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neural homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544214/do-we-know-the-true-mechanism-of-action-of-the-dpp-4-inhibitors
#1
REVIEW
Emilie Skytte Andersen, Carolyn F Deacon, Jens Juul Holst
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing which is alarming because of its serious complications. Antidiabetic treatment aims to control glucose homeostasis as tightly as possible in order to reduce these complications. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a recent addition to the antidiabetic treatment modalities, and have become widely accepted because of their good efficacy, their benign side effect profile and their low hypoglycaemia risk. The actions of DPP-4 inhibitors are not direct, but rather are mediated indirectly through preservation of the substrates they protect from degradation...
May 24, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539882/function-and-dysfunction-of-microglia-during-brain-development-consequences-for-synapses-and-neural-circuits
#2
REVIEW
Rosa C Paolicelli, Maria T Ferretti
Many diverse factors, ranging from stress to infections, can perturb brain homeostasis and alter the physiological activity of microglia, the immune cells of the central nervous system. Microglia play critical roles in the process of synaptic maturation and brain wiring during development. Any perturbation affecting microglial physiological function during critical developmental periods could result in defective maturation of synaptic circuits. In this review, we critically appraise the recent literature on the alterations of microglial activity induced by environmental and genetic factors occurring at pre- and early post-natal stages...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537416/glutathione-degradation
#3
Anand K Bachhawat, Amandeep Kaur
SIGNIFICANCE: Glutathione degradation has for long been thought to occur only on non-cytosolic pools. This is because there has been only one enzyme known to degrade glutathione (γ-glutamyltranspeptidase), and this localizes to either the plasma membrane (mammals, bacteria) or the vacuolar membrane (yeast, plants) and acts on extracellular or vacuolar pools. The last few years has seen the discovery of several new enzymes of glutathione degradation that function in the cytosol, throwing new light on glutathione degradation...
May 24, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529059/a-review-of-human-neuroimaging-investigations-involved-with-central-autonomic-regulation-of-baroreflex-mediated-cardiovascular-control
#4
Derek S Kimmerly
Effective regulation of central blood volume and arterial pressure is critical for optimal cardiovascular homeostasis. Inadequate regulation of mean arterial pressure has important pathophysiological implications including syncope, end organ damage, and stroke. Such regulation requires appropriate central integration of barosensory afferents and reflex autonomic control of the heart and blood vessels. The neural pathways involved with the baroreflex include brainstem nuclei that receive modulatory input from higher brain centres...
May 15, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527918/cytochrome-p450-eicosanoids-in-cerebrovascular-function-and-disease
#5
REVIEW
Catherine M Davis, Xuehong Liu, Nabil J Alkayed
Cytochrome P450 eicosanoids play important roles in brain function and disease through their complementary actions on cell-cell communications within the neurovascular unit (NVU) and mechanisms of brain injury. Epoxy- and hydroxyeicosanoids, respectively formed by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases and ω-hydroxylases, play opposing roles in cerebrovascular function and in pathological processes underlying neural injury, including ischemia, neuroinflammation and oxidative injury. P450 eicosanoids also contribute to cerebrovascular disease risk factors, including hypertension and diabetes...
May 17, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522527/lineage-dependent-spatial-and-functional-organization-of-the-mammalian-enteric-nervous-system
#6
Reena Lasrado, Werend Boesmans, Jens Kleinjung, Carmen Pin, Donald Bell, Leena Bhaw, Sarah McCallum, Hui Zong, Liqun Luo, Hans Clevers, Pieter Vanden Berghe, Vassilis Pachnis
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is essential for digestive function and gut homeostasis. Here we show that the amorphous neuroglia networks of the mouse ENS are composed of overlapping clonal units founded by postmigratory neural crest-derived progenitors. The spatial configuration of ENS clones depends on proliferation-driven local interactions of ENS progenitors with lineally unrelated neuroectodermal cells, the ordered colonization of the serosa-mucosa axis by clonal descendants, and gut expansion. Single-cell transcriptomics and mutagenesis analysis delineated dynamic molecular states of ENS progenitors and identified RET as a regulator of neurogenic commitment...
May 19, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520736/the-bantam-microrna-acts-through-numb-to-exert-cell-growth-control-and-feedback-regulation-of-notch-in-tumor-forming-stem-cells-in-the-drosophila-brain
#7
Yen-Chi Wu, Kyu-Sun Lee, Yan Song, Stephan Gehrke, Bingwei Lu
Notch (N) signaling is central to the self-renewal of neural stem cells (NSCs) and other tissue stem cells. Its deregulation compromises tissue homeostasis and contributes to tumorigenesis and other diseases. How N regulates stem cell behavior in health and disease is not well understood. Here we show that N regulates bantam (ban) microRNA to impact cell growth, a process key to NSC maintenance and particularly relied upon by tumor-forming cancer stem cells. Notch signaling directly regulates ban expression at the transcriptional level, and ban in turn feedback regulates N activity through negative regulation of the Notch inhibitor Numb...
