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diabetic neural changes

Kele Xu, Li Zhu, Ruixing Wang, Chang Liu, Yi Zhao
PURPOSE: In this work, we explore to use very deep convolutional neural network (CNN) for the automatic classification of diabetic retinopathy using color fundus image. METHODS: We apply translation, stretching, rotation and flipping to the labeled dataset. The original number of labeled-frames is 3000, while after augmentations, 6000 frames with labels are used for the CNN training task. Several different CNN architectures have been proposed and tested. The architecture of our network contains 18 layers with parameters, consists of 12 convolutional layers, some of which followed by max-pooling layers, and two fully connected layers...
June 2016: Medical Physics
J Zhao, T B M Hakvoort, A Jongejan, J M Ruijter, A H C van Kampen, W H Lamers
Maternal diabetes is one of major causes of congenital malformations in offspring, but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. MiRNAs play an important role in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. However, no miRNA expression profiling of hyperglycemic offspring are thus far available. Female mice were made diabetic with streptozotocin, treated with slow-release insulin tablets, and mated. MiRNA expression profiling with Next Generation Sequencing on the SOLiD5 platform was performed on 8 control and 5 hyperglycemic embryonic day (ED)8...
January 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Atanu Pal, David B Rhoads, Ali Tavakkoli
BACKGROUND: The global epidemic of Type-2-Diabetes (T2D) highlights the need for novel therapeutic targets and agents. Roux-en-Y-Gastric-Bypass (RYGB) is the most effective treatment. Studies investigating the mechanisms of RYGB suggest a role for post-operative changes in portal glucose levels. We investigate the impact of stimulating portal glucose sensors on systemic glucose levels in health and T2D, and evaluated the role of sodium-glucose-cotransporter-3 (SGLT3) as the possible sensor...
2016: PloS One
Guang Yang, Gonzalo I Cancino, Siraj K Zahr, Axel Guskjolen, Anastassia Voronova, Denis Gallagher, Paul W Frankland, David R Kaplan, Freda D Miller
Maternal diabetes is known to adversely influence brain development in offspring. Here, we provide evidence that this involves the circulating metabolite methylglyoxal, which is increased in diabetes, and its detoxifying enzyme, glyoxalase 1 (Glo1), which when mutated is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Specifically, when Glo1 levels were decreased in embryonic mouse cortical neural precursor cells (NPCs), this led to premature neurogenesis and NPC depletion embryonically and long-term alterations in cortical neurons postnatally...
October 18, 2016: Cell Reports
Rodrigo B Mansur, Juhie Ahmed, Danielle S Cha, Hanna O Woldeyohannes, Mehala Subramaniapillai, Julie Lovshin, Jung G Lee, Jae-Hon Lee, Elisa Brietzke, Eva Z Reininghaus, Kang Sim, Maj Vinberg, Natalie Rasgon, Tomas Hajek, Roger S McIntyre
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of treatments that are capable of reliably and robustly improving cognitive function in adults with mood disorders. Glucagon-like peptide-1 is synthesized centrally and its receptors are abundantly expressed in neural circuits subserving cognitive function. We aimed to determine the effects of liraglutide, a GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, on objective measures of cognition in adults with a depressive or bipolar disorder. METHODS: In this 4-week, pilot, open-label, domain-based study (e...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
Daniel Fernando Pereira Vasconcelos, Felipe Rodolfo Pereira da Silva, Moara E Silva Conceição Pinto, Lucas de Araújo Bastos Santana, Ingrid Grazielle Souza, Luan Kelves Miranda de Souza, Natássia Cristina Martins Oliveira, Claudio Angelo Ventura, Pedro Duarte Novaes, André Luiz Dos Reis Barbosa, Jand-Venes Rolim Medeiros, Ivana Mikolasevic, Arya Mani, Jefferson Soares de Oliveira
BACKGROUND: The damages caused by periodontitis have affected not only periodontal tissues, but have also increased the severity of different illnesses such as: rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes and liver diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between induced periodontitis and the damages caused through its systemic effects on the liver. METHODS: Twenty rats were divided into two groups: control and periodontitis. The following parameters were evaluated: Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI), Probing Pocket Depth (PPD), Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, Alveolar Bone Loss (ABL) for periodontal tissues; histopathological examination of gingival and liver tissues; immunohistochemistry to positive cell for neural/glial antigen 2 (NG2) expressed in hepatic pericytes, glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in liver; serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Periodontology
Jose P Silva, Guerline Lambert, Derek van Booven, Claes Wahlestedt
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological and animal studies have reported that prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) leads to obesity and type-2 diabetes in offspring. Central leptin-melanocortin signaling via hypothalamic arcuate proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons is crucial for the regulation of energy and glucose balance. Furthermore, hypothalamic POMC neurons were recently found to mediate the anorectic effects of nicotine through activation of acetylcholine receptors. Here, we hypothesized that PNE impairs leptin-melanocortinergic regulation of energy balance in first-generation offspring by altering expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) putatively regulating development and/or function of hypothalamic POMC neurons...
