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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933969/psychopharmacological-advances-in-eating-disorders
#1
Hubertus Himmerich, Janet Treasure
Anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) are the primary eating disorders (EDs). The only psychopharmacological treatment options for EDs with approval in some countries include fluoxetine for BN and lisdexamfetamine for BED. Given the high comorbidity and genetic correlations with other psychiatric disorders, it seems possible that novel medications for these conditions might also be effective in EDs. Areas Covered: The current scientific literature has increased our understanding of how medication could be beneficial for patients with EDs on a molecular, functional and behavioral level...
September 21, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932628/a-novel-in-silico-framework-to-improve-mhc-i-epitopes-and-break-the-tolerance-to-melanoma
#2
Cristian Capasso, Aniket Magarkar, Victor Cervera-Carascon, Manlio Fusciello, Sara Feola, Martin Muller, Mariangela Garofalo, Lukasz Kuryk, Siri Tähtinen, Lucio Pastore, Alex Bunker, Vincenzo Cerullo
Tolerance toward tumor antigens, which are shared by normal tissues, have often limited the efficacy of cancer vaccines. However, wild type epitopes can be tweaked to activate cross-reactive T-cell clones, resulting in antitumor activity. The design of these analogs (i.e., heteroclitic peptides) can be difficult and time-consuming since no automated in silico tools are available. Hereby we describe the development of an in silico framework to improve the selection of heteroclitic peptides. The Epitope Discovery and Improvement System (EDIS) was first validated by studying the model antigen SIINFEKL...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932181/invasive-intraneural-interfaces-foreign-body-reaction-issues
#3
REVIEW
Fiorenza Lotti, Federico Ranieri, Gianluca Vadalà, Loredana Zollo, Giovanni Di Pino
Intraneural interfaces are stimulation/registration devices designed to couple the peripheral nervous system (PNS) with the environment. Over the last years, their use has increased in a wide range of applications, such as the control of a new generation of neural-interfaced prostheses. At present, the success of this technology is limited by an electrical impedance increase, due to an inflammatory response called foreign body reaction (FBR), which leads to the formation of a fibrotic tissue around the interface, eventually causing an inefficient transduction of the electrical signal...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931637/diamond-thin-films-giving-biomedical-applications-a-new-shine
#4
REVIEW
P A Nistor, P W May
Progress made in the last two decades in chemical vapour deposition technology has enabled the production of inexpensive, high-quality coatings made from diamond to become a scientific and commercial reality. Two properties of diamond make it a highly desirable candidate material for biomedical applications: first, it is bioinert, meaning that there is minimal immune response when diamond is implanted into the body, and second, its electrical conductivity can be altered in a controlled manner, from insulating to near-metallic...
September 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930602/molecular-biology-of-tick-acetylcholinesterases
#5
Kevin Bruce Temeyer
Ticks vector many pathogens with major health and economic impacts and have developed resistance to most acaricides used for tick control. Organophosphate (OP) acaricides target acetylcholinesterase (AChE) critical to tick central nervous system function. Mutations producing tick AChEs resistant to OPs were characterized; but tick OP-resistance is not fully elucidated, due to remarkable complexity of tick cholinergic systems. Three paralogous tick AChEs exhibiting differences in primary structure and biochemical kinetics are encoded by amplified genes with developmentally regulated expression...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928740/microbiome-derived-lipopolysaccharide-enriched-in-the-perinuclear-region-of-alzheimer-s-disease-brain
#6
Yuhai Zhao, Lin Cong, Vivian Jaber, Walter J Lukiw
Abundant clinical, epidemiological, imaging, genetic, molecular, and pathophysiological data together indicate that there occur an unusual inflammatory reaction and a disruption of the innate-immune signaling system in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. Despite many years of intense study, the origin and molecular mechanics of these AD-relevant pathogenic signals are still not well understood. Here, we provide evidence that an intensely pro-inflammatory bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), part of a complex mixture of pro-inflammatory neurotoxins arising from abundant Gram-negative bacilli of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract, are abundant in AD-affected brain neocortex and hippocampus...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927305/discovery-and-application-of-immune-biomarkers-for-hematological-malignancies
#7
Dimitrios Zafeiris, Jayakumar Vadakekolathu, Sarah Wagner, Alan Graham Pockley, Graham Roy Ball, Sergio Rutella
Hematological malignancies originate and progress in primary and secondary lymphoid organs, where they establish a uniquely immune-suppressive tumour microenvironment. Although high-throughput transcriptomic and proteomic approaches are being employed to interrogate immune surveillance and escape mechanisms in patients with solid tumours, and to identify actionable targets for immunotherapy, our knowledge of the immunological landscape of hematological malignancies, as well as our understanding of the molecular circuits that underpin the establishment of immune tolerance, is not comprehensive...
