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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906690/the-long-road-to-leptin
#1
Jeffrey Friedman
Leptin is an adipose tissue hormone that functions as an afferent signal in a negative feedback loop that maintains homeostatic control of adipose tissue mass. This endocrine system thus serves a critical evolutionary function by protecting individuals from the risks associated with being too thin (starvation) or too obese (predation and temperature dysregulation). Mutations in leptin or its receptor cause massive obesity in mice and humans, and leptin can effectively treat obesity in leptin-deficient patients...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885383/schwann-cells-a-new-player-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#2
REVIEW
Yuri L Bunimovich, Anton A Keskinov, Galina V Shurin, Michael R Shurin
Cancerous cells must cooperate with the surrounding stroma and non-malignant cells within the microenvironment to support the growth and invasion of the tumor. The nervous system is a component of every organ system of the body, and therefore, is invariably at the front line of the tumor invasion. Due to the complexity of the nervous system physiology, this review separately discusses the contributions of the central and peripheral nervous systems to the tumorigenesis and tumor progression. We further focus the discussion on the evidence that Schwann cells aid in tumor growth and invasion...
November 24, 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879258/nucleophosmin-anaplastic-lymphoma-kinase-npm-alk-the-ultimate-oncogene-and-therapeutic-target
#3
Michael T Werner, Chen Zhao, Qian Zhang, Mariusz A Wasik
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase physiologically expressed by fetal neural cells. However, aberrantly expressed ALK is involved in the pathogenesis of diverse malignancies including distinct types of lymphoma, lung carcinoma, and neuroblastoma. The aberrant ALK expression in non-neural cells results from chromosomal translocations that create novel fusion proteins. These protein hybrids are comprised of the proximal part of a partner gene including its promoter region and the distal part of ALK including coding sequence for the entire kinase domain...
November 22, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876152/the-role-of-substance-p-in-pulmonary-clearance-of-bacteria-in-comparative-injury-models
#4
Terry Hsieh, Max H Vaickus, Thor D Stein, Bethany L Lussier, Jiyoun Kim, David M Stepien, Elizabeth R Duffy, Evan L Chiswick, Daniel G Remick
Neural input to the immune system can alter its ability to clear pathogens effectively. Patients suffering mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) have shown reduced rates of pneumonia and a murine model replicated these findings, with better overall survival of TBI mice compared with sham-injured mice. To further investigate the mechanism of improved host response in TBI mice, this study developed and characterized a mild tail trauma model of similar severity to mild TBI. Both mild tail trauma and TBI induced similar systemic changes that normalized within 48 hours, including release of substance P...
December 2016: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867834/neurobiology-of-risk-for-bipolar-disorder
#5
REVIEW
Ayşegül Özerdem, Deniz Ceylan, Güneş Can
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic mental illness which follows a relapsing and remitting course and requires lifetime treatment. The lack of biological markers for BD is a major difficulty in clinical practice. Exploring multiple endophenotypes to fit in multivariate genetic models for BD is an important element in the process of finding tools to facilitate early diagnosis, early intervention, prevention of new episodes, and follow-up of treatment response in BD. Reviewing of studies on neuroimaging, neurocognition, and biochemical parameters in populations with high genetic risk for the illness can yield an integrative perspective on the neurobiology of risk for BD...
2016: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866686/size-loading-efficiency-and-cytotoxicity-of-albumin-loaded-chitosan-nanoparticles-an-artificial-neural-networks-study
#6
Hadi Baharifar, Amir Amani
When designing nanoparticles for drug delivery, many variables such as size, loading efficiency, and cytotoxicity should be considered. Usually, smaller particles are preferred in drug delivery because of longer blood circulation time and their ability to escape from immune system, whereas smaller nanoparticles often show increased toxicity. Determination of parameters which affect size of particles and factors such as loading efficiency and cytotoxicity could be very helpful in designing drug delivery systems...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866303/anesthetic-technique-and-cancer-recurrence-in-oncologic-surgery-unraveling-the-puzzle
#7
Ryungsa Kim
Surgery/anesthetic technique-stimulated immunosuppression in the perioperative period might cause an increase in cancer-related mortality. Whether anesthetic technique can affect the outcomes of cancer patients remains inconclusive. This review discusses data from the available literature on anesthetic techniques applied in oncologic surgery, the long-term outcomes of anesthetic technique, and their relation to survival and cancer recurrence. Searches of the PubMed database up to June 30, 2016, were conducted to identify publications with the terms "anesthetic technique and cancer recurrence," "regional anesthesia and cancer recurrence," "local anesthesia and cancer recurrence," "anesthetic technique and immunosuppression," and "anesthetic technique and oncologic surgery...
