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diabetic neural changes

Giacomo Cappon, Martina Vettoretti, Francesca Marturano, Andrea Facchinetti, Giovanni Sparacino
BACKGROUND: In type 1 diabetes (T1D) therapy, the calculation of the meal insulin bolus is performed according to a standard formula (SF) exploiting carbohydrate intake, carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio, correction factor, insulin on board, and target glucose. Recently, some approaches were proposed to account for preprandial glucose rate of change (ROC) in the SF, including those by Scheiner and by Pettus and Edelman. Here, the aim is to develop a new approach, based on neural networks (NN), to optimize and personalize the bolus calculation using continuous glucose monitoring information and some easily accessible patient parameters...
March 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Kemal Tekin, Merve Inanc, Erdal Kurnaz, Elvan Bayramoglu, Emre Aydemir, Mustafa Koc, Hasan Kiziltoprak, Zehra Aycan
BACKGROUND: To investigate whether abnormal glucose metabolism and duration of diabetes mellitus (DM) caused the thinning in retinal layers in children with type 1 DM without retinopathy by using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and to compare the results obtained with those in healthy children. METHODS: This cross-sectional prospective study included 73 patients with type 1 DM (DM group) and 62 age-matched control subjects (control group). The duration of DM and the glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels of the diabetic children were recorded...
February 28, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Zhongjie Fu, Zhongxiao Wang, Chi-Hsiu Liu, Yan Gong, Bertan Cakir, Raffael Liegl, Ye Sun, Steven S Meng, Samuel B Burnim, Ivana Arellano, Elizabeth Moran, Rubi Duran, Alexander Poblete, Steve S Cho, Saswata Talukdar, James D Akula, Ann Hellström, Lois E H Smith
Retinal neuronal abnormalities occur before vascular changes in diabetic retinopathy. Accumulating experimental evidence suggests that neurons control vascular pathology in diabetic and other neovascular retinal disease. Therefore, normalizing neuronal activity in diabetes may prevent vascular pathology. We investigated whether fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) prevented retinal neuronal dysfunction in insulin-deficient diabetic mice. We found that in diabetic neural retina, photoreceptor rather than inner retinal function was most affected and administration of the long-acting FGF21 analog, PF-05231023 restored the retinal neuronal functional deficits detected by electroretinography...
February 27, 2018: Diabetes
Olivier Simon, Rabi Yacoub, Sanjay Jain, John E Tomaszewski, Pinaki Sarder
We demonstrate a simple and effective automated method for the localization of glomeruli in large (~1 gigapixel) histopathological whole-slide images (WSIs) of thin renal tissue sections and biopsies, using an adaptation of the well-known local binary patterns (LBP) image feature vector to train a support vector machine (SVM) model. Our method offers high precision (>90%) and reasonable recall (>70%) for glomeruli from WSIs, is readily adaptable to glomeruli from multiple species, including mouse, rat, and human, and is robust to diverse slide staining methods...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Janice Jin Hwang, Lisa Parikh, Cheryl Lacadie, Dongju Seo, Wai Lam, Muhammad Hamza, Christian Schmidt, Feng Dai, Anne-Sophie Sejling, Renata Belfort-DeAguiar, R Todd Constable, Rajita Sinha, Robert Sherwin
BACKGROUND: Amongst non-diabetic individuals, mild glucose decrements alter brain activity in regions linked to reward, motivation and executive control. Whether these effects differ in T1DM patients with and without hypoglycemia awareness remains unclear. METHODS: 42 individuals (13 healthy control subjects (HC), 16 T1DM individuals with hypoglycemia awareness (T1DM-Aware) and 13 T1DM individuals with hypoglycemia unawareness (T1DM-Unaware)) underwent BOLD fMRI brain imaging during a 2-step hyperinsulinemic euglycemic (90 mg/dl)-hypoglycemic (60 mg/dl) clamp for assessment of neural responses to mild hypoglycemia...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Martin Haluzík, Helena Kratochvílová, Denisa Haluzíková, Miloš Mráz
Increasing worldwide prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its accompanying pathologies such as obesity, arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia represents one of the most important challenges of current medicine. Despite intensive efforts, high percentage of patients with type 2 diabetes does not achieve treatment goals and struggle with increasing body weight and poor glucose control. While novel classes of antidiabetic medications such as incretin-based therapies and gliflozins have some favorable characteristics compared to older antidiabetics, the only therapeutic option shown to substantially modify the progression of diabetes or to achieve its remission is bariatric surgery...
