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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896377/self-administration-and-behavioral-economics-of-second-generation-synthetic-cathinones-in-male-rats
#1
S L Huskinson, J E Naylor, E A Townsend, J K Rowlett, B E Blough, K B Freeman
RATIONALE: Synthetic cathinones have become increasingly available as drugs of abuse. Distribution of these drugs is made possible by altering the chemical structures of prohibited cathinones and marketing them under misleading labels. Very little is known about the relative reinforcing effectiveness of new synthetic cathinones relative to known drugs of abuse. OBJECTIVE: We examined self-administration of three second-generation synthetic cathinones: alpha-pyrrolidinopentiophenone (alpha-PVP), 4-methyl-N-ethylcathinone (4-MEC), and 4-methyl-alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (4-MePPP) relative to methamphetamine...
November 28, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742411/inhibition-of-reinforcing-hyperalgesic-and-motor-effects-of-morphine-by-buspirone-in-rats
#2
Darakhshan Jabeen Haleem, Shazia Nawaz
: Morphine and other opioids are among the most effective prescription medications for the treatment of pain. Addiction and hyperalgesia associated with their long-term use limits the clinical utility of these drugs. In view of a role of somatodendritic serotonin-1A receptors in addiction and analgesic effects of morphine, the present study concerns effects of co-use of buspirone, a partial agonist at the serotonin-1A receptor, on reinforcing, hyperalgesic, and motor effects of morphine in rats...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737792/effects-of-alprazolam-and-cannabinoid-related-compounds-in-an-animal-model-of-panic-attack
#3
Luara A Batista, Andrea S Haibara, Luiz C Schenberg, Fabricio A Moreira
Selective stimulation of carotid chemoreceptors by intravenous infusion of low doses of potassium cyanide (KCN) produces short-lasting escape responses that have been proposed as a model of panic attack. In turn, preclinical studies suggest that facilitation of the endocannabinoid system attenuate panic-like responses. Here, we compared the effects of cannabinoid-related compounds to those of alprazolam, a clinically effective panicolytic, on the duration of the escape reaction induced by intravenous infusion of KCN (80μg) in rats...
October 11, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703829/development-of-tinnitus-at-a-low-dose-of-sertraline-clinical-course-and-proposed-mechanisms
#4
Christopher W T Miller
Introduction. Serotonin is involved in filtering of auditory stimuli. Cochlear input is processed through complex interactions between serotonergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic neurotransmitter systems. Options for treatment of tinnitus include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs); however in rare instances this symptom may occur as a side effect of this class of medications. Case Presentation. A 50-year-old woman developed bilateral tinnitus after several weeks of being treated with sertraline 50 mg...
2016: Case Reports in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515792/cocaine-seeking-during-initial-abstinence-is-driven-by-noradrenergic-and-serotonergic-signaling-in-hippocampus-in-a-sex-dependent-manner
#5
Amy S Kohtz, Gary Aston-Jones
There is evidence for sex differences in cocaine addiction from both clinical and pre-clinical studies. In particular, pre-clinical studies indicate that females may be more sensitive than males to stress-induced drug-seeking. The dorsal hippocampus (DH) is prominently involved in the stress response, as are the locus coeruleus norepinephrine (LC-NE) and dorsal raphe serotonin (DR 5-HT) systems. Moreover, DH receives strong inputs from LC-NE and DR 5-HT neurons. We hypothesized that the stress associated with non-reinforced drug-seeking during early abstinence (on Extinction Day 1; ED1) may contribute to drug seeking via β-adrenergic and 5-HT neurotransmission in DH...
August 12, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509352/impulsive-choices-in-mice-lacking-imprinted-nesp55
#6
C L Dent, T Humby, K Lewis, A Plagge, R Fischer-Colbrie, J F Wilkins, L S Wilkinson, A R Isles
Genomic imprinting is the process whereby germline epigenetic events lead to parent-of-origin specific monallelic expression of a number of key mammalian genes. The imprinted gene Nesp is expressed from the maternal allele only and encodes for Nesp55 protein. In the brain, Nesp55 is found predominately in discrete areas of the hypothalamus and midbrain. Previously, we have shown that loss of Nesp55 gives rise to alterations in novelty-related behaviour. Here, we extend these findings and demonstrate, using the Nesp(m/+) mouse model, that loss of Nesp55 leads to impulsive choices as measured by a delayed-reinforcement task, whereby Nesp(m/+) mice were less willing to wait for a delayed, larger reward, preferring instead to choose an immediate, smaller reward...
November 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492358/smoking-and-cognition
#7
Marcela Waisman Campos, Debora Serebrisky, João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia
Given the large availability of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) throughout the brain, and the wide range of neurotransmitter systems affected (norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine), nicotine influences a wide variety of cognitive domains such as sensorial, motor, attentional, executive, learning and memory. This article reviews current state of the art research on the effects of nicotine upon cognition. There are different neurobiological mechanisms involved in acute/chronic smoking and nicotine abstinence...
