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neural homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911769/reductive-carboxylation-is-a-major-metabolic-pathway-in-the-retinal-pigment-epithelium
#1
Jianhai Du, Aya Yanagida, Kaitlen Knight, Abbi L Engel, Anh Huan Vo, Connor Jankowski, Martin Sadilek, Van Thi Bao Tran, Megan A Manson, Aravind Ramakrishnan, James B Hurley, Jennifer R Chao
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a monolayer of pigmented cells that requires an active metabolism to maintain outer retinal homeostasis and compensate for oxidative stress. Using (13)C metabolic flux analysis in human RPE cells, we found that RPE has an exceptionally high capacity for reductive carboxylation, a metabolic pathway that has recently garnered significant interest because of its role in cancer cell survival. The capacity for reductive carboxylation in RPE exceeds that of all other cells tested, including retina, neural tissue, glial cells, and a cancer cell line...
December 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911750/homeostasis-meets-motivation-in-the-battle-to-control-food-intake
#2
Carrie R Ferrario, Gwenaël Labouèbe, Shuai Liu, Edward H Nieh, Vanessa H Routh, Shengjin Xu, Eoin C O'Connor
Signals of energy homeostasis interact closely with neural circuits of motivation to control food intake. An emerging hypothesis is that the transition to maladaptive feeding behavior seen in eating disorders or obesity may arise from dysregulation of these interactions. Focusing on key brain regions involved in the control of food intake (ventral tegmental area, striatum, hypothalamus, and thalamus), we describe how activity of specific cell types embedded within these regions can influence distinct components of motivated feeding behavior...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899890/causal-role-of-thalamic-interneurons-in-brain-state-transitions-a-study-using-a-neural-mass-model-implementing-synaptic-kinetics
#3
Basabdatta Sen Bhattacharya, Thomas P Bond, Louise O'Hare, Daniel Turner, Simon J Durrant
Experimental studies on the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) of mammals and rodents show that the inhibitory interneurons (IN) receive around 47.1% of their afferents from the retinal spiking neurons, and constitute around 20-25% of the LGN cell population. However, there is a definite gap in knowledge about the role and impact of IN on thalamocortical dynamics in both experimental and model-based research. We use a neural mass computational model of the LGN with three neural populations viz. IN, thalamocortical relay (TCR), thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), to study the causality of IN on LGN oscillations and state-transitions...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890389/heparanase-confers-a-growth-advantage-to-differentiating-murine-embryonic-stem-cells-and-enhances-oligodendrocyte-formation
#4
Anqi Xiong, Soumi Kundu, Maud Forsberg, Yuyuan Xiong, Tobias Bergström, Tanja Paavilainen, Lena Kjellén, Jin-Ping Li, Karin Forsberg-Nilsson
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), ubiquitous components of mammalian cells, play important roles in development and homeostasis. These molecules are located primarily on the cell surface and in the pericellular matrix, where they interact with a multitude of macromolecules, including many growth factors. Manipulation of the enzymes involved in biosynthesis and modification of HSPG structures alters the properties of stem cells. Here, we focus on the involvement of heparanase (HPSE), the sole endo-glucuronidase capable of cleaving of HS, in differentiation of embryonic stem cells into the cells of the neural lineage...
November 23, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885177/-response-to-mechanical-stimulus-and-cardiovascular-homeostasis
#5
Ken Takahashi, Keiji Naruse
Response to mechanical stimulus, including blood pressure regulation as a typical example, is essential for cardiovascular homeostasis. Traditionally, mechanism of blood pressure regulation can be divided into two categories:short term neural regulation via arterial baroreceptor reflex and long term humoral regulation via renin-angiotensin system. Recent studies have revealed that sensitivity of baroreceptor reflex is impaired in metabolic syndrome and aging. Moreover, it is suggested that the baroreceptor reflex is involved in long term blood pressure regulation...
2016: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883261/prevention-of-neural-tube-defects-in-lrp-mutant-mouse-embryos-by-folic-acid-supplementation
#6
Julia A Sabatino, Bethany A Stokes, Irene E Zohn
BACKGROUND: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among the most common structural birth defects in humans and are caused by the complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Periconceptional supplementation with folic acid can prevent NTDs in both mouse models and human populations. A better understanding of how genes and environmental factors interact is critical toward development of rational strategies to prevent NTDs. Low density lipoprotein-related protein 2 (Lrp2) is involved in endocytosis of the folic acid receptor among numerous other nutrients and ligands...
November 24, 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882698/the-cellular-and-molecular-basis-of-cnidarian-neurogenesis
#7
REVIEW
Fabian Rentzsch, Michael Layden, Michaël Manuel
Neurogenesis initiates during early development and it continues through later developmental stages and in adult animals to enable expansion, remodeling, and homeostasis of the nervous system. The generation of nerve cells has been analyzed in detail in few bilaterian model organisms, leaving open many questions about the evolution of this process. As the sister group to bilaterians, cnidarians occupy an informative phylogenetic position to address the early evolution of cellular and molecular aspects of neurogenesis and to understand common principles of neural development...
