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diabetic neural changes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926876/-advances-in-the-research-of-characteristics-and-treatment-of-burns-in-the-elderly
#1
R Liu, Z Y Li
With the development of society and the improvement of medical level, the average life span of human has been increasing year by year. The proportion of elderly burn patients is also increasing yearly, which has become a social problem that can not be ignored. Because of physiological characteristics, such as decreased function of heart, lung, and kidney, degenerative changes of neural system, reduced gastrointestinal function and immunological function, and mostly accompanied by primary diseases of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, elderly burn patients suffer from high shock rate and mortality, and their wounds are not easy to heal...
September 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902411/functional-changes-in-the-neural-retina-occur-in-the-absence-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-a-rodent-model-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#2
Dustin R Masser, Laura Otalora, Nicholas W Clark, Michael T Kinter, Michael H Elliott, Willard M Freeman
Diabetic retinopathy is a neurovascular diabetes complication resulting in vision loss. A wealth of literature reports retinal molecular changes indicative of neural deficits, inflammation, and vascular leakage with chronic diabetes, but the mechanistic causes of disease initiation and progression are unknown. Microvascular mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage leading to mitochondrial dysfunction has been proposed to drive vascular dysfunction in retinopathy. However, growing evidence suggests that neural retina dysfunction precedes and may cause vascular damage...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882554/the-impact-of-androgen-actions-in-neurons-on-metabolic-health-and-disease
#3
REVIEW
Jamie J Morford, Sheng Wu, Franck Mauvais-Jarvis
The male hormone testosterone exerts different effects on glucose and energy homeostasis in males and females. Testosterone deficiency predisposes males to visceral obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, testosterone excess predisposes females to similar metabolic dysfunction. Here, we review the effects of testosterone actions in the central nervous system on metabolic function in males and females. In particular, we highlight changes within the hypothalamus that control glucose and energy homeostasis...
September 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860463/decision-making-in-primary-onset-middle-age-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-bold-fmri-study
#4
Dan-Miao Sun, Ye Ma, Zong-Bo Sun, Lei Xie, Jin-Zhuang Huang, Wei-Song Chen, Shou-Xing Duan, Zhi-Rong Lin, Rui-Wei Guo, Hong-Bo Le, Wen-Can Xu, Shu-Hua Ma
Although type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a well-recognized risk factor for dementia, the neural mechanisms that underlying cognitive impairment in T2DM remain unclear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a computerized version of the Iowa Gambling Task to investigate the neural basis of decision making at the initial onset stage of T2DM. Eighteen newly diagnosed middle-aged T2DM patients, with no previous diabetic treatment history, and 18 matched controls were recruited. Results indicated that T2DM patients made more disadvantageous decisions than controls...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855790/safety-of-lower-extremity-neurodynamic-exercises-in-adults-with-diabetes-mellitus-a-feasibility-study
#5
Benjamin S Boyd, Robert J Nee, Betty Smoot
OBJECTIVES: Neurodynamic exercises aim to improve neural mechanosensitivity in order to promote pain-free movement and function. People with diabetes mellitus (DM) may be candidates for neurodynamic exercises to address common DM-related impairments such as reduced lower extremity range of motion (ROM) and altered neural mechanosensitivity. However, no studies have examined the safety and immediate effects of neurodynamic exercise in people with DM. This study aims to determine the feasibility of applying neurodynamic exercises in adults with DM by evaluating the rate of adverse events and quantifying immediate changes in straight leg raise (SLR) ROM...
February 2017: Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852393/adult-neural-stem-cell-dysfunction-in-the-subventricular-zone-of-the-lateral-ventricle-leads-to-diabetic-olfactory-defects
#6
Yu-Hong Jing, Chu-Chu Qi, Li Yuan, Xiang-Wen Liu, Li-Ping Gao, Jie Yin
Sensitive smell discrimination is based on structural plasticity of the olfactory bulb, which depends on migration and integration of newborn neurons from the subventricular zone. In this study, we examined the relationship between neural stem cell status in the subventricular zone and olfactory function in rats with diabetes mellitus. Streptozotocin was injected through the femoral vein to induce type 1 diabetes mellitus in Sprague-Dawley rats. Two months after injection, olfactory sensitivity was decreased in diabetic rats...
July 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836097/animal-models-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#7
REVIEW
Ana Maria Olivares, Kristen Althoff, Gloria Fanghua Chen, Siqi Wu, Margaux A Morrisson, Margaret M DeAngelis, Neena Haider
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common complications associated with chronic hyperglycemia seen in patients with diabetes mellitus. While many facets of DR are still not fully understood, animal studies have contributed significantly to understanding the etiology and progression of human DR. This review provides a comprehensive discussion of the induced and genetic DR models in different species and the advantages and disadvantages of each model. RECENT FINDINGS: Rodents are the most commonly used models, though dogs develop the most similar morphological retinal lesions as those seen in humans, and pigs and zebrafish have similar vasculature and retinal structures to humans...