August 3, 2016: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454937/neurochemical-and-behavioral-responses-to-unpredictable-chronic-mild-stress-following-developmental-isolation-the-zebrafish-as-a-model-for-major-depression
#8
Niveen Fulcher, Steven Tran, Soaleha Shams, Diptendu Chatterjee, Robert Gerlai
Unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) and developmental social isolation are often utilized in laboratory animals to mimic unpredictable life stressors and early life adversity that may contribute to the development of major depressive disorder in humans. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have been used to examine the effects of both developmental social isolation and UCMS. However, anxiety-like behavioral responses, social behavior, and neurochemical changes induced by stressors have not been well characterized. Furthermore, the possible interaction between UCMS and developmental isolation remains unexplored...
July 25, 2016: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27399274/alcohol-misuse-in-emerging-adulthood-association-of-dopamine-and-serotonin-receptor-genes-with-impulsivity-related-cognition
#9
Talia E Leamy, Jason P Connor, Joanne Voisey, Ross McD Young, Matthew J Gullo
Impulsivity predicts alcohol misuse and risk for alcohol use disorder. Cognition mediates much of this association. Genes also account for a large amount of variance in alcohol misuse, with dopamine and serotonin receptor genes of particular interest, because of their role in motivated behavior. The precise psychological mechanisms through which such genes confer risk is unclear. Trait impulsivity conveys risk for alcohol misuse by influencing two distinct domains of cognition: beliefs about the reinforcing effects of alcohol consumption (positive alcohol expectancy) and the perceived ability to resist it (drinking refusal self-efficacy)...
December 2016: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27381555/genetic-variants-of-maob-affect-serotonin-level-and-specific-behavioral-attributes-to-increase-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd-susceptibility-in-males
#10
Barnali Chakraborti, Deepak Verma, Arijit Karmakar, Preeti Jaiswal, Aritrika Sanyal, Debarshi Paul, Swagata Sinha, Asem Surindro Singh, Subhrangshu Guhathakurta, Anirban Roychowdhury, Chinmoy Kumar Panda, Saurabh Ghosh, Kochupurackal P Mohanakumar, Kanchan Mukhophadhyay, Usha Rajamma
Serotonergic system participates in various developmental processes and modulation of behaviour. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by a range of behavioral symptoms scaling from mild to severe. Abnormal 5-HT synthesis and signalling, platelet hyperserotonemia and amelioration of repetitive behaviours by SSRI are some of the key findings, which reinforced the hypothesis that serotonergic genes might act as ASD susceptible genes. Therefore, genes encoding monoamine oxidases A/B (MAOA/MAOB) received special attention as these genes are located on the X-chromosome and the gene products are responsible for 5-HT degradation...
November 3, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318987/abuse-potential-of-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-mdma-and-its-derivatives-in-zebrafish-role-of-serotonin-5ht2-type-receptors
#11
Luisa Ponzoni, Braida Daniela, Mariaelvina Sala
RATIONALE: The synthetic phenethylamines are recreational drugs known to produce psychostimulant effects. However, their abuse potential has not been widely studied. OBJECTIVES: Here, we investigated the rewarding and the hallucinatory effects of 2,5-dimetoxy-4-bromo-amphetamine hydrobromide (DOB) and para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA) in comparison with the classical 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). In addition, the role of serotonin 5-HT2-like receptor on the abovementioned effects was evaluated...
August 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27307055/peripheral-administration-of-ethanol-results-in-a-correlated-increase-in-dopamine-and-serotonin-within-the-posterior-ventral-tegmental-area
#12
Gerald A Deehan, Christopher P Knight, R Aaron Waeiss, Eric A Engleman, Jamie E Toalston, William J McBride, Sheketha R Hauser, Zachary A Rodd
AIMS: Two critical neurotransmitter systems regulating ethanol (EtOH) reward are serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA). Within the posterior ventral tegmental area (pVTA), 5-HT receptors have been shown to regulate DA neuronal activity. Increased pVTA neuronal activity has been linked to drug reinforcement. The current experiment sought to determine the effect of EtOH on 5-HT and DA levels within the pVTA. METHODS: Wistar rats were implanted with cannula aimed at the pVTA...
September 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27272068/interactions-of-cathinone-nps-with-human-transporters-and-receptors-in-transfected-cells
#13
Linda D Simmler, Matthias E Liechti
Pharmacological assays carried out in transfected cells have been very useful for describing the mechanism of action of cathinone new psychoactive substances (NPS). These in vitro characterizations provide fast and reliable information on psychoactive substances soon after they emerge for recreational use. Well-investigated comparator compounds, such as methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, cocaine, and lysergic acid diethylamide, should always be included in the characterization to enhance the translation of the in vitro data into clinically useful information...