2016: Genome Medicine
Elena Beltramo, Tatiana Lopatina, Aurora Mazzeo, Ana I Arroba, Angela M Valverde, Cristina Hernández, Rafael Simó, Massimo Porta
AIMS: Diabetic retinopathy is considered a microvascular disease, but recent evidence has underlined early involvement of the neuroretina with interactions between microvascular and neural alterations. Topical administration of somatostatin (SST), a neuroprotective molecule with antiangiogenic properties, prevents diabetes-induced retinal neurodegeneration in animals. The α2-adrenergic receptor agonist brimonidine (BRM) decreases vitreoretinal vascular endothelial growth factor and inhibits blood-retinal barrier breakdown in diabetic rats...
December 2016: Acta Diabetologica
Francesco Saverio Sorrentino, Michael Allkabes, Giulia Salsini, Claudio Bonifazzi, Paolo Perri
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a remarkable microvascular complication of diabetes and it has been considered the leading cause of legal blindness in working-age adults in the world. Several overlapping and interrelated molecular pathways are involved in the development of this disease. DR is staged into different levels of severity, from the nonproliferative to the advanced proliferative form. Over the years the progression of DR evolves through a series of changes involving distinct types of specialized cells: neural, vascular and glial...
October 1, 2016: Life Sciences
Floor van Meer, Lisette Charbonnier, Paul A M Smeets
Food decisions determine energy intake. Since overconsumption is the main driver of obesity, the effects of weight status on food decision-making are of increasing interest. An additional factor of interest is age, given the rise in childhood obesity, weight gain with aging, and the increased chance of type 2 diabetes in the elderly. The effects of weight status and age on food preference, food cue sensitivity, and self-control are discussed, as these are important components of food decision-making. Furthermore, the neural correlates of food anticipation and choice and how these are affected by weight status and age are discussed...
September 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
B N Nagesh, Brijesh Takkar, Shorya Azad, Rajvardhan Azad
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate retinal neuropathy in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) with multifocal electroretinograph (mfERG), and to evaluate the simultaneous impact of retinal neuropathy and vasculopathy on visual acuity in subtypes of DME. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective, controlled, investigative study conducted at a tertiary eye care center of Northern India included 79 eyes of 50 treatment-naïve patients with DME (Group 1), 94 eyes of 50 diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy (Group 2), and 100 eyes of 100 normal volunteers as controls...
July 1, 2016: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Minjiang Chen, Hong Zheng, Tingting Wei, Dan Wang, Huanhuan Xia, Liangcai Zhao, Jiansong Ji, Hongchang Gao
Objective. High glucose- (HG-) induced neuronal cell death is responsible for the development of diabetic neuropathy. However, the effect of HG on metabolism in neuronal cells is still unclear. Materials and Methods. The neural-crest derived PC12 cells were cultured for 72 h in the HG (75 mM) or control (25 mM) groups. We used NMR-based metabolomics to examine both intracellular and extracellular metabolic changes in HG-treated PC12 cells. Results. We found that the reduction in intracellular lactate may be due to excreting more lactate into the extracellular medium under HG condition...
2016: BioMed Research International
Eleonora Tobaldini, Giorgio Costantino, Monica Solbiati, Chiara Cogliati, Tomas Kara, Lino Nobili, Nicola Montano
Sleep deprivation (SD) has become a relevant health problem in modern societies. We can be sleep deprived due to lifestyle habits or due to sleep disorders, such as insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and neurological disorders. One of the common element of sleep disorders is the condition of chronic SD, which has complex biological consequences. SD is capable of inducing different biological effects, such as neural autonomic control changes, increased oxidative stress, altered inflammatory and coagulatory responses and accelerated atherosclerosis...
