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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177213/characterization-of-optically-and-electrically-evoked-dopamine-release-in-striatal-slices-from-digenic-knock-in-mice-with-dat-driven-expression-of-channelrhodopsin
#1
Brian O'Neill, Jyoti C Patel, Margaret E Rice
Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FCV) is an established method to monitor increases in extracellular dopamine (DA) concentration ([DA]o) in the striatum, which is densely innervated by DA axons. Ex vivo brain slice preparations provide an opportunity to identify endogenous modulators of DA release. For these experiments, local electrical stimulation is often used to elicit release of DA, as well as other transmitters, in the striatal microcircuitry; changes in evoked increases in [DA]o after application of a pharmacological agent (e...
February 15, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130617/prolactin-has-a-pathogenic-role-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#2
Luis J Jara, Gabriela Medina, Miguel A Saavedra, Olga Vera-Lastra, Honorio Torres-Aguilar, Carmen Navarro, Monica Vazquez Del Mercado, Luis R Espinoza
Prolactin, a 23-kDa peptide hormone, is produced by the anterior pituitary gland and extrapituitary sites including the immune cells. Prolactin (PRL) participates in innate and adaptive immune response. PRL stimulates the immune cells by binding to receptor (PRL-R). Binding of PRL to its receptor activates the Janus kinase-signal transducer (JAK-STAT). Activation of these cascades results in endpoints such as immunoestimulator and immunosupressor action. Prolactin belongs to the network of immune-neuroendocrine interaction...
January 28, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096460/occupancy-of-the-zinc-binding-site-by-transition-metals-decreases-the-substrate-affinity-of-the-human-dopamine-transporter-by-an-allosteric-mechanism
#3
Yang Li, Felix P Mayer, Peter S Hasenhuetl, Verena Burtscher, Klaus Schicker, Harald H Sitte, Michael Freissmuth, Walter Sandtner
The human dopamine transporter (DAT) has a tetrahedral Zn(2+)-binding site. Zn(2+)-binding sites are also recognized by other first row transition metals. Excessive accumulation of manganese or of copper can lead to Parkinsonism due to dopamine deficiency. Accordingly, we examined the effect of Mn(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+) and Cu(2+)on transport-associated currents through DAT and DAT-H193K, a mutant with a disrupted Zn(2+)-binding site. All transition metals - but Mn(2+) - modulated the transport cycle of wild type DAT with affinities in the low µM range...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090181/how-much-we-think-of-ourselves-and-how-little-we-think-of-others-an-investigation-of-the-neuronal-signature-of-self-consciousness-between-different-personality-traits-through-an-event-related-potential-study
#4
Auwal Bello Hassan, Tahamina Begum, Mohammed Faruque Reza, Nasir Yusoff
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have revealed that self-related tasks (items) receive more attention than non-self-related, and that they elicit event-related potential (ERP) components with larger amplitudes. Since personality has been reported as one of the biological correlates influencing these components, as well as our behavioural differences, it is important to examine how it affects our self-consciousness in relation to tasks of varied relevance and the neurological basis. METHODS: A total of 33 male and female undergraduate Malaysian medical students of Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) participated in the study...
November 2016: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052533/what-a-difference-a-methyl-group-makes-the-selectivity-of-monoamine-oxidase-b-towards-histamine-and-n-methylhistamine
#5
Aleksandra Maršavelski, Robert Vianello
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymes catalyze the degradation of a very broad range of biogenic and dietary amines including many neurotransmitters in the brain, whose imbalance is extensively linked with the biochemical pathology of various neurological disorders. Although sharing around 70% sequence identity, both MAO A and B isoforms differ in substrate affinities and inhibitor sensitivities. Inhibitors that act on MAO A are used to treat depression, due to their ability to raise serotonin concentrations, while MAO B inhibitors decrease dopamine degradation and improve motor control in patients with Parkinson disease...