June 7, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27270123/culture-as-a-mediator-of-gene-environment-interaction-cultural-consonance-childhood-adversity-a-2a-serotonin-receptor-polymorphism-and-depression-in-urban-brazil
#14
William W Dressler, Mauro C Balieiro, Luiza Ferreira de Araújo, Wilson A Silva, José Ernesto Dos Santos
Research on gene-environment interaction was facilitated by breakthroughs in molecular biology in the late 20th century, especially in the study of mental health. There is a reliable interaction between candidate genes for depression and childhood adversity in relation to mental health outcomes. The aim of this paper is to explore the role of culture in this process in an urban community in Brazil. The specific cultural factor examined is cultural consonance, or the degree to which individuals are able to successfully incorporate salient cultural models into their own beliefs and behaviors...
July 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27242287/effects-of-7-day-repeated-treatment-with-the-5-ht2a-inverse-agonist-antagonist-pimavanserin-on-methamphetamine-vs-food-choice-in-male-rhesus-monkeys
#15
Matthew L Banks
BACKGROUND: Preclinical drug vs. food choice is an emerging group of drug self-administration procedures that have shown predictive validity to clinical drug addiction. Emerging data suggest that serotonin (5-HT)2A receptors modulate mesolimbic dopamine function, such that 5-HT2A antagonists blunt the abuse-related neurochemical effects of monoamine transporter substrates, such as amphetamine or methamphetamine. Whether subchronic 5-HT2A antagonist treatment attenuates methamphetamine reinforcement in any preclinical drug self-administration procedure is unknown...
August 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27184458/understanding-the-pathophysiology-of-schizophrenia-contributions-from-the-melbourne-psychiatric-brain-bank
#16
Brian Dean, David Copolov, Elizabeth Scarr
The Melbourne Psychiatric Brain Bank came into existence 25years ago. This review focusses on lines of research that have used tissue from the Brain Bank over periods of time. Hence there is a discussion on the significance of changes in levels of serotonin 2A receptors in the cortex of patients with schizophrenia and the relevance of such changes with regards to the pathophysiology of the disorder. The extensive contribution made by studies using tissue from the Melbourne Psychiatric Brain Bank to understanding the role of muscarinic receptors in the pathophysiology and treatment of schizophrenia is summarised...
May 12, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27145766/dimensional-psychiatry-mental-disorders-as-dysfunctions-of-basic-learning-mechanisms
#17
REVIEW
Andreas Heinz, Florian Schlagenhauf, Anne Beck, Carolin Wackerhagen
It has been questioned that the more than 300 mental disorders currently listed in international disease classification systems all have a distinct neurobiological correlate. Here, we support the idea that basic dimensions of mental dysfunctions, such as alterations in reinforcement learning, can be identified, which interact with individual vulnerability and psychosocial stress factors and, thus, contribute to syndromes of distress across traditional nosological boundaries. We further suggest that computational modeling of learning behavior can help to identify specific alterations in reinforcement-based decision-making and their associated neurobiological correlates...
August 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27125304/decreased-incentive-motivation-following-knockout-or-acute-blockade-of-the-serotonin-transporter-role-of-the-5-ht2c-receptor
#18
Caleb J Browne, Paul J Fletcher
Acute pharmacological elevation of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) activity decreases operant responding for primary reinforcers, suggesting that 5-HT reduces incentive motivation. The mechanism by which 5-HT alters incentive motivation is unknown, but parallel evidence that 5-HT2C receptor agonists also reduce responding for primary reinforcers implicates this receptor as a potential candidate. These experiments examined whether chronic and acute disruptions of serotonin transporter (SERT) activity altered incentive motivation, and whether the 5-HT2C receptor mediated the effects of elevated 5-HT on behavior...
September 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27020041/effect-of-5-ht2a-and-5-ht2c-receptors-on-temporal-discrimination-by-mice
#19
Adam L Halberstadt, Ivan S Sindhunata, Kees Scheffers, Aaron D Flynn, Richard F Sharp, Mark A Geyer, Jared W Young
Timing deficits are observed in patients with schizophrenia. Serotonergic hallucinogens can also alter the subjective experience of time. Characterizing the mechanism through which the serotonergic system regulates timing will increase our understanding of the linkage between serotonin (5-HT) and schizophrenia, and will provide insight into the mechanism of action of hallucinogens. We investigated whether interval timing in mice is altered by hallucinogens and other 5-HT2 receptor ligands. C57BL/6J mice were trained to perform a discrete-trials temporal discrimination task...
August 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26926963/incubation-of-cocaine-cue-reactivity-associates-with-neuroadaptations-in-the-cortical-serotonin-5-ht-5-ht2c-receptor-5-ht2cr-system
#20
S E Swinford-Jackson, N C Anastasio, R G Fox, S J Stutz, K A Cunningham
Intensification of craving elicited by drug-associated cues during abstinence occurs over time in human cocaine users while elevation of cue reactivity ("incubation") is observed in rats exposed to extended forced abstinence from cocaine self-administration. Incubation in rodents has been linked to time-dependent neuronal plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We tested the hypothesis that incubation of cue reactivity during abstinence from cocaine self-administration is accompanied by lower potency and/or efficacy of the selective serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT2C​ receptor (5-HT2CR) agonist WAY163909 to suppress cue reactivity and a shift in the subcellular localization profile of the mPFC 5-HT2CR protein...
June 2, 2016: Neuroscience
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