July 7, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Qin Jiang, Kun Shan, Xiao Qun-Wang, Rong-Mei Zhou, Hong Yang, Chang Liu, Yu-Jie Li, Jin Yao, Xiu-Miao Li, Yi Shen, Hong Cheng, Jun Yuan, Yang-Yang Zhang, Biao Yan
Although nervous and vascular systems are functionally different, they usually share similar mechanisms for function maintenance. Neurovascular dysfunction has became the pathogenesis of several vascular and nervous disorders. Here we show that long non-coding RNA-MIAT is aberrantly expressed under neurovascular dysfunction condition. MIAT is shown as a regulator of vascular dysfunction, including retinal angiogenesis, corneal angiogenesis, and vascular permeability. MIAT is also shown as a regulator of retinal neurodegeneration under diabetic condition...
August 2, 2016: Oncotarget
Y Cui, S-F Li, H Gu, Y-Z Hu, X Liang, C-Q Lu, Y Cai, C-X Wang, Y Yang, G-J Teng
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased risk of dementia. This study investigated the global connectivity patterns in the brains of patients with type 2 diabetes by using a functional MR imaging technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty patients and 43 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state functional imaging in a 3T MR imaging unit. Degree centrality, a commonly used measurement of global connectivity, was computed for a full-brain exploration of the regions influenced by type 2 diabetes...
June 30, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Vinupritha Palanisamy, Anburajan Mariamichael
Background and Aim: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by varying hyperglycemias either due to insufficient secretion of insulin by the pancreas or improper utilization of glucose. The study was aimed to investigate the association of morphological features of erythrocytes among normal and diabetic subjects and its gender-based changes and thereby to develop a computer aided tool to diagnose diabetes using features extracted from RBC. Materials and Methods: The study involved 138 normal and 144 diabetic subjects...
June 29, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
S M Hadi Hosseini, Paul Mazaika, Nelly Mauras, Bruce Buckingham, Stuart A Weinzimer, Eva Tsalikian, Neil H White, Allan L Reiss
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D), one of the most frequent chronic diseases in children, is associated with glucose dysregulation that contributes to an increased risk for neurocognitive deficits. While there is a bulk of evidence regarding neurocognitive deficits in adults with T1D, little is known about how early-onset T1D affects neural networks in young children. Recent data demonstrated widespread alterations in regional gray matter and white matter associated with T1D in young children. These widespread neuroanatomical changes might impact the organization of large-scale brain networks...
November 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Angeles Vinuesa, Carlos Pomilio, Martin Menafra, Maria Marta Bonaventura, Laura Garay, María Florencia Mercogliano, Roxana Schillaci, Victoria Lux Lantos, Fernando Brites, Juan Beauquis, Flavia Saravia
The incidence of metabolic disorders including obesity, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome have seriously increased in the last decades. These diseases - with growing impact in modern societies - constitute major risk factors for neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), sharing insulin resistance, inflammation and associated cognitive impairment. However, cerebral cellular and molecular pathways involved are not yet clearly understood. Thus, our aim was to study the impact of a non-severe high fat diet (HFD) that resembles western-like alimentary habits, particularly involving juvenile stages where the brain physiology and connectivity are in plain maturation...
October 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Gabriela de Moraes, Christopher J Layton
Diabetes causes a panretinal neurodegeneration herein termed diabetic retinal neuropathy, which manifests in the retina early and progresses throughout the disease. Clinical manifestations include changes in the ERG, perimetry, dark adaptation, contrast sensitivity and colour vision which correlate with laboratory findings of thinning of the retinal neuronal layers, increased apoptosis in neurons and activation of glial cells. Possible mechanisms include oxidative stress, neuronal AGE accumulation, altered balance of neurotrophic factors and loss of mitohormesis...
December 2016: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Patrick Reeson, Andrew Jeffery, Craig E Brown
Type 1 diabetes is known to cause circulatory problems in the eyes, heart, and limbs, and the brain is no exception. Because of the insidious effects of diabetes on brain circulation, patients with diabetes are two to four times more likely to have an ischemic stroke and are less likely to regain functions that are lost. To provide a more mechanistic understanding of this clinically significant problem, imaging studies have focused on how stroke affects neural and vascular networks in experimental models of type 1 diabetes...
July 2016: Diabetes
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