April 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Michael D Abramoff, Patrice E Fort, Ian C Han, K Thiran Jayasundera, Elliott H Sohn, Thomas W Gardner
The Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) and other standardized classification schemes have laid a foundation for tremendous advances in the understanding and management of diabetic retinopathy (DR). However, technological advances in optics and image analysis, especially optical coherence tomography (OCT), OCT angiography (OCTa), and ultra-widefield imaging, as well as new discoveries in diabetic retinal neuropathy (DRN), are exposing the limitations of ETDRS and other classification systems to completely characterize retinal changes in diabetes, which we term diabetic retinal disease (DRD)...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Yasuhiko Minokoshi
Recent advances of neuroscience shed a light in the neural pathway and mechanisms for food intake regulation. The central nervous system(CNS)has also been recognized as a crucial organ to regulate metabolism in peripheral tissues. This includes the increase in glucose and fatty acid utilization in skeletal muscle as well as in brown adipose tissue and the heart, improving type 1 diabetes without change in insulin secretion. CNS regulation for food intake and energy metabolism is important to understand the mechanism for homeostatic regulation in living body...
2018: Clinical Calcium
V A Chavushyan, K V Simonyan, R M Simonyan, A S Isoyan, G M Simonyan, M A Babakhanyan, L E Hovhannisyian, Kh H Nahapetyan, L G Avetisyan, M A Simonyan
BACKGROUND: Excess dietary fructose intake associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Previous animal studies have reported that diabetic animals have significantly impaired behavioural and cognitive functions, pathological synaptic function and impaired expression of glutamate receptors. Correction of the antioxidant status of laboratory rodents largely prevents the development of fructose-induced plurimetabolic changes in the nervous system...
December 19, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Nicoleta Anton Apreutesei, Filip Tircoveanu, Alina Cantemir, Camelia Bogdanici, Cătălin Lisa, Silvia Curteanu, Dorin Chiseliţă
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: This paper builds different neural network models with simple topologies, having one or two hidden layers which were subsequently employed in the prediction of ocular changes progression in patients with diabetes associated with primer open-angle glaucoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For attempting to indicate whether there is a relationship between glaucoma and diabetes, a simulation method, based on artificial neural networks (ANN), Jordan Elman networks (JEN) type, in particular, was applied in conjunction with clinical observation...
February 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Kelli M Sas, Jiahe Lin, Thekkelnaycke M Rajendiran, Tanu Soni, Viji Nair, Lucy M Hinder, Hosagrahar V Jagadish, Thomas W Gardner, Steven F Abcouwer, Frank C Brosius, Eva L Feldman, Matthias Kretzler, George Michailidis, Subramaniam Pennathur
Lipids are ubiquitous metabolites with diverse functions; abnormalities in lipid metabolism appear related to complications from multiple diseases, including type 2 diabetes. Through technological advances, the entire lipidome has been characterized, and researchers now need computational approaches to better understand lipid network perturbations in different diseases. Using a mouse model of type 2 diabetes with microvascular complications, we examined lipid levels in plasma and in renal, neural, and retinal tissues to identify shared and distinct lipid abnormalities...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
Taeyoon Son, Benquan Wang, Yiming Lu, Yanjun Chen, Dingcai Cao, Xincheng Yao
It is well established that major retinal diseases involve distortions of the retinal neural physiology and blood vascular structures. However, the details of distortions in retinal neurovascular coupling associated with major eye diseases are not well understood. In this study, a multi-modal optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging system was developed to enable concurrent imaging of retinal neural activity and vascular hemodynamics. Flicker light stimulation was applied to mouse retinas to evoke retinal neural responses and hemodynamic changes...
2017: Proceedings of SPIE
Stela Vujosevic, Andrea Muraca, Micol Alkabes, Edoardo Villani, Fabiano Cavarzeran, Luca Rossetti, Stefano De Cillaʼ
PURPOSE: To assess and compare early modifications in inner retinal layer thickness and optical coherence tomography angiography parameters in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) Types 1 and 2 without clinical signs of diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: Ninety eyes of 90 subjects (24 Type 1 DM, 36 Type 2 DM, and 30 healthy controls) were prospectively evaluated with spectral domain OCT, swept-source OCT angiography, and color fundus photography (on the same day). Retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer (GCL+), and nerve fiber layer + GCL+ (GCL++) thickness were automatically determined by the instrument in the 1, 3, and 6 central mm...
December 4, 2017: Retina
Zhongjie Fu, Chatarina A Löfqvist, Raffael Liegl, Zhongxiao Wang, Ye Sun, Yan Gong, Chi-Hsiu Liu, Steven S Meng, Samuel B Burnim, Ivana Arellano, My T Chouinard, Rubi Duran, Alexander Poblete, Steve S Cho, James D Akula, Michael Kinter, David Ley, Ingrid Hansen Pupp, Saswata Talukdar, Ann Hellström, Lois Eh Smith
The neural cells and factors determining normal vascular growth are not well defined even though vision-threatening neovessel growth, a major cause of blindness in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) (and diabetic retinopathy), is driven by delayed normal vascular growth. We here examined whether hyperglycemia and low adiponectin (APN) levels delayed normal retinal vascularization, driven primarily by dysregulated photoreceptor metabolism. In premature infants, low APN levels correlated with hyperglycemia and delayed retinal vascular formation...
January 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
Jong Min Park, Sang Hwan Lee, Kwang Il Kim, Won Hee Kim, Joo Young Cho, Ki Baik Hahm, Sung Pyo Hong
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Diabetic gastropathy is associated with loss of Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) and autonomic neuropathy. Effective management for diabetic gastropathy is still unavailable. This study was aimed to confirm the pathogenetic changes in diabetic gastropathy and to examine the effect of treatment with placental derived mesenchymal stem cells (PDMSCs) in stomachs of animal models. METHODS: Fourteen NOD/ShiLtJ mice of 8 weeks were bled until week 30...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Roxanna Zakeri, Rachel L Batterham
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Reduced energy intake, resulting from favourable changes in eating behaviour, is the predominant driver of weight loss following bariatric surgery. Here we review the most recent studies examining the impact of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy, the two most common bariatric procedures, upon eating behaviour and the suggested underlying biological mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Following RYGB or sleeve gastrectomy, most people report subjective changes in appetite, taste and food preference, with decreased high-fat preference most commonly reported...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Seiichiro Fukuhara, Tatsuhiro Masaoka, Soraya Nishimura, Masaya Nakamura, Juntaro Matsuzaki, Hitoshi Tsugawa, Sawako Miyoshi, Hideki Mori, Satoshi Kawase, Shinsuke Shibata, Hideyuki Okano, Takanori Kanai, Hidekazu Suzuki
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Diabetes is the main cause of gastroparesis accompanying decreased neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in myenteric ganglia of the stomach. Decreased nNOS expression in the stomach also results from defects in apolipoprotein E (ApoE), which is secreted by astrocytes and has neuroprotective effects on the central nervous system. However, the roles of ApoE and enteric glial cells on gastric motility are uncertain. In this study, ApoE and enteric glial cell alterations in gastroparesis were investigated...
December 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
N Qi, Y Cui, J C Liu, M Yu, G J Teng
Objective: To investigate the changes of resting brain function with time in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by using regional homogeneity (ReHo) with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Methods: Multidimensional cognitive function tests and rs-fMRI scans were performed in 21 T2DM patients and 12 healthy controls in 2012 and 2015 respectively.The differences in clinical variables and the ReHo values before and after were measured by paired sample t test, and the correlation between the change of ReHo value and the change of clinical variables was measured by Pearson correlation analysis based on voxel...
October 24, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Gilles Mithieux
A large number of genomic studies have reported associations between the gut microbiota composition and metabolic diseases such as obesity or type 2 diabetes. This led to the widespread idea that a causal relationship could exist between intestinal microbiota and metabolic diseases. At odds with this idea, some compelling studies reported that global changes in microbiota composition have no effect on the host metabolism in obese mice or humans. However, specific bacteria are able to confer host metabolic benefits, such as Akkermansia muciniphila or Prevotella copri, when they are given by gavage in obese mice...
October 24, 2017: Neuroendocrinology
María A Zorrilla-Zubilete, Ada Yeste, Francisco J Quintana, Debra Toiber, Raul Mostoslavsky, Dafne M Silberman
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the common complications associated with diabetes mellitus (DM) and the leading cause of blindness worldwide. Recent research has demonstrated that DR is not only a microvascular disease but may be a result of neurodegenerative processes. Moreover, glucose-induced neuron and glial cell damage may occur shortly after the onset of diabetes which makes the disease hard to diagnose at early stages. SIRT6, a NAD-dependent sirtuin deacylase, modulates aging, energy metabolism and neurodegeneration...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
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