August 24, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834571/the-impact-of-ageing-fasting-and-high-fat-diet-on-central-and-peripheral-glucose-tolerance-and-glucose-sensing-neural-networks-in-the-arcuate-nucleus
#8
Marco van den Top, Fei-Yue Zhao, Ratchada Pattaranit, Natalie J Michael, Astrid Munder, Jack T Pryor, Leo P Renaud, David Spanswick
Obesity and aging are risk factors for diabetes. Here we investigated effects of aging, obesity and fasting on central and peripheral glucose tolerance and on glucose-sensing neuronal function in the arcuate nucleus of rats, with a view to providing insight into central mechanisms regulating glucose homeostasis and how they change or are subject to dysfunction with aging and obesity. We show that following a glucose load, central glucose tolerance at the level of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma is significantly reduced in rats maintained on high fat diet (HFD)...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821394/activation-of-ampk-is-neuroprotective-in-the-oxidative-stress-by-advanced-glycosylation-end-products-in-human-neural-stem-cells
#9
Chien-Hung Lin, Yi-Chuan Cheng, Christopher J Nicol, Kuan-Hung Lin, Chia-Hui Yen, Ming-Chang Chiang
Advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) formation is correlated with the pathogenesis of diabetic neuronal damage, but its links with oxidative stress are still not well understood. Metformin, one of the most widely used anti-diabetic drugs, exerts its effects in part by activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Once activated, AMPK regulates many pathways central to metabolism and energy balance including, glucose uptake, glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation. AMPK is also present in neurons, but its role remains unclear...
August 15, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805947/penile-neurovascular-structure-revisited-immunohistochemical-studies-with-three-dimensional-reconstruction
#10
G N Yin, S-H Park, M-J Choi, A Limanjaya, K Ghatak, N N Minh, J Ock, K-M Song, J-K Ryu, J-K Suh
Penile erection is a neurovascular phenomenon that requires well coordinated and functional interaction between penile vascular and nervous systems. In order to provide a useful tool to examine pathologic changes in the erectile tissue, mainly focusing on penile neurovascular dysfunction, we established the technique to determine the differential distribution of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, pericytes, and nerve fibers in the mouse penis using immunohistochemical staining with three-dimensional reconstruction...
August 14, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803788/central-nervous-system-development-related-micrornas-levels-increase-in-the-serum-of-gestational-diabetic-women-during-the-first-trimester-of-pregnancy
#11
M Lamadrid-Romero, K H Solís, M S Cruz-Reséndiz, J E Pérez, N F Díaz, H Flores-Herrera, G García-López, O Perichart, E Reyes-Muñoz, F Arenas-Huertero, P Eguía-Aguilar, A Molina-Hernández
MicroRNAs are heterochronic molecules important during brain development, which could be altered by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). To explore these molecules in maternal serum, we performed an RT-qPCR analysis. Our results revealed the heterochronic character of some neural development-related microRNA in serum samples of pregnant women. In relation to the first trimester, higher levels of miR-183-5p, -200b-3p, and -125-5p in the second trimester, and higher levels of miR-137 in the third trimester, were found...
August 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761413/curcuma-longa-l-extract-improves-the-cortical-neural-connectivity-during-the-aging-process
#12
REVIEW
Gonzalo Flores
Turmeric or Curcuma is a natural product that has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic pharmacological properties. It can be used in the control of the aging process that involves oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Aging is a physiological process that affects higher cortical and cognitive functions with a reduction in learning and memory, limited judgment and deficits in emotional control and social behavior. Moreover, aging is a major risk factor for the appearance of several disorders such as cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension...
June 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755268/photoreceptor-cells-produce-inflammatory-products-that-contribute-to-retinal-vascular-permeability-in-a-mouse-model-of-diabetes
#13
Deoye Tonade, Haitao Liu, Krzysztof Palczewski, Timothy S Kern
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Recent studies suggest that photoreceptor cells produce mediators or products that contribute to retinal capillary damage in diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine if photoreceptor cells release soluble factors that contribute to retinal vascular permeability in diabetes. METHODS: To assess retinal vascular leakage, a streptozotocin-induced mouse model of diabetes, with hyperglycaemia for 8 months, and age-matched control mice, were injected with FITC-BSA...
July 28, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734946/impaired-rhodopsin-generation-in-the-rat-model-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#14
Volha V Malechka, Gennadiy Moiseyev, Yusuke Takahashi, Younghwa Shin, Jian-Xing Ma
Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus. Diabetic patients experience functional deficits in dark adaptation, contrast sensitivity, and color perception before microvascular pathologies become apparent. Herein, we evaluated early changes in neural retinal function and in retinoid metabolism in the eye in diabetes. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats showed decreased a- and b-wave amplitudes of scotopic and photopic electroretinography responses 4 months after diabetes induction compared to nondiabetic controls...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734674/retinal-exposure-to-high-glucose-condition-modifies-the-gabaergic-system-regulation-by-nitric-oxide
#15
R Carpi-Santos, R S Maggesissi, M P von Seehausen, K C Calaza
Diabetic retinopathy is a severe retinal complication that diabetic patients are susceptible to present. Although this disease is currently characterized as a microvascular disease, there is growing evidence that neural changes occur and maybe precede vascular impairments. Using chicken retina, an avascular tissue with no direct contact with blood vessels and neural retina, this study aimed to evaluate the influence of acute exposure to high glucose concentration in the retinal GABAergic system, and the role of nitric oxide (NO) in this modulation...
September 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732591/diabetic-retinopathy-breaking-the-barrier
#16
REVIEW
Randa S Eshaq, Alaa M Z Aldalati, J Steven Alexander, Norman R Harris
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) remains a major complication of diabetes and a leading cause of blindness among adults worldwide. DR is a progressive disease affecting both type I and type II diabetic patients at any stage of the disease, and targets the retinal microvasculature. DR results from multiple biochemical, molecular and pathophysiological changes to the retinal vasculature, which affect both microcirculatory functions and ultimately photoreceptor function. Several neural, endothelial, and support cell (e...
July 12, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724431/biological-embedding-of-childhood-adversity-from-physiological-mechanisms-to-clinical-implications
#17
REVIEW
Anne E Berens, Sarah K G Jensen, Charles A Nelson
BACKGROUND: Adverse psychosocial exposures in early life, namely experiences such as child maltreatment, caregiver stress or depression, and domestic or community violence, have been associated in epidemiological studies with increased lifetime risk of adverse outcomes, including diabetes, heart disease, cancers, and psychiatric illnesses. Additional work has shed light on the potential molecular mechanisms by which early adversity becomes "biologically embedded" in altered physiology across body systems...
July 20, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715342/quantitative-evaluation-of-rehabilitation-effect-on-peripheral-circulation-of-diabetic-foot
#18
Yao-Kuang Huang, Chang-Cheng Chang, Pin-Xing Lin, Bor-Shyh Lin
Diabetics may encounter different foot problems, which easily lead to infection, ulcers, and increased risk of amputation due to nerve or vascular injury. In order to reduce the risk of amputation, Buerger's exercise is one of the frequently used rehabilitation to improve the blood circulation in the lower limbs. However, it is difficult to evaluate the rehabilitation efficiency of Buerger's exercise objectively. In this study, a novel non-invasively optical system was developed to non-invasively monitor the change of the foot blood circulation before and after long-term Buerger's exercise...
July 13, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696850/advanced-mr-imaging-techniques-for-differentiation-of-neuropathic-arthropathy-and-osteomyelitis-in-the-diabetic-foot
#19
Teodoro Martín Noguerol, Antonio Luna Alcalá, Luis S Beltrán, Marta Gómez Cabrera, Jordi Broncano Cabrero, Joan C Vilanova
Diagnosis and treatment of foot disease in patients with diabetes is a common clinical-radiologic challenge, particularly the differentiation of neuropathic arthropathy from osteomyelitis. Conventional clinical tests and imaging techniques have limited accuracy for evaluation of the diabetic foot. The introduction of morphologic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in these patients has provided a qualitative leap in diagnosis. The characteristics of soft-tissue and bone marrow edema and their patterns of distribution throughout the foot allow discrimination between both entities...
July 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673577/cognitive-impairment-in-diabetes-and-poor-glucose-utilization-in-the-intracellular-neural-milieu
#20
Carlos M Contreras, Ana G Gutiérrez-García
The main characteristic of diabetes is hyperglycemia. Depending on whether diabetes is type-1 or type-2, it is characterized by deficiencies in insulin secretion, insulin receptor sensitivity, hexokinase activity, and glucose transport. Current drug treatments are able to lower circulating glucose but do not address the problem of glucose utilization in the intracellular milieu, the consequence of which is tissue damage. In the long-term, such changes can produce structural damage in many cortical and subcortical brain areas that are related to cognitive function...
July 2017: Medical Hypotheses
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