January 3, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026009/transcriptomic-profiling-of-platelet-senescence-and-platelet-extracellular-vesicles
#6
Annika Pienimaeki-Roemer, Tatiana Konovalova, Melina M Musri, Alexander Sigruener, Alfred Boettcher, Gunter Meister, Gerd Schmitz
BACKGROUND: Platelets (PLTs) are derived from megakaryocytes during PLT shedding. Senescent or activated PLTs are expanded in vascular and neurological diseases and release PLT extracellular vesicles (PL-EVs). A systematic analysis of regular messenger RNA (mRNA) and small RNA composition in PLTs and PL-EVs during in vitro PLT senescence has not yet been published. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We isolated PLTs, total PL-EVs, and PL-EV subsets on Days 0 and 5 from human stored donor platelet concentrates...
January 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890676/combined-in-vitro-and-in-silico-approaches-to-the-assessment-of-stimulant-properties-of-novel-psychoactive-substances-the-case-of-the-benzofuran-5-mapb
#7
Michelle A Sahai, Colin Davidson, George Khelashvili, Vincenzo Barrese, Neelakshi Dutta, Harel Weinstein, Jolanta Opacka-Juffry
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are increasingly prevalent world-wide although their pharmacological characteristics are largely unknown; those with stimulant properties, due to interactions with the dopamine transporter (DAT), have addictive potential which their users may not realise. We evaluated the binding of 1-(1-benzofuran-5-yl)-N-methylpropan-2-amine (5-MAPB) to rat striatal DAT by means of quantitative autoradiography with [(125)I]RTI-121, and the effects of 5-MAPB on electrically-evoked dopamine efflux by fast-cyclic voltammetry in rat brain slices...
November 24, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836941/target-site-investigation-for-the-plasma-prolactin-response-mechanism-based-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-analysis-of-risperidone-and-paliperidone-in-the-rat
#8
Shinji Shimizu, Sandra M den Hoedt, Victor Mangas Sanjuan, Sinziana Cristea, Jana K Geuer, Dirk-Jan van den Berg, Robin Hartman, Francisco Bellanti, Elizabeth C M de Lange
In order to understand the drivers in the biological system response to dopamine D2 receptor antagonists, a mechanistic semi-physiologically-based (PB) pharmacokinetic-pharmacodymanic (PKPD) model was developed to describe prolactin responses to risperidone (RIS) and its active metabolite paliperidone (PAL). A microdialysis study in rats was performed to obtain detailed plasma, brain extracellular fluid (brainECF), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of PAL and RIS. To assess the impact of P-gp functioning on brain distribution, experiments were performed in absence or presence of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor tariquidar (TQD)...
November 11, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801563/functional-characterization-of-a-novel-series-of-biased-signaling-dopamine-d3-receptor-agonists
#9
Wei Xu, Xiaozhao Wang, Aaron M Tocker, Peng Huang, Maarten E A Reith, Lee-Yuan Liu-Chen, Amos B Smith Iii, Sandhya Kortagere
Dopamine receptors play an integral role in controlling brain physiology. Importantly sub-type selective agonists and antagonists of dopamine receptors with biased signaling properties have been successful in treating psychiatric disorders with a low incidence of side effects. To this end, we recently designed and developed SK609, a dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) selective agonist that has atypical signaling properties. SK609 has shown efficacy in reversing akinesia and reducing L-dopa-induced dyskinesia in a hemiparkinsonian rats...
November 1, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766352/dopamine-d2-like-receptors-modulate-freezing-response-but-not-the-activation-of-hpa-axis-during-the-expression-of-conditioned-fear
#10
Amanda R de Oliveira, Adriano E Reimer, Fernando M C V Reis, Marcus L Brandão
Considering the complexity of aversive information processing and defensive response expression, a combined action of stress modulators may be required for an optimal performance during threatening situations. Dopamine is now recognized as one of the most active modulators underlying states of fear and anxiety. On the other hand, activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, which leads to the release of corticosterone in rodents, has been considered a key part of the stress response. The current study is an extension of prior work investigating modulatory effects of dopamine and corticosterone on conditioned fear expression...