November 19, 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862119/increased-expression-of-nerve-growth-factor-correlates-with-visceral-hypersensitivity-and-impaired-gut-barrier-function-in-diarrhoea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-preliminary-explorative-study
#8
X J Xu, Y L Zhang, L Liu, L Pan, S K Yao
BACKGROUND: Neural-immune-endocrine network mechanism has attracted increased attention in diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). Pre-clinical evidence indicates that nerve growth factor (NGF) mediates visceral hypersensitivity and gut barrier dysfunction, via interactions with mast cells and sensory nerve fibres. AIM: To explore the role of nerve growth factor, as well as mast cell-nerve growth factor-nerve interaction in IBS-D pathophysiology...
January 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861905/attenuation-of-experimental-autoimmune-neuritis-with-locally-administered-lovastatin-encapsulating-plga-nanoparticles
#9
Kelly A Langert, Bruktawit Goshu, Evan B Stubbs
Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) is an aggressive antibody- and T cell-mediated variant of Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS), a prominent and debilitating autoimmune disorder of the peripheral nervous system. Despite advancements in clinical management, treatment of patients with AIDP/GBS and its chronic variant CIDP remains palliative and relies on the use of non-specific immune-modulating therapies. Our laboratory has previously reported that therapeutic administration of statins safely attenuates the clinical severity of experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN), a well-characterized animal model of AIDP/GBS, by restricting the migration of autoreactive leukocytes across peripheral nerve microvascular endoneurial endothelial cells (PNMECs) that form the blood-nerve barrier...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855369/effect-of-extracellular-vesicles-on-neural-functional-recovery-and-immunologic-suppression-after-rat-cerebral-apoplexy
#10
Beilei Hu, Songfang Chen, Ming Zou, Zhiyong He, Shengmin Shao, Baohua Liu
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can promote the recovery of neural function after cerebral apoplexy by secreting multiple cytokines. In addition, cell factor-derived extracellular vesicles play an important role in recovery of neural function. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of extracellular vesicles on neural functional recovery and brain tissue remodeling after cerebral apoplexy in a rat model. METHODS: The rat models with local ischemic stroke was established and three random groups were created...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854261/taking-advantage-of-nature-s-gift-can-endogenous-neural-stem-cells-improve-myelin-regeneration
#11
REVIEW
Rainer Akkermann, Janusz Joachim Jadasz, Kasum Azim, Patrick Küry
Irreversible functional deficits in multiple sclerosis (MS) are directly correlated to axonal damage and loss. Neurodegeneration results from immune-mediated destruction of myelin sheaths and subsequent axonal demyelination. Importantly, oligodendrocytes, the myelinating glial cells of the central nervous system, can be replaced to some extent to generate new myelin sheaths. This endogenous regeneration capacity has so far mainly been attributed to the activation and recruitment of resident oligodendroglial precursor cells...
November 14, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843317/effect-of-yi-nao-jie-yu-decoction-on-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-type-a-receptor-in-the-hippocampus-and-serum-inflammatory-factors-in-a-rat-model-of-poststroke-anxiety
#12
Wen Zhang, Ruizhen Zhao, Xiaoli Li, Xia Cui, Zijun Zhao, Yingqiu Mao, Fengzhi Wu, Qisheng Tang
BACKGROUND: The Yi-nao-jie-yu decoction (YNJYD) is a herbal preparation widely used in the clinics of traditional Chinese medicine and has been recently used as an important new therapeutic agent in poststroke anxiety (PSA). The neuroendocrine-immune system plays an important role in PSA mechanisms, although the modulating effects of YNJYD remain unknown. This study investigated the potential effects of YNJYD on the neuroendocrine-immune system in a rat model of PSA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The PSA model was induced by injecting collagenase (type VII) into the right globus pallidus, accompanied by empty water bottle stimulation for 2 weeks...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837318/astrocytes-in-migration
#13
Jiang Shan Zhan, Kai Gao, Rui Chao Chai, Xi Hua Jia, Dao Peng Luo, Guo Ge, Yu Wu Jiang, Yin-Wan Wendy Fung, Lina Li, Albert Cheung Hoi Yu
Cell migration is a fundamental phenomenon that underlies tissue morphogenesis, wound healing, immune response, and cancer metastasis. Great progresses have been made in research methodologies, with cell migration identified as a highly orchestrated process. Brain is considered the most complex organ in the human body, containing many types of neural cells with astrocytes playing crucial roles in monitoring normal functions of the central nervous system. Astrocytes are mostly quiescent under normal physiological conditions in the adult brain but become migratory after injury...
November 11, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836584/puberty-as-a-vulnerable-period-to-the-effects-of-immune-challenges-focus-on-sex-differences
#14
REVIEW
Leanne Kane, Nafissa Ismail
Puberty is a critical period of development during which sexual maturity is attained. It is also a critical period for brain reorganization and it is vulnerable to exposure to certain environmental factors. Exposure to stress during this period can cause enduring neural and behavioral alterations. More specifically, exposure to an immune challenge during this period can alter reproductive as well as a number of non-reproductive behaviors and can permanently alter the brain's response to gonadal hormones. The present review examines the enduring effect of exposure to LPS and poly(I:C) during the pubertal period...