May 17, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512399/protein-s-negatively-regulates-neural-stem-cell-self-renewal-through-bmi-1-signaling
#8
Katya Zelentsova-Levytskyi, Ziv Talmi, Ghada Abboud-Jarrous, Tal Capucha, Tamar Sapir, Tal Burstyn-Cohen
Revealing the molecular mechanisms underlying neural stem cell self-renewal is a major goal toward understanding adult brain homeostasis. The self-renewing potential of neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) must be tightly regulated to maintain brain homeostasis. We recently reported the expression of Protein S (PROS1) in adult hippocampal NSPCs, and revealed its role in regulation of NSPC quiescence and neuronal differentiation. Here, we investigate the effect of PROS1 on NSPC self-renewal and show that genetic ablation of Pros1 in neural progenitors increased NSPC self-renewal by 50%...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501829/genetic-causes-of-optic-nerve-hypoplasia
#9
REVIEW
Chun-An Chen, Jiani Yin, Richard Alan Lewis, Christian P Schaaf
Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is the most common congenital optic nerve anomaly and a leading cause of blindness in the USA. Although most cases of ONH occur as isolated cases within their respective families, the advancement in molecular diagnostic technology has made us realise that a substantial fraction of cases has identifiable genetic causes, typically de novo mutations. An increasing number of genes has been reported, mutations of which can cause ONH. Many of the genes involved serve as transcription factors, participating in an intricate multistep process critical to eye development and neurogenesis in the neural retina...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501003/phytochemicals-for-taming-agitated-immune-endocrine-neural-axis
#10
REVIEW
Seema Patel
Homeostasis of immune-endocrine-neural axis is paramount for human health. If this axis gets agitated due to age, genetic variations, environmental exposures or lifestyle assaults, a cascade of adverse reactions occurs in human body. Cytokines, hormones and neurotransmitters, the effector molecules of this axis behave erratically, leading to a gamut of neural, endocrine, autoimmune, and metabolic diseases. Current panel of drugs can tackle some of them but not in a sustainable, benign way as a myriad of side effects, causal of them have been documented...
May 10, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487552/newborn-insula-gray-matter-volume-is-prospectively-associated-with-early-life-adiposity-gain
#11
J M Rasmussen, S Entringer, F Kruggel, D M Cooper, M Styner, J H Gilmore, S G Potkin, P D Wadhwa, C Buss
BACKGROUNDThe importance of energy homeostasis brain circuitry in the context of obesity is well established, however, the developmental ontogeny of this circuitry in humans is currently unknown. Here, we investigate the prospective association between newborn gray matter (GM) volume in the insula, a key brain region underlying energy homeostasis, and change in percent body fat accrual over the first six months of postnatal life, an outcome that represents among the most reliable infant predictors of childhood obesity risk...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487411/a-microrna-129-5p-rbfox-crosstalk-coordinates-homeostatic-downscaling-of-excitatory-synapses
#12
Marek Rajman, Franziska Metge, Roberto Fiore, Sharof Khudayberdiev, Ayla Aksoy-Aksel, Silvia Bicker, Cristina Ruedell Reschke, Rana Raoof, Gary P Brennan, Norman Delanty, Michael A Farrell, Donncha F O'Brien, Sebastian Bauer, Braxton Norwood, Morten T Veno, Marcus Krüger, Thomas Braun, Jørgen Kjems, Felix Rosenow, David C Henshall, Christoph Dieterich, Gerhard Schratt
Synaptic downscaling is a homeostatic mechanism that allows neurons to reduce firing rates during chronically elevated network activity. Although synaptic downscaling is important in neural circuit development and epilepsy, the underlying mechanisms are poorly described. We performed small RNA profiling in picrotoxin (PTX)-treated hippocampal neurons, a model of synaptic downscaling. Thereby, we identified eight microRNAs (miRNAs) that were increased in response to PTX, including miR-129-5p, whose inhibition blocked synaptic downscaling in vitro and reduced epileptic seizure severity in vivo Using transcriptome, proteome, and bioinformatic analysis, we identified the calcium pump Atp2b4 and doublecortin (Dcx) as miR-129-5p targets...
May 9, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482642/extracellular-tau-oligomers-induce-invasion-of-endogenous-tau-into-the-somatodendritic-compartment-and-axonal-transport-dysfunction
#13
Eric Swanson, Leigham Breckenridge, Lloyd McMahon, Sreemoyee Som, Ian McConnell, George S Bloom
Aggregates composed of the microtubule associated protein, tau, are a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and non-Alzheimer's tauopathies. Extracellular tau can induce the accumulation and aggregation of intracellular tau, and tau pathology can be transmitted along neural networks over time. There are six splice variants of central nervous system tau, and various oligomeric and fibrillar forms are associated with neurodegeneration in vivo. The particular extracellular forms of tau capable of transferring tau pathology from neuron to neuron remain ill defined, however, as do the consequences of intracellular tau aggregation on neuronal physiology...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478814/fragrance-compounds-the-wolves-in-sheep-s-clothings
#14
Seema Patel
In the past few decades, synthetic fragrance compounds have become ubiquitous components of personal care and household cleaning products. Overwhelming consumerism trends have led to the excess usage of these chemicals. It has been observed that this fragrance-laden unhealthy lifestyle runs parallel with the unprecedented rates of diabetes, cancer, neural ailments, teratogenicity, and transgender instances. The link between fragrances as and the multiplicity of pathogens remained latent for decades. However, now this health hazard and its role in homeostasis breakdown is getting attention...
May 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477283/linking-mitochondrial-dysfunction-to-neurodegeneration-in-lysosomal-storage-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Afshin Saffari, Stefan Kölker, Georg F Hoffmann, Darius Ebrahimi-Fakhari
Lysosomal storage diseases (LSD) are inborn errors of metabolism resulting in multisystem disease. Central nervous system involvement, often with progressive neurodegeneration, accounts for a large portion of the morbidity and mortality seen in many LSD. Available treatments fail to prevent or correct neurologic symptoms and decline. Emerging evidence points to an important role for mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis and progression of LSD-associated neurodegeneration. Mitochondrial dysfunction in LSD is characterized by alterations in mitochondrial mass, morphology and function...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473298/maintenance-of-neural-activities-in-torpid-rhinolophus-ferrumequinum-bats-revealed-by-2d-gel-based-proteome-analysis
#16
Qiuyuan Yin, Yijian Zhang, Dong Dong, Ming Lei, Shuyi Zhang, Chen-Chung Liao, Yi-Hsuan Pan
Bats are the only mammals capable of self-powered flying. Many bat species hibernate in winter. A reversible control of cerebral activities is critical for bats to accommodate a repeated torpor-arousal cycle during hibernation. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate neuronal activities in torpid bats. In this study, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum bat brain proteins were fractionated, and their abundance in active and torpid states was compared. Results of 2D gel-based proteomics showed that 38% of identified proteins with a significant change in abundance are involved in synaptic vesicle recycling and cytoskeletal integrity...
May 1, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469638/novel-insights-into-the-role-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p50-in-astrocyte-mediated-fate-specification-of-adult-neural-progenitor-cells
#17
REVIEW
Valeria Bortolotto, Mariagrazia Grilli
Within the CNS nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factors are involved in a wide range of functions both in homeostasis and in pathology. Over the years, our and other groups produced a vast array of information on the complex involvement of NF-κB proteins in different aspects of postnatal neurogenesis. In particular, several extracellular signals and membrane receptors have been identified as being able to affect neural progenitor cells (NPC) and their progeny via NF-κB activation. A crucial role in the regulation of neuronal fate specification in adult hippocampal NPC is played by the NF-κB p50 subunit...
March 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467945/when-size-matters-how-astrocytic-processes-shape-metabolism
#18
Ariane Sharif, Vincent Prevot
The hypothalamic control of metabolism appears to be a puzzle that cannot be explained by neuronal function alone. Zhang and colleagues (2017) add a few new pieces by demonstrating that astrocytes critically modulate neural circuits controlling energy homeostasis through nutritional-status-dependent morphological plasticity and IKKβ/NF-κB signaling, which modulate extracellular neurotransmitter bioavailability.
May 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467718/redox-signaling-in-neurotransmission-and-cognition-during-aging
#19
Ashok Kumar, Britney Yegla, Thomas C Foster
SIGNIFICANCE: Oxidative stress increases in the brain with aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Previous work emphasized irreversible oxidative damage in relation to cognitive impairment. This research has evolved to consider a continuum of alterations, from redox signaling to oxidative damage, which provides a basis for understanding the onset and progression of cognitive impairment. This review provides an update on research linking redox signaling to altered function of neural circuits involved in information processing and memory...
May 3, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464695/mesenchymal-stem-cells-maintain-the-microenvironment-of-central-nervous-system-by-regulating-the-polarization-of-macrophages-microglia-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Chao Xu, Feng Fu, Xiaohong Li, Sai Zhang
Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs), which are regarded as promising candidates for cell replacement therapies, are able to regulate immune responses after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Secondary immune response following the mechanical injury is the essential factor leading to the necrosis and apoptosis of neural cells during and after the cerebral edema has subsided and there is lack of efficient agent that can mitigate such neuroinflammation in the clinical application. By means of three molecular pathways (prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-inducible gene 6 protein (TSG-6), and progesterone receptor (PR) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR)), MSCs induce the activation of macrophages/microglia and drive them polarize into the M2 phenotypes, which inhibits the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and promotes tissue repair and nerve regeneration...
May 3, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
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