October 20, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27489216/ammonia-excretion-in-mytilid-mussels-is-facilitated-by-ciliary-beating
#11
J Thomsen, N Himmerkus, N Holland, F J Sartoris, M Bleich, M Tresguerres
The excretion of nitrogenous waste products in the form of ammonia (NH3) and ammonium (NH4 (+)) is a fundamental process in aquatic organisms. For mytilid bivalves, little is known about the mechanisms and sites of excretion. This study investigated the localization and the mechanisms of ammonia excretion in mytilid mussels. An Rh protein was found to be abundantly expressed in the apical cell membrane of the plicate organ, which was previously described as a solely respiratory organ. The Rh protein was also expressed in the gill, although at significantly lower concentrations, but was not detectable in mussel kidney...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27474321/electrochemical-sensor-for-dopamine-based-on-imprinted-silica-matrix-poly-aniline-boronic-acid-hybrid-as-recognition-element
#12
Jian Li, Ning Zhang, Qingqing Sun, Zhanming Bai, Jianbin Zheng
A novel imprinted silica matrix-poly(aniline boronic acid) hybrid for electrochemical detection of dopamine (DA) was developed. Boronic acid functionalized conducting polymer was electrochemically prepared on Au electrode. The number of covalent binding sites toward DA templates was controlled by potential cycles. A precursory sol solution of ammonium fluorosilicate (as cross-linking monomer) containing DA was spin-coated on the polymer modified electrode. Under NH3 atmosphere, the hydroxyl ions were generated in the solution and catalyzed the hydrolysis of fluorosilicate to form silica matrix...
October 1, 2016: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27419218/mesocortical-dopamine-phenotypes-in-mice-lacking-the-sonic-hedgehog-receptor-cdon
#13
Michael Verwey, Alanna Grant, Nicholas Meti, Lauren Adye-White, Angelica Torres-Berrío, Veronique Rioux, Martin Lévesque, Frederic Charron, Cecilia Flores
Motivated behaviors and many psychopathologies typically involve changes in dopamine release from the projections of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and/or the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). The morphogen Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) specifies fates of midbrain dopamine neurons, but VTA-specific effects of Shh signaling are also being uncovered. In this study, we assessed the role of the Shh receptor Cdon in the development of VTA and SNc dopamine neurons. We find that Cdon is expressed in the proliferating progenitor zone of the embryonic ventral midbrain and that the number of proliferating cells in this region is increased in mouse Cdon(-/-) embryos...
May 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408789/occupancy-of-pramipexole-sifrol-at-cerebral-dopamine-d2-3-receptors-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients
#14
Angela Deutschländer, Christian la Fougère, Kai Boetzel, Nathalie L Albert, Franz-Josef Gildehaus, Peter Bartenstein, Guoming Xiong, Paul Cumming
Whereas positron emission tomography (PET) with the antagonist ligand [(18)F]fallypride reveals the composite of dopamine D2 and D3 receptors in brain, treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with the D3-prefering agonist pramipexole should result in preferential occupancy in the nucleus accumbens, where the D3-subtype is most abundant. To test this prediction we obtained pairs of [(18)F]fallypride PET recordings in a group of nine PD patients, first in a condition of treatment as usual with pramipexole (ON-Sifrol; 3 × 0...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356022/isozyme-specific-allosteric-regulation-of-human-sulfotransferase-1a1
#15
Ting Wang, Ian Cook, Thomas S Leyh
The human cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) comprise a 13-member enzyme family that regulates the activities of hundreds, perhaps thousands, of signaling small molecules via regiospecific transfer of the sulfuryl moiety (-SO3) from PAPS (3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate) to the hydroxyls and amines of acceptors. Signaling molecules regulated by sulfonation include numerous steroid and thyroid hormones, epinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine. SULT1A1, a major phase II metabolism SULT isoform, is found at a high concentration in liver and has recently been show to harbor two allosteric binding sites, each of which binds a separate and complex class of compounds: the catechins (naturally occurring polyphenols) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs...