November 8, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834864/chronic-binge-alcohol-administration-dysregulates-hippocampal-genes-involved-in-immunity-and-neurogenesis-in-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-macaques
#15
John K Maxi, Matt Dean, Jovanny Zabaleta, Krzysztof Reiss, Gregory J Bagby, Steve Nelson, Peter J Winsauer, Francesca Peruzzi, Patricia E Molina
Alcohol use disorders (AUD) exacerbate neurocognitive dysfunction in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV+) patients. We have shown that chronic binge alcohol (CBA) administration (13-14 g EtOH/kg/wk) prior to and during simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in rhesus macaques unmasks learning deficits in operant learning and memory tasks. The underlying mechanisms of neurocognitive alterations due to alcohol and SIV are not known. This exploratory study examined the CBA-induced differential expression of hippocampal genes in SIV-infected (CBA/SIV+; n = 2) macaques in contrast to those of sucrose administered, SIV-infected (SUC/SIV+; n = 2) macaques...
November 9, 2016: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833098/neuronal-gpcr-octr-1-regulates-innate-immunity-by-controlling-protein-synthesis-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#16
Yiyong Liu, Durai Sellegounder, Jingru Sun
Upon pathogen infection, microbial killing pathways and cellular stress pathways are rapidly activated by the host innate immune system. These pathways must be tightly regulated because insufficient or excessive immune responses have deleterious consequences. Increasing evidence indicates that the nervous system regulates the immune system to confer coordinated protection to the host. However, the precise mechanisms of neural-immune communication remain unclear. Previously we have demonstrated that OCTR-1, a neuronal G protein-coupled receptor, functions in the sensory neurons ASH and ASI to suppress innate immune responses in non-neural tissues against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Caenorhabditis elegans...
November 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830532/role-of-microglia-in-neurological-disorders-and-their-potentials-as-a-therapeutic-target
#17
REVIEW
Li Du, Ying Zhang, Yang Chen, Jie Zhu, Yi Yang, Hong-Liang Zhang
Microglia are resident macrophage-like immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS) and play a vital role in both physiological and pathological conditions, including restoring the integrity of the CNS and promoting the progression of neurodegenerative disorders. Upon stimulation, microglia typically convert from a surveillant to an activated phenotype. The major function of microglia is to maintain homeostasis and normal function of the CNS, both during development and in response to CNS injury. Microglia regulate multiple aspects of inflammation, such as repair, cytotoxicity, regeneration, and immunosuppression due to their different kind of activation states or phenotypes...
November 9, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825385/neurogenomics-and-the-role-of-a-large-mutational-target-on-rapid-behavioral-change
#18
Craig E Stanley, Rob J Kulathinal
BACKGROUND: Behavior, while complex and dynamic, is among the most diverse, derived, and rapidly evolving traits in animals. The highly labile nature of heritable behavioral change is observed in such evolutionary phenomena as the emergence of converged behaviors in domesticated animals, the rapid evolution of preferences, and the routine development of ethological isolation between diverging populations and species. In fact, it is believed that nervous system development and its potential to evolve a seemingly infinite array of behavioral innovations played a major role in the successful diversification of metazoans, including our own human lineage...
November 8, 2016: Biology Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819256/long-term-stability-of-intracortical-recordings-using-perforated-and-arrayed-parylene-sheath-electrodes
#19
Seth A Hara, Brian J Kim, Jonathan T W Kuo, Curtis D Lee, Ellis Meng, Victor Pikov
OBJECTIVE: Acquisition of reliable and robust neural recordings with intracortical neural probes is a persistent challenge in the field of neuroprosthetics. We developed a multielectrode array technology to address chronic intracortical recording reliability and present in vivo recording results. APPROACH: The 2 × 2 Parylene sheath electrode array (PSEA) was microfabricated and constructed from only Parylene C and platinum. The probe includes a novel three-dimensional sheath structure, perforations, and bioactive coatings that improve tissue integration and manage immune response...
December 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818721/inhibition-of-hsp90-promotes-neural-stem-cell-survival-from-oxidative-stress-through-attenuating-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p65-activation
#20
Qian Liu, Yun Li, Wenkai Jiang, Yunzi Li, Lin Zhou, Bing Song, Xinfeng Liu
Stem cell survival after transplantation determines the efficiency of stem cell treatment, which develops as a novel potential therapy for several central nervous system (CNS) diseases in recent decades. The engrafted stem cells face the damage of oxidative stress, inflammation, and immune response at the lesion point in host. Among the damaging pathologies, oxidative stress directs stem cells to apoptosis and even death through several signalling pathways and DNA damage. However, the in-detail mechanism of stem cell survival from oxidative stress has not been revealed clearly...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
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