November 23, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876789/allostasis-in-health-and-food-addiction
#8
Dirk De Ridder, Patrick Manning, Sook Ling Leong, Samantha Ross, Sven Vanneste
Homeostasis is the basis of modern medicine and allostasis, a further elaboration of homeostasis, has been defined as stability through change, which was later modified to predictive reference resetting. It has been suggested that pleasure is related to salience (behavioral relevance), and withdrawal has been linked to allostasis in addictive types. The question arises how the clinical and neural signatures of pleasure, salience, allostasis and withdrawal relate, both in a non-addicted and addicted state. Resting state EEGs were performed in 66 people, involving a food-addicted obese group, a non-food addicted obese group and a lean control group...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867483/brain-globins-in-physiology-and-pathology
#9
REVIEW
Luo-Kun Xie, Shao-Hua Yang
Globins are globular proteins for either transport or storage of oxygen which are critical for cellular metabolism. Four globins have been identified in rodent and human brains. Among them, neuroglobin, cytoglobin and hemoglobin chains are constitutively expressed in normal brain, while myoglobin is only expressed in some neurological disorders. Studies on the molecular structure, expression and functional features of these brain globins indicated that they may play crucial roles in maintenance of neural cell survival and activity, including neurons and astrocytes...
July 2016: Medical Gas Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862842/the-wheat-nb-lrr-gene-tarcr1-is-required-for-host-defence-response-to-the-necrotrophic-fungal-pathogen-rhizoctonia-cerealis
#10
Xiuliang Zhu, Chungui Lu, Lipu Du, Xingguo Ye, Xin Liu, Anne Coules, Zengyan Zhang
The necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia cerealis is the major pathogen causing sharp eyespot disease in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat (NB-LRR) proteins often mediate plant disease resistance to biotrophic pathogens. Little is known about the role of NB-LRR genes involved in wheat response to R. cerealis. In this study, a wheat NB-LRR gene, named TaRCR1, was identified in response to R. cerealis infection using Artificial Neural Network analysis based on comparative transcriptomics and its defence role was characterized...
November 18, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857231/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-age-related-subventricular-zone-proteins-associated-with-neurodegenerative-disease
#11
Xianli Wang, Chuanming Dong, Lixin Sun, Liang Zhu, Chenxi Sun, Rongjie Ma, Ke Ning, Bing Lu, Jinfu Zhang, Jun Xu
Aging is characterized by a progressive decline in the function of adult tissues which can lead to neurodegenerative disorders. However, little is known about the correlation between protein changes in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and neurodegenerative diseases with age. In the present study, neural stem cells (NSCs) were derived from the SVZ on postnatal 7 d, 1 m, and 12 m-old mice. With age, NSCs exhibited increased SA-β-gal activity and decreased proliferation and pool size in the SVZ zone, and were associated with elevated inflammatory chemokines and cytokines...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852771/reduced-efficacy-of-the-kcc2-cotransporter-promotes-epileptic-oscillations-in-a-subiculum-network-model
#12
Anatoly Buchin, Anton Chizhov, Gilles Huberfeld, Richard Miles, Boris S Gutkin
: Pharmacoresistant epilepsy is a chronic neurological condition in which a basal brain hyperexcitability results in paroxysmal hypersynchronous neuronal discharges. Human temporal lobe epilepsy has been associated with dysfunction or loss of the potassium-chloride cotransporter KCC2 in a subset of pyramidal cells in the subiculum, a key structure generating epileptic activities. KCC2 regulates intraneuronal chloride and extracellular potassium levels by extruding both ions. Absence of effective KCC2 may alter the dynamics of chloride and potassium levels during repeated activation of GABAergic synapses due to interneuron activity...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833098/neuronal-gpcr-octr-1-regulates-innate-immunity-by-controlling-protein-synthesis-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#13
Yiyong Liu, Durai Sellegounder, Jingru Sun
Upon pathogen infection, microbial killing pathways and cellular stress pathways are rapidly activated by the host innate immune system. These pathways must be tightly regulated because insufficient or excessive immune responses have deleterious consequences. Increasing evidence indicates that the nervous system regulates the immune system to confer coordinated protection to the host. However, the precise mechanisms of neural-immune communication remain unclear. Previously we have demonstrated that OCTR-1, a neuronal G protein-coupled receptor, functions in the sensory neurons ASH and ASI to suppress innate immune responses in non-neural tissues against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Caenorhabditis elegans...
November 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831564/skin-derived-stem-cells-as-a-source-of-primordial-germ-cell-and-oocyte-like-cells
#14
REVIEW
Wei Ge, Shun-Feng Cheng, Paul W Dyce, Massimo De Felici, Wei Shen
The skin is a unique organ that contains a variety of stem cells for the maintenance of skin homeostasis and the repair of skin tissues following injury and disease. Skin-derived stem cells (SDSCs) constitute a heterogeneous population of stem cells generated in vitro from dermis, which can be cultured as spherical aggregates of cells in suspension culture. Under certain in vitro or in vivo conditions, SDSCs show multipotency and can generate a variety of neural, mesodermal, and endodermal cell types such as neurons, glia, fibroblasts, adipocytes, muscle cells, chondroblasts, osteoblats, and islet β-cell-like cells...
