these gut-brain interactions. Furthermore, alterations in gut microbiota composition may be associated with pathogenesis of various neurological disorders, including stress, autism, depression, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, the concepts of the microbiota-gut-brain axis is emerging...
March 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Yan Li, Galen Missig, Beate C Finger, Samantha M Landino, Abigail J Alexander, Emery Mokler, James Robbins, Yunona Manasian, Woori Kim, Kwang-Soo Kim, Christopher J McDougle, William A Carlezon, Vadim Y Bolshakov
Inflammatory processes may be involved in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric illnesses including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Evidence from studies in rodents indicates that immune activation during early development can produce core features of ASD (social interaction deficits, dysregulation of communication, increases in stereotyped behaviors and anxiety), although the neural mechanisms of these effects are not thoroughly understood. We treated timed-pregnant mice with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C), which simulates a viral infection, or vehicle on gestational day 12...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jessie Chen, Stephanie Van Gulden, Tammy L McGuire, Andrew C Fleming, Chio Oka, John A Kessler, Chian-Yu Peng
Astrocytes perform a wide array of physiological functions including structural support, ion exchange, and neurotransmitter uptake. Despite this diversity, molecular markers that label subpopulations of astrocytes are limited, and mechanisms that generate distinct astrocyte subtypes remain unclear. Here we identified a Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4) signaling regulated protein, serine protease High temperature requirement A 1 (HtrA1), as a novel marker of forebrain astrocytes, but not of neural stem cells, in adult mice of both sexes...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Stefanie Berger, Marianne Ronovsky, Orsolya Horvath, Angelika Berger, Daniela D Pollak
Maternal immune activation (MIA) is a well-established model for the investigation of the deleterious effects of gestational infection on offspring mental health later in life. Hence, MIA represents a critical environmental variable determining brain development and the depending neural and behavioral functions in the progeny. Transgenerational transmission of some of the effects of MIA has been recently reported using the Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly (I:C)) MIA model in C57BL/6 (C57) inbred mice. However, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms and the possible relevance of the specific genetic make-up of the inbred mouse strain used...
February 23, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Luca Peruzzotti-Jametti, Joshua D Bernstock, Nunzio Vicario, Ana S H Costa, Chee Keong Kwok, Tommaso Leonardi, Lee M Booty, Iacopo Bicci, Beatrice Balzarotti, Giulio Volpe, Giulia Mallucci, Giulia Manferrari, Matteo Donegà, Nunzio Iraci, Alice Braga, John M Hallenbeck, Michael P Murphy, Frank Edenhofer, Christian Frezza, Stefano Pluchino
Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation can influence immune responses and suppress inflammation in the CNS. Metabolites, such as succinate, modulate the phenotype and function of immune cells, but whether and how NSCs are also activated by such immunometabolites to control immunoreactivity and inflammatory responses is unclear. Here, we show that transplanted somatic and directly induced NSCs ameliorate chronic CNS inflammation by reducing succinate levels in the cerebrospinal fluid, thereby decreasing mononuclear phagocyte (MP) infiltration and secondary CNS damage...
February 14, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
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