September 19, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918255/microglia-mediated-baff-baffr-ligation-promotes-neuronal-survival-in-brain-ischemia-injury
#8
Kai Li, Wei Yu, Rangjuan Cao, Zhihua Zhu, Guoqing Zhao
The innate immune responses of brain to vascular occlusion are primarily orchestrated by activated microglia. However, the roles of microglia in inflammatory responses to brain ischemic injuries are controversial. Here, we report a new mechanism by which microglia confer protective effects on ischemic neuronal cells. We found that under ischemic condition, the B-cell activating factor (BAFF) was vastly upregulated in microglia and this upregulation could at least be attributed to JAK-STAT signaling pathway activated by IFN-γ and IL-10, which were spatio-temporally enriched in I/R injured brain as well...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918252/a-pdgf-vegf-homologue-provides-new-insights-into-the-nucleus-grafting-operation-and-immune-response-in-the-pearl-oyster-pinctada-fucata
#9
Xian-De Huang, Hua Zhang, Mao-Xian He
The platelet-derived growth factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (PDGF/VEGF, PVF) family of proteins have been implicated in a wide range of biological functions in vertebrates, including cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell migration, neural development and especially angiogenesis/vasculogenesis. In this study, a PVF gene, belonging to the PDGF/VEGF family, was cloned and characterized from Pinctada fucata. It contained an ORF of 1110bp encoding a putative protein of 369 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence presented the typical structural features of PDGF family members and the N-terminal signal peptide for secretion...
September 13, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916442/acute-stress-promotes-post-injury-brain-regeneration-in-fish
#10
Michael S Sinyakov, Amihai Haimovich, Ramy R Avtalion
The central nervous system and the immune system, the two major players in homeostasis, operate in the ongoing bidirectional interaction. Stress is the third player that exerts strong effect on these two 'supersystems'; yet, its impact is studied much less. In this work employing carp model, we studied the influence of preliminary stress on neural and immune networks involved in post-injury brain regeneration. The relevant in-vivo models of air-exposure stress and precisely directed cerebellum injury have been developed...
September 12, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912720/a-single-angiotensin-ii-hypertensive-stimulus-is-associated-with-prolonged-neuronal-and-immune-system-activation-in-wistar-kyoto-rats
#11
Jasenka Zubcevic, Monica M Santisteban, Pablo D Perez, Rebeca Arocha, Helmut Hiller, Wendi L Malphurs, Luis M Colon-Perez, Ravindra K Sharma, Annette de Kloet, Eric G Krause, Marcelo Febo, Mohan K Raizada
Activation of autonomic neural pathways by chronic hypertensive stimuli plays a significant role in pathogenesis of hypertension. Here, we proposed that even a single acute hypertensive stimulus will activate neural and immune pathways that may be important in initiation of memory imprinting seen in chronic hypertension. We investigated the effects of acute angiotensin II (Ang II) administration on blood pressure, neural activation in cardioregulatory brain regions, and central and systemic immune responses, at 1 and 24 h post-injection...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912571/comparative-global-immune-related-gene-profiling-of-somatic-cells-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-and-their-derivatives-implication-for-human-lymphocyte-proliferation
#12
Chia-Eng Wu, Chen-Wei Yu, Kai-Wei Chang, Wen-Hsi Chou, Chen-Yu Lu, Elisa Ghelfi, Fang-Chun Wu, Pey-Shynan Jan, Mei-Chi Huang, Patrick Allard, Shau-Ping Lin, Hong-Nerng Ho, Hsin-Fu Chen
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced PSCs (iPSCs), represent potentially unlimited cell sources for clinical applications. Previous studies have suggested that hPSCs may benefit from immune privilege and limited immunogenicity, as reflected by the reduced expression of major histocompatibility complex class-related molecules. Here we investigated the global immune-related gene expression profiles of human ESCs, hiPSCs and somatic cells and identified candidate immune-related genes that may alter their immunogenicity...
September 15, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912251/neuro-immune-interaction-and-the-regulation-of-intestinal-immune-homeostasis
#13
Simon Verheijden, Guy E Boeckxstaens
Many essential gastrointestinal functions, including motility, secretion and blood flow are regulated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS), both through intrinsic enteric neurons and extrinsic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) innervation. Recently identified neuro-immune mechanisms, in particular the interplay between enteric neurons and muscularis macrophages, are now considered to be essential for fine-tuning peristalsis. These findings shed new light on how intestinal immune cells can support enteric nervous function...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904337/toxoplasma-modulates-signature-pathways-of-human-epilepsy-neurodegeneration-cancer
#14
Huân M Ngô, Ying Zhou, Hernan Lorenzi, Kai Wang, Taek-Kyun Kim, Yong Zhou, Kamal El Bissati, Ernest Mui, Laura Fraczek, Seesandra V Rajagopala, Craig W Roberts, Fiona L Henriquez, Alexandre Montpetit, Jenefer M Blackwell, Sarra E Jamieson, Kelsey Wheeler, Ian J Begeman, Carlos Naranjo-Galvis, Ney Alliey-Rodriguez, Roderick G Davis, Liliana Soroceanu, Charles Cobbs, Dennis A Steindler, Kenneth Boyer, A Gwendolyn Noble, Charles N Swisher, Peter T Heydemann, Peter Rabiah, Shawn Withers, Patricia Soteropoulos, Leroy Hood, Rima McLeod
One third of humans are infected lifelong with the brain-dwelling, protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Approximately fifteen million of these have congenital toxoplasmosis. Although neurobehavioral disease is associated with seropositivity, causality is unproven. To better understand what this parasite does to human brains, we performed a comprehensive systems analysis of the infected brain: We identified susceptibility genes for congenital toxoplasmosis in our cohort of infected humans and found these genes are expressed in human brain...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903026/differential-expression-of-genes-in-fetal-brain-as-a-consequence-of-maternal-protein-deficiency-and-nematode-infection
#15
Manjurul Haque, Lisa M Starr, Kristine G Koski, Marilyn E Scott
Maternal dietary protein deficiency and gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infection during early pregnancy have negative impacts on both maternal placental gene expression and fetal growth in the mouse. Here we used next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to test our hypothesis that maternal protein deficiency and/or nematode infection also alter the expression of genes in the developing fetal brain. Outbred pregnant CD1 mice were used in a 2x2 design with two levels of dietary protein (24% versus 6%) and two levels of infection (repeated sham versus Heligmosomoides bakeri beginning at gestation day 5)...
