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diabetic neural changes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279426/-central-regulation-of-appetite-and-energy-metabolism
#1
Yasuhiko Minokoshi
Recent advances of neuroscience shed a light in the neural pathway and mechanisms for food intake regulation. The central nervous system(CNS)has also been recognized as a crucial organ to regulate metabolism in peripheral tissues. This includes the increase in glucose and fatty acid utilization in skeletal muscle as well as in brown adipose tissue and the heart, improving type 1 diabetes without change in insulin secretion. CNS regulation for food intake and energy metabolism is important to understand the mechanism for homeostatic regulation in living body...
2018: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258552/effects-of-stevia-on-synaptic-plasticity-and-nadph-oxidase-level-of-cns-in-conditions-of-metabolic-disorders-caused-by-fructose
#2
V A Chavushyan, K V Simonyan, R M Simonyan, A S Isoyan, G M Simonyan, M A Babakhanyan, L E Hovhannisyian, Kh H Nahapetyan, L G Avetisyan, M A Simonyan
BACKGROUND: Excess dietary fructose intake associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Previous animal studies have reported that diabetic animals have significantly impaired behavioural and cognitive functions, pathological synaptic function and impaired expression of glutamate receptors. Correction of the antioxidant status of laboratory rodents largely prevents the development of fructose-induced plurimetabolic changes in the nervous system...
December 19, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249342/predictions-of-ocular-changes-caused-by-diabetes-in-glaucoma-patients
#3
Nicoleta Anton Apreutesei, Filip Tircoveanu, Alina Cantemir, Camelia Bogdanici, Cătălin Lisa, Silvia Curteanu, Dorin Chiseliţă
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: This paper builds different neural network models with simple topologies, having one or two hidden layers which were subsequently employed in the prediction of ocular changes progression in patients with diabetes associated with primer open-angle glaucoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For attempting to indicate whether there is a relationship between glaucoma and diabetes, a simulation method, based on artificial neural networks (ANN), Jordan Elman networks (JEN) type, in particular, was applied in conjunction with clinical observation...
February 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237716/shared-and-distinct-lipid-lipid-interactions-in-plasma-and-affected-tissues-in-a-diabetic-mouse-model
#4
Kelli M Sas, Jiahe Lin, Thekkelnaycke M Rajendiran, Tanu Soni, Viji Nair, Lucy M Hinder, Hosagrahar V Jagadish, Thomas W Gardner, Steven F Abcouwer, Frank C Brosius, Eva L Feldman, Matthias Kretzler, George Michailidis, Subramaniam Pennathur
Lipids are ubiquitous metabolites with diverse functions; abnormalities in lipid metabolism appear related to complications from multiple diseases, including type 2 diabetes. Through technological advances, the entire lipidome has been characterized, and researchers now need computational approaches to better understand lipid network perturbations in different diseases. Using a mouse model of type 2 diabetes with microvascular complications, we examined lipid levels in plasma and in renal, neural, and retinal tissues to identify shared and distinct lipid abnormalities...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225397/concurrent-oct-imaging-of-stimulus-evoked-retinal-neural-activation-and-hemodynamic-responses
#5
Taeyoon Son, Benquan Wang, Yiming Lu, Yanjun Chen, Dingcai Cao, Xincheng Yao
It is well established that major retinal diseases involve distortions of the retinal neural physiology and blood vascular structures. However, the details of distortions in retinal neurovascular coupling associated with major eye diseases are not well understood. In this study, a multi-modal optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging system was developed to enable concurrent imaging of retinal neural activity and vascular hemodynamics. Flicker light stimulation was applied to mouse retinas to evoke retinal neural responses and hemodynamic changes...
2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206758/early-microvascular-and-neural-changes-in-patients-with-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-without-clinical-signs-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#6
Stela Vujosevic, Andrea Muraca, Micol Alkabes, Edoardo Villani, Fabiano Cavarzeran, Luca Rossetti, Stefano De Cillaʼ
PURPOSE: To assess and compare early modifications in inner retinal layer thickness and optical coherence tomography angiography parameters in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) Types 1 and 2 without clinical signs of diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: Ninety eyes of 90 subjects (24 Type 1 DM, 36 Type 2 DM, and 30 healthy controls) were prospectively evaluated with spectral domain OCT, swept-source OCT angiography, and color fundus photography (on the same day). Retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer (GCL+), and nerve fiber layer + GCL+ (GCL++) thickness were automatically determined by the instrument in the 1, 3, and 6 central mm...
December 4, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180355/photoreceptor-glucose-metabolism-determines-normal-retinal-vascular-growth
#7
Zhongjie Fu, Chatarina A Löfqvist, Raffael Liegl, Zhongxiao Wang, Ye Sun, Yan Gong, Chi-Hsiu Liu, Steven S Meng, Samuel B Burnim, Ivana Arellano, My T Chouinard, Rubi Duran, Alexander Poblete, Steve S Cho, James D Akula, Michael Kinter, David Ley, Ingrid Hansen Pupp, Saswata Talukdar, Ann Hellström, Lois Eh Smith
The neural cells and factors determining normal vascular growth are not well defined even though vision-threatening neovessel growth, a major cause of blindness in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) (and diabetic retinopathy), is driven by delayed normal vascular growth. We here examined whether hyperglycemia and low adiponectin (APN) levels delayed normal retinal vascularization, driven primarily by dysregulated photoreceptor metabolism. In premature infants, low APN levels correlated with hyperglycemia and delayed retinal vascular formation...
November 27, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141105/the-feasibility-of-intraperitoneal-placenta-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-injection-in-stomachs-of-diabetic-mice
#8
Jong Min Park, Sang Hwan Lee, Kwang Il Kim, Won Hee Kim, Joo Young Cho, Ki Baik Hahm, Sung Pyo Hong
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Diabetic gastropathy is associated with loss of Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) and autonomic neuropathy. Effective management for diabetic gastropathy is still unavailable. This study was aimed to confirm the pathogenetic changes in diabetic gastropathy and to examine the effect of treatment with placental derived mesenchymal stem cells (PDMSCs) in stomachs of animal models. METHODS: Fourteen NOD/ShiLtJ mice of 8 weeks were bled until week 30...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120924/potential-mechanisms-underlying-the-effect-of-bariatric-surgery-on-eating-behaviour
#9
Roxanna Zakeri, Rachel L Batterham
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Reduced energy intake, resulting from favourable changes in eating behaviour, is the predominant driver of weight loss following bariatric surgery. Here we review the most recent studies examining the impact of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy, the two most common bariatric procedures, upon eating behaviour and the suggested underlying biological mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Following RYGB or sleeve gastrectomy, most people report subjective changes in appetite, taste and food preference, with decreased high-fat preference most commonly reported...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098550/enteric-glial-dysfunction-evoked-by-apolipoprotein-e-deficiency-contributes-to-delayed-gastric-emptying
#10
Seiichiro Fukuhara, Tatsuhiro Masaoka, Soraya Nishimura, Masaya Nakamura, Juntaro Matsuzaki, Hitoshi Tsugawa, Sawako Miyoshi, Hideki Mori, Satoshi Kawase, Shinsuke Shibata, Hideyuki Okano, Takanori Kanai, Hidekazu Suzuki
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Diabetes is the main cause of gastroparesis accompanying decreased neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in myenteric ganglia of the stomach. Decreased nNOS expression in the stomach also results from defects in apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which is secreted by astrocytes and has neuroprotective effects on the central nervous system. However, the roles of ApoE and enteric glial cells on gastric motility are uncertain. In this study, ApoE and enteric glial cell alterations in gastroparesis were investigated...
December 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081148/-follow-up-of-resting-state-brain-function-with-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#11
N Qi, Y Cui, J C Liu, M Yu, G J Teng
Objective: To investigate the changes of resting brain function with time in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by using regional homogeneity (ReHo) with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Methods: Multidimensional cognitive function tests and rs-fMRI scans were performed in 21 T2DM patients and 12 healthy controls in 2012 and 2015 respectively.The differences in clinical variables and the ReHo values before and after were measured by paired sample t test, and the correlation between the change of ReHo value and the change of clinical variables was measured by Pearson correlation analysis based on voxel...
October 24, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065411/gut-microbiota-and-host-metabolism-what-relationship
#12
Gilles Mithieux
A large number of genomic studies have reported associations between the gut microbiota composition and metabolic diseases such as obesity or type 2 diabetes. This led to the widespread idea that a causal relationship could exist between intestinal microbiota and metabolic diseases. At odds with this idea, some compelling studies reported that global changes in microbiota composition have no effect on the host metabolism in obese mice or humans. However, specific bacteria are able to confer host metabolic benefits, such as Akkermansia muciniphila or Prevotella copri, when they are given by gavage in obese mice...
October 24, 2017: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049850/-epigenetic-control-of-early-neurodegenerative-events-in-diabetic-retinopathy-by-the-histone-deacetylase-sirt6
#13
María A Zorrilla-Zubilete, Ada Yeste, Francisco J Quintana, Debra Toiber, Raul Mostoslavsky, Dafne M Silberman
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the common complications associated with diabetes mellitus (DM) and the leading cause of blindness worldwide. Recent research has demonstrated that DR is not only a microvascular disease but may be a result of neurodegenerative processes. Moreover, glucose-induced neuron and glial cell damage may occur shortly after the onset of diabetes which makes the disease hard to diagnose at early stages. SIRT6, a NAD-dependent sirtuin deacylase, modulates aging, energy metabolism and neurodegeneration...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988945/neurodegeneration-in-diabetic-retinopathy-potential-for-novel-therapies
#14
Alistair J Barber, Basma Baccouche
The complex pathology of diabetic retinopathy (DR) affects both vascular and neural tissue. The characteristics of neurodegeneration are well-described in animal models but have more recently been confirmed in the clinical setting, mostly by using non-invasive imaging approaches such as spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). The most frequent observations report loss of tissue in the nerve fiber layer and inner plexiform layer, confirming earlier findings from animal models. In several cases the reduction in inner retinal layers is reported in patients with little evidence of vascular lesions or macular edema, suggesting that degenerative loss of neural tissue in the inner retina can occur after relatively short durations of diabetes...
October 14, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972183/the-actin-related-p41arc-subunit-contributes-to-p21-activated-kinase-1-pak1-mediated-glucose-uptake-into-skeletal-muscle-cells
#15
Ragadeepthi Tunduguru, Jing Zhang, Arianne Aslamy, Vishal A Salunkhe, Joseph T Brozinick, Jeffrey S Elmendorf, Debbie C Thurmond
Defects in translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 are associated with peripheral insulin resistance, pre-clinical diabetes, and progression to type 2 diabetes. GLUT4 recruitment to the plasma membrane of skeletal muscle cells requires filamentous (F)-actin remodeling. Insulin signaling in muscle requires p21-activated kinase-1 (PAK1), whose downstream signaling triggers actin remodeling that promotes GLUT4 vesicle translocation and glucose uptake into skeletal muscle cells. Actin remodeling is a cyclic process, and while PAK1 is known to initiate changes to the cortical actin-binding protein cofilin to stimulate the depolymerizing arm of the cycle, how PAK1 might trigger the polymerizing arm of the cycle remains unresolved...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965983/mitochondrial-targeted-therapies-where-do-we-stand-in-mental-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Dorit Ben-Shachar, Hila M Ene
The neurobiology of psychiatric disorders is still unclear, although changes in multiple neuronal systems, specifically the dopaminergic, glutamatergic, and gamma-aminobutyric acidergic systems as well as abnormalities in synaptic plasticity and neural connectivity, are currently suggested to underlie their pathophysiology. A growing body of evidence suggests multifaceted mitochondrial dysfunction in mental disorders, which is in line with their role in neuronal activity, growth, development, and plasticity...
August 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964868/the-neuroprotective-role-of-rosiglitazone-in-advanced-glycation-end-product-treated-human-neural-stem-cells-is-ppargamma-dependent
#17
Ming-Chang Chiang, Yi-Chuan Cheng, Christopher J Nicol, Chien-Hung Lin
Hyperglycemia is accompanied by an accelerated formation rate of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which is associated with the pathogenesis of diabetic neuronal deficits. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) belongs to a family of ligand-activated nuclear receptors and its ligands are known to control many physiological, pathological and inflammatory pathways. Weinvestigated the hypothesis that the PPARγ agonist (rosiglitazone) would abrogate AGEs-mediated neurotoxic effects on human neural stem cells (hNSCs), by whichAGEs may play a role in diabetic-related neuronal impairment...
September 28, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944718/obesity-is-associated-with-altered-mid-insula-functional-connectivity-to-limbic-regions-underlying-appetitive-responses-to-foods
#18
Jason A Avery, Joshua N Powell, Florence J Breslin, Rebecca J Lepping, Laura E Martin, Trisha M Patrician, Joseph E Donnelly, Cary R Savage, W Kyle Simmons
Obesity is fundamentally a disorder of energy balance. In obese individuals, more energy is consumed than is expended, leading to excessive weight gain through the accumulation of adipose tissue. Complications arising from obesity, including cardiovascular disease, elevated peripheral inflammation, and the development of Type II diabetes, make obesity one of the leading preventable causes of morbidity and mortality. Thus, it is of paramount importance to both individual and public health that we understand the neural circuitry underlying the behavioral regulation of energy balance...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926876/-advances-in-the-research-of-characteristics-and-treatment-of-burns-in-the-elderly
#19
R Liu, Z Y Li
With the development of society and the improvement of medical level, the average life span of human has been increasing year by year. The proportion of elderly burn patients is also increasing yearly, which has become a social problem that can not be ignored. Because of physiological characteristics, such as decreased function of heart, lung, and kidney, degenerative changes of neural system, reduced gastrointestinal function and immunological function, and mostly accompanied by primary diseases of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, elderly burn patients suffer from high shock rate and mortality, and their wounds are not easy to heal...
September 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902411/functional-changes-in-the-neural-retina-occur-in-the-absence-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-a-rodent-model-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#20
Dustin R Masser, Laura Otalora, Nicholas W Clark, Michael T Kinter, Michael H Elliott, Willard M Freeman
Diabetic retinopathy is a neurovascular diabetes complication resulting in vision loss. A wealth of literature reports retinal molecular changes indicative of neural deficits, inflammation, and vascular leakage with chronic diabetes, but the mechanistic causes of disease initiation and progression are unknown. Microvascular mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage leading to mitochondrial dysfunction has been proposed to drive vascular dysfunction in retinopathy. However, growing evidence suggests that neural retina dysfunction precedes and may cause vascular damage...
December 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
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