July 26, 2016: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27337045/identification-of-a-3rd-na-binding-site-of-the-glycine-transporter-glyt2
#16
Nandhitha Subramanian, Amanda J Scopelitti, Jane E Carland, Renae M Ryan, Megan L O'Mara, Robert J Vandenberg
The Na+/Cl- dependent glycine transporters GlyT1 and GlyT2 regulate synaptic glycine concentrations. Glycine transport by GlyT2 is coupled to the co-transport of three Na+ ions, whereas transport by GlyT1 is coupled to the co-transport of only two Na+ ions. These differences in ion-flux coupling determine their respective concentrating capacities and have a direct bearing on their functional roles in synaptic transmission. The crystal structures of the closely related bacterial Na+-dependent leucine transporter, LeuTAa, and the Drosophila dopamine transporter, dDAT, have allowed prediction of two Na+ binding sites in GlyT2, but the physical location of the third Na+ site in GlyT2 is unknown...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318552/structural-modifications-of-the-serotonin-5-ht7-receptor-agonist-n-4-cyanophenylmethyl-4-2-biphenyl-1-piperazinehexanamide-lp-211-to-improve-in%C3%A2-vitro-microsomal-stability-a-case-study
#17
Enza Lacivita, Sabina Podlewska, Luisa Speranza, Mauro Niso, Grzegorz Satała, Roberto Perrone, Carla Perrone-Capano, Andrzej J Bojarski, Marcello Leopoldo
The 5-HT7 serotonin receptor is revealing a promising target for innovative therapeutic strategies of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we report the synthesis of thirty long-chain arylpiperazine analogs of the selective and brain penetrant 5-HT7 receptor agonist LP-211 (1) designed to enhance stability towards microsomal oxidative metabolism. Commonly used medicinal chemistry strategies were used (i.e., reduction of overall lipophilicity, introduction of electron-withdrawing groups, blocking of potential vulnerable sites of metabolism), and in vitro microsomal stability was tested...
September 14, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27224246/clinical-pharmacology-and-efficacy-of-rotigotine-neupro%C3%A2-patch-in-the-treatment-of-restless-leg-syndrome
#18
REVIEW
Luigi Ferini-Strambi, Sara Marelli, Andrea Galbiati
INTRODUCTION: Restless legs syndrome/Willis Ekbom disease (RLS/WED) is a sensorimotor disorder characterized by unpleasant sensations in the legs accompanied by an urge to move them, that typically occurs and tend to worsen in the evening/night or during period of inactivity. Standard medications for RLS/WED are dopamine agonists and calcium channel α-2-δ ligands. The clinical spectrum of RLS/WED is very broad, ranging from individuals suffering from the disease during limited periods up to those severely affected, with daily symptoms...
August 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27212214/heme-coordinated-histidine-residues-form-non-specific-functional-ferritin-heme-peroxidase-system-possible-and-partial-mechanistic-relevance-to-oxidative-stress-mediated-pathology-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#19
Sajjad Esmaeili, Mohammad Reza Ashrafi Kooshk, Seyyed Mohsen Asghari, Reza Khodarahmi
Ferritin is a giant protein composed of 24 subunits which is able to sequester up to 4500 atoms of iron. We proposed two kinds of heme binding sites in mammalian ferritins and provided direct evidence for peroxidase activity of heme-ferritin, since there is the possibility that "ferritin-heme" systems display unexpected catalytic behavior like heme-containing enzymes. In the current study, peroxidase activity of heme-bound ferritin was studied using TMB(1), l-DOPA, serotonin, and dopamine, in the presence of H2O2, as oxidant substrate...
October 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27155116/a-silicon-based-implantable-microelectrode-array-for-electrophysiological-and-dopamine-recording-from-cortex-to-striatum-in-the-non-human-primate-brain
#20
Song Zhang, Yilin Song, Mixia Wang, Zhiming Zhang, Xinyi Fan, Xianteng Song, Ping Zhuang, Feng Yue, Piu Chan, Xinxia Cai
Dual-mode, multielectrode recordings have become routine in rodent neuroscience research and have recently been adapted to the non-human primate. However, robust and reliable application of acute, multielectrode recording methods in monkeys especially for deep brain nucleus research remains a challenge. In this paper, We described a low cost silicon based 16-site implantable microelectrode array (MEA) chip fabricated by standard lithography technology for in vivo test. The array was 25mm long and designed to use in non-human primate models, for electrophysiological and electrochemical recording...
November 15, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
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