September 10, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902835/reversing-behavioural-abnormalities-in-mice-exposed-to-maternal-inflammation
#16
Yeong Shin Yim, Ashley Park, Janet Berrios, Mathieu Lafourcade, Leila M Pascual, Natalie Soares, Joo Yeon Kim, Sangdoo Kim, Hyunju Kim, Ari Waisman, Dan R Littman, Ian R Wickersham, Mark T Harnett, Jun R Huh, Gloria B Choi
Viral infection during pregnancy is correlated with increased frequency of neurodevelopmental disorders, and this is studied in mice prenatally subjected to maternal immune activation (MIA). We previously showed that maternal T helper 17 cells promote the development of cortical and behavioural abnormalities in MIA-affected offspring. Here we show that cortical abnormalities are preferentially localized to a region encompassing the dysgranular zone of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1DZ). Moreover, activation of pyramidal neurons in this cortical region was sufficient to induce MIA-associated behavioural phenotypes in wild-type animals, whereas reduction in neural activity rescued the behavioural abnormalities in MIA-affected offspring...
September 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900061/-microglia-in-brain-development
#17
Masaki Ueno
Microglia, traditionally known as resident immune cells in the brain, have been recently identified as one of the important cell types engaging in the formation and maintenance of neural circuitry, especially during the development. In this review, I describe the diversity of microglial functions revealed in different phases of development, ranging from neurogenesis to circuit formation. In particular, microglia possess dual functions in supporting the survival of neuronal structures or neural cells themselves, and removing excess neural components...
September 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899812/the-starving-brain-overfed-meets-undernourished-in-the-pathology-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-mci-and-alzheimer-s-disease-ad
#18
REVIEW
Kelly J Gibas
Type II Diabetes affects 400 million people worldwide (IDF, 2013). The pathology is paradoxical: internal starvation activated by overfeeding. Hyperinsulinemic impairments of glucose homeostasis are treated with anti-hyperglycemics exacerbating cell starvation, inducing hypoglycemia and raising respiratory quotient. Reductions in hyperglycemia are achieved at the expense of glucose dependency and metabolic inflexibility (Gibas & Gibas, 2017). The brain is not immune from these cycles of starvation. The bioenergetic model characterizes propagation of late-onset, sporadic Alzheimer's disease as loss of molecular fidelity and compromised energy originating in brain networks with highest metabolic demand...
September 9, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898976/regulation-of-immune-and-neural-function-via-leukocyte-ig-like-receptors
#19
Kazuya Takeda, Akira Nakamura
Leukocyte Ig-like receptors (LILRs)/Ig-like transcripts (ILTs) are expressed on innate and adaptive immune cells and maintain immune homeostasis. LILRs consist of activating and inhibitory-type receptors that regulate adequate cellular functions. LILRs were firstly identified as MHC class I receptors, therefore expression and/or polymorphisms of LILRs are reported to associate with autoimmune disorders and transplant rejection; however, recent accumulating evidences have revealed that LILRs recognize with diverse ligands including bacteria and virus...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891528/2-2-benzofuranyl-2-imidazoline-2-bfi-improved-the-impairments-in-ad-rat-models-by-inhibiting-oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-apoptosis
#20
Ji-Sha Tian, Qi-Jin Zhai, Ying Zhao, Rui Chen, Lian-Dong Zhao
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is one of the commonest neural degeneration in aging population, and has become a global health challenge. 2-(2-benzofuranyl)-2-imidazoline (2-BFI) was reported to effectively improved the damage of patients with neuropathological disorders. In the present study, we investigated the effect of 2-BFI on the improvement of antioxidative, inflammation, and apoptosis in AD rats. Sprague-Dawley rats (2 months old, n=40) were used in this study and after injection of Aβ1-42 into hippocampal CA1 (Cornu Ammonis) region, the rats were given high, moderate and low dose of 2-BFI though intraperitoneal (i...
2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
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