November 10, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830532/role-of-microglia-in-neurological-disorders-and-their-potentials-as-a-therapeutic-target
#15
REVIEW
Li Du, Ying Zhang, Yang Chen, Jie Zhu, Yi Yang, Hong-Liang Zhang
Microglia are resident macrophage-like immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS) and play a vital role in both physiological and pathological conditions, including restoring the integrity of the CNS and promoting the progression of neurodegenerative disorders. Upon stimulation, microglia typically convert from a surveillant to an activated phenotype. The major function of microglia is to maintain homeostasis and normal function of the CNS, both during development and in response to CNS injury. Microglia regulate multiple aspects of inflammation, such as repair, cytotoxicity, regeneration, and immunosuppression due to their different kind of activation states or phenotypes...
November 9, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822507/traumatic-brain-injury-stimulates-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-via-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-signaling-pathway-activation
#16
Xiaoting Wang, Pich Seekaew, Xiang Gao, Jinhui Chen
Neural stem cells in the adult brain possess the ability to remain quiescent until needed in tissue homeostasis or repair. It was previously shown that traumatic brain injury (TBI) stimulated neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation in the adult hippocampus, indicating an innate repair mechanism, but it is unknown how TBI promotes NSC proliferation. In the present study, we observed dramatic activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) in the hippocampus of mice with TBI from controlled cortical impact (CCI)...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821734/role-of-sulfiredoxin-as-a-peroxiredoxin-2-denitrosylase-in-human-ipsc-derived-dopaminergic-neurons
#17
Carmen R Sunico, Abdullah Sultan, Tomohiro Nakamura, Nima Dolatabadi, James Parker, Bing Shan, Xuemei Han, John R Yates, Eliezer Masliah, Rajesh Ambasudhan, Nobuki Nakanishi, Stuart A Lipton
Recent studies have pointed to protein S-nitrosylation as a critical regulator of cellular redox homeostasis. For example, S-nitrosylation of peroxiredoxin-2 (Prx2), a peroxidase widely expressed in mammalian neurons, inhibits both enzymatic activity and protective function against oxidative stress. Here, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, we identify a role and reaction mechanism of the reductase sulfiredoxin (Srxn1) as an enzyme that denitrosylates (thus removing -SNO) from Prx2 in an ATP-dependent manner...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821022/the-sensory-tolerance-limit-a-hypothetical-construct-determining-exercise-performance
#18
Thomas J Hureau, Lee M Romer, Markus Amann
Neuromuscular fatigue compromises exercise performance and is determined by central and peripheral mechanisms. Interactions between the two components of fatigue can occur via neural pathways, including feedback and feedforward processes. This brief review discusses the influence of feedback and feedforward mechanisms on exercise limitation. In terms of feedback mechanisms, particular attention is given to group III/IV sensory neurons which link limb muscle with the central nervous system. Central corollary discharge, a copy of the neural drive from the brain to the working muscles, provides a signal from the motor system to sensory systems and is considered a feedforward mechanism that might influence fatigue and consequently exercise performance...
November 7, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819330/stathmin-like-4-is-critical-for-the-maintenance-of-neural-progenitor-cells-in-dorsal-midbrain-of-zebrafish-larvae
#19
Meng-Ju Lin, Shyh-Jye Lee
A delicate balance between proliferating and differentiating signals is necessary to ensure proper growth and neuronal specification. By studying the developing zebrafish brain, we observed a specific and dynamic expression of a microtubule destabilizer gene, stathmin-like 4 (stmn4), in the dorsal midbrain region. The expression of stmn4 was mutually exclusive to a pan-neuronal marker, elavl3 that indicates its role in regulating neurogenesis. We showed the knockdown or overexpression of stmn4 resulted in premature neuronal differentiation in dorsal midbrain...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810931/immunotherapy-with-aducanumab-restores-calcium-homeostasis-in-tg2576-mice
#20
Ksenia V Kastanenka, Thierry Bussiere, Naomi Shakerdge, Fang Qian, Paul H Weinreb, Ken Rhodes, Brian J Bacskai
: Calcium homeostasis plays a major role in maintaining neuronal function under physiological conditions. Amyloid-β (Aβ) initiates pathological processes that include disruption in intracellular calcium levels, and therefore amelioration of the calcium alteration could serve as an indirect functional indicator of treatment efficacy. Thus, calcium dynamics was used as a measure of functional outcome. We evaluated the effects of the anti-Aβ antibody aducanumab, on calcium homeostasis and plaque clearance in aged Tg2576 mice with in vivo multiphoton imaging...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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