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neural homeostasis

Maria M Buckley, Dervla O'Malley
Background and Objectives: Bidirectional signaling between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain is vital for maintaining whole-body homeostasis. Moreover, emerging evidence implicates vagal afferent signaling in the modulation of host physiology by microbes, which are most abundant in the colon. This study aims to optimize and advance dissection and recording techniques to facilitate real-time recordings of afferent neural signals originating in the distal colon. New Protocol: This paper describes a dissection technique, which facilitates extracellular electrophysiological recordings from visceral pelvic, spinal and vagal afferent neurons in response to stimulation of the distal colon...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Carrie J Finno, Matthew H Bordbari, Giuliana Gianino, Brittni Ming-Whitfield, Erin Burns, Janel Merkel, Monica Britton, Blythe Durbin-Johnson, Erica A Sloma, Marissa McMackin, Gino Cortopassi, Victor Rivas, Marietta Barro, Cecilia K Tran, Ingrid Gennity, Hadi Habib, Libin Xu, Birgit Puschner, Andrew D Miller
Mice with deficiency in tocopherol (alpha) transfer protein gene develop peripