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diabetic neural changes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734946/impaired-rhodopsin-generation-in-the-rat-model-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#1
Volha V Malechka, Gennadiy Moiseyev, Yusuke Takahashi, Younghwa Shin, Jian-Xing Ma
Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus. Diabetic patients experience functional deficits in dark adaptation, contrast sensitivity, and color perception before microvascular pathologies become apparent. Here, we evaluated early changes in neural retinal function and in retinoid metabolism in the eye in diabetes. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats showed decreased a-wave and b-wave amplitudes of scotopic and photopic electroretinography responses four months after diabetes induction compared to nondiabetic controls...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734674/retinal-exposure-to-high-glucose-condition-modifies-the-gabaergic-system-regulation-by-nitric-oxide
#2
R Carpi-Santos, R S Maggesissi, M P Von Seehausen, K C Calaza
Diabetic retinopathy is a severe retinal complication that diabetic patients are susceptible to present. Although this disease is currently characterized as a microvascular disease, there is growing evidence that neural changes occur and maybe precede vascular impairments. Using chicken retina, an avascular tissue with no direct contact with blood vessels and neural retina, this study aimed to evaluate the influence of acute exposure to high glucose concentration in the retinal GABAergic system, and the role of nitric oxide (NO) in this modulation...
July 19, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732591/diabetic-retinopathy-breaking-the-barrier
#3
REVIEW
Randa S Eshaq, Alaa M Z Aldalati, J Steven Alexander, Norman R Harris
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) remains a major complication of diabetes and a leading cause of blindness among adults worldwide. DR is a progressive disease affecting both type I and type II diabetic patients at any stage of the disease, and targets the retinal microvasculature. DR results from multiple biochemical, molecular and pathophysiological changes to the retinal vasculature, which affect both microcirculatory functions and ultimately photoreceptor function. Several neural, endothelial, and support cell (e...
July 12, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724431/biological-embedding-of-childhood-adversity-from-physiological-mechanisms-to-clinical-implications
#4
REVIEW
Anne E Berens, Sarah K G Jensen, Charles A Nelson
BACKGROUND: Adverse psychosocial exposures in early life, namely experiences such as child maltreatment, caregiver stress or depression, and domestic or community violence, have been associated in epidemiological studies with increased lifetime risk of adverse outcomes, including diabetes, heart disease, cancers, and psychiatric illnesses. Additional work has shed light on the potential molecular mechanisms by which early adversity becomes "biologically embedded" in altered physiology across body systems...
July 20, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715342/quantitative-evaluation-of-rehabilitation-effect-on-peripheral-circulation-of-diabetic-foot
#5
Yao-Kuang Huang, Chang-Cheng Chang, Pin-Xing Lin, Bor-Shyh Lin
Diabetics may encounter different foot problems, which easily lead to infection, ulcers, and increased risk of amputation due to nerve or vascular injury. In order to reduce the risk of amputation, Buerger's exercise is one of the frequently used rehabilitation to improve the blood circulation in the lower limbs. However, it is difficult to evaluate the rehabilitation efficiency of Buerger's exercise objectively. In this study, a novel non-invasively optical system was developed to non-invasively monitor the change of the foot blood circulation before and after long-term Buerger's exercise...
July 13, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696850/advanced-mr-imaging-techniques-for-differentiation-of-neuropathic-arthropathy-and-osteomyelitis-in-the-diabetic-foot
#6
Teodoro Martín Noguerol, Antonio Luna Alcalá, Luis S Beltrán, Marta Gómez Cabrera, Jordi Broncano Cabrero, Joan C Vilanova
Diagnosis and treatment of foot disease in patients with diabetes is a common clinical-radiologic challenge, particularly the differentiation of neuropathic arthropathy from osteomyelitis. Conventional clinical tests and imaging techniques have limited accuracy for evaluation of the diabetic foot. The introduction of morphologic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in these patients has provided a qualitative leap in diagnosis. The characteristics of soft-tissue and bone marrow edema and their patterns of distribution throughout the foot allow discrimination between both entities...
July 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673577/cognitive-impairment-in-diabetes-and-poor-glucose-utilization-in-the-intracellular-neural-milieu
#7
Carlos M Contreras, Ana G Gutiérrez-García
The main characteristic of diabetes is hyperglycemia. Depending on whether diabetes is type-1 or type-2, it is characterized by deficiencies in insulin secretion, insulin receptor sensitivity, hexokinase activity, and glucose transport. Current drug treatments are able to lower circulating glucose but do not address the problem of glucose utilization in the intracellular milieu, the consequence of which is tissue damage. In the long-term, such changes can produce structural damage in many cortical and subcortical brain areas that are related to cognitive function...
July 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616041/efficacy-of-intraorbital-electroacupuncture-for-diabetic-abducens-nerve-palsy-study-protocol-for-a-prospective-single-center-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Ling-Yun Zhou, Xue-Mei Li, Tie-Juan Liu, Xiao-Jie Ji, Ming Zhao, Chang Su, Ji-Chao Liu, Jiang-Yun Sun
Abducens nerve palsy (ANP) is commonly seen in patients with diabetes mellitus. The validity of acupuncture as a traditional Chinese medicine method in peripheral nerve repair is well established. However, its efficacy in randomized controlled trials remains unclear. Herein, we designed a protocol for a prospective, single-center, randomized controlled trial to investigate the effect of intraorbital electroacupuncture on diabetic ANP. We plan to recruit 60 patients with diabetic ANP, and randomly divide them into treatment and control groups...
May 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599877/zeaxanthin-improves-diabetes-induced-cognitive-deficit-in-rats-through-activiting-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#9
Xiaoyan Zhou, Shanshan Wang, Xin Ding, Li Qin, Yizhen Mao, Lei Chen, Wei Li, Changjiang Ying
Published studies have shown that cognitive deficit is a characteristic manifestation of neurodegenerative disease in diabetes. However, there is no effective prevention and treatment for this diabetes-associated behavior disorder. In the present study, we attempted to elucidate the effect of zeaxanthin on cognitive deficit and the change in the hippocampus correlated with cognitive decline in diabetic rats. Diabetic rats in this study were induced by high-fat diet and low-dose streptozocin (STZ), cognitive ability of rats were evaluated use morris water maze (MWM) and morphology change in hippocampus was assessed by cresyl violet stain...
June 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588350/elevated-glucose-and-interleukin-1%C3%AE-differentially-affect-retinal-microglial-cell-proliferation
#10
Filipa I Baptista, Célia A Aveleira, Áurea F Castilho, António F Ambrósio
Diabetic retinopathy is considered a neurovascular disorder, hyperglycemia being considered the main risk factor for this pathology. Diabetic retinopathy also presents features of a low-grade chronic inflammatory disease, including increased levels of cytokines in the retina, such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). However, how high glucose and IL-1β affect the different retinal cell types remains to be clarified. In retinal neural cell cultures, we found that IL-1β and IL-1RI are present in microglia, macroglia, and neurons...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577175/multi-level-deep-supervised-networks-for-retinal-vessel-segmentation
#11
Juan Mo, Lei Zhang
PURPOSE: Changes in the appearance of retinal blood vessels are an important indicator for various ophthalmologic and cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes, hypertension, arteriosclerosis, and choroidal neovascularization. Vessel segmentation from retinal images is very challenging because of low blood vessel contrast, intricate vessel topology, and the presence of pathologies such as microaneurysms and hemorrhages. To overcome these challenges, we propose a neural network-based method for vessel segmentation...
June 2, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538662/maternal-factors-that-induce-epigenetic-changes-contribute-to-neurological-disorders-in-offspring
#12
REVIEW
Avijit Banik, Deepika Kandilya, Seshadri Ramya, Walter Stünkel, Yap Seng Chong, S Thameem Dheen
It is well established that the regulation of epigenetic factors, including chromatic reorganization, histone modifications, DNA methylation, and miRNA regulation, is critical for the normal development and functioning of the human brain. There are a number of maternal factors influencing epigenetic pathways such as lifestyle, including diet, alcohol consumption, and smoking, as well as age and infections (viral or bacterial). Genetic and metabolic alterations such as obesity, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and thyroidism alter epigenetic mechanisms, thereby contributing to neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs) such as embryonic neural tube defects (NTDs), autism, Down's syndrome, Rett syndrome, and later onset of neuropsychological deficits...
May 24, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439518/diabetes-adult-neurogenesis-and-brain-remodeling-new-insights-from-rodent-and-zebrafish-models
#13
REVIEW
Anne-Claire Dorsemans, David Couret, Anaïs Hoarau, Olivier Meilhac, Christian Lefebvre d'Hellencourt, Nicolas Diotel
The prevalence of diabetes rapidly increased during the last decades in association with important changes in lifestyle. Diabetes and hyperglycemia are well-known for inducing deleterious effects on physiologic processes, increasing for instance cardiovascular diseases, nephropathy, retinopathy and foot ulceration. Interestingly, diabetes also impairs brain morphology and functions such as (1) decreased neurogenesis (proliferation, differentiation and cell survival), (2) decreased brain volumes, (3) increased blood-brain barrier leakage, (4) increased cognitive impairments, as well as (5) increased stroke incidence and worse neurologic outcomes following stroke...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410981/predicting-healthcare-trajectories-from-medical-records-a-deep-learning-approach
#14
Trang Pham, Truyen Tran, Dinh Phung, Svetha Venkatesh
Personalized predictive medicine necessitates the modeling of patient illness and care processes, which inherently have long-term temporal dependencies. Healthcare observations, stored in electronic medical records are episodic and irregular in time. We introduce DeepCare, an end-to-end deep dynamic neural network that reads medical records, stores previous illness history, infers current illness states and predicts future medical outcomes. At the data level, DeepCare represents care episodes as vectors and models patient health state trajectories by the memory of historical records...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389999/effects-of-microrna-21-on-nerve-cell-regeneration-and-neural-function-recovery-in-diabetes-mellitus-combined-with-cerebral-infarction-rats-by-targeting-pdcd4
#15
Yun-Bao Guo, Tie-Feng Ji, Hong-Wei Zhou, Jin-Lu Yu
We aimed to determine the effect and mechanism of microRNA-21 (miR-21) on nerve cell regeneration and nerve functional recovery in diabetes mellitus combined with cerebral infarction (DM + CI) rats by targeting PDCD4. A total of 125 male Wistar rats were selected for DM + CI rat model construction and assigned into the blank, miR-21 mimics, mimics control, miR-21 inhibitor, inhibitor control, miR-21 inhibitor + si-PDCD4 and si-PDCD4 groups. And, 20 healthy rats were selected for the normal group. Triphenylterazolium chloride (TTC) staining and HE staining were used for determination of the area of CI and pathological changes, respectively...
April 7, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374074/abnormal-subcortical-nuclei-shapes-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#16
Ji Chen, Junxiang Zhang, Xuebing Liu, Xiaoyang Wang, Xiangjin Xu, Hui Li, Bo Cao, Yanqiu Yang, Jingjing Lu, Ziqian Chen
OBJECTIVES: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) increases the risk of brain atrophy and dementia. We aimed to elucidate deep grey matter (GM) structural abnormalities and their relationships with T2DM cognitive deficits by combining region of interest (ROI)-based volumetry, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and shape analysis. METHODS: We recruited 23 T2DM patients and 24 age-matched healthy controls to undergo T1-weighted structural MRI scanning. Images were analysed using the three aforementioned methods to obtain deep GM structural shapes and volumes...
April 3, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334035/early-inner-retinal-thinning-and-cardiovascular-autonomic-dysfunction-in-type-2-diabetes
#17
Jin A Choi, Hyo Won Kim, Jin-Woo Kwon, Yun-Sub Shim, Dong Hyun Jee, Jae-Seung Yun, Yu-Bae Ahn, Chan Kee Park, Seung-Hyun Ko
BACKGROUND: To investigate changes in the neural retina according to the presence of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defects in type 2 diabetes, and to determine the association between inner retina thickness and the severity of diabetic complications. METHODS: We studied non-glaucomatous patients with type 2 diabetes and control subjects Circumpapillary RNFL and macula ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thicknesses were measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290778/improved-neural-microcirculation-and-regeneration-after-peripheral-nerve-decompression-in-dpn-rats
#18
Wenxiang Zhong, Min Yang, Wenchuan Zhang, Massimiliano Visocchi, Xiangjun Chen, Chenlong Liao
OBJECTIVE: Recently, neural microcirculation and regeneration were regarded as critical factors in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) improvement. In the present study, we explored the cytological and molecular mechanisms how peripheral nerve decompression impaired nerve injury. METHODS: Forty-five male SD rats were established as the DPN model. HE staining was used to observe the morphology and distribution of microvessels. Transmission electron microscopy was applied to observe the morphology and distribution of Schwann cells...
April 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263454/neuroplasticity-of-supraspinal-structures-associated-with-pathological-pain
#19
Pere Boadas-Vaello, Judit Homs, Francisco Reina, Ana Carrera, Enrique Verdú
Peripheral nerve and spinal cord injuries, along with other painful syndromes such as fibromyalgia, diabetic neuropathy, chemotherapeutic neuropathy, trigeminal neuralgia, complex regional pain syndrome, and/or irritable bowel syndrome, cause several neuroplasticity changes in the nervous system along its entire axis affecting the different neuronal nuclei. This paper reviews these changes, focusing on the supraspinal structures that are involved in the modulation and processing of pain, including the periaqueductal gray matter, red nucleus, locus coeruleus, rostral ventromedial medulla, thalamus, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum, habenula, primary, and secondary somatosensory cortex, motor cortex, mammillary bodies, hippocampus, septum, amygdala, cingulated, and prefrontal cortex...
March 6, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178194/preventive-healthcare-a-neural-network-analysis-of-behavioral-habits-and-chronic-diseases
#20
Viju Raghupathi, Wullianallur Raghupathi
The research aims to explore the association between behavioral habits and chronic diseases, and to identify a portfolio of risk factors for preventive healthcare. The data is taken from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) database of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, for the year 2012. Using SPSS Modeler, we deploy neural networks to identify strong positive and negative associations between certain chronic diseases and behavioral habits. The data for 475,687 records from BRFS database included behavioral habit variables of consumption of soda and fruits/vegetables, alcohol, smoking, weekly working hours, and exercise; chronic disease variables of heart attack, stroke, asthma, and diabetes; and demographic variables of marital status, income, and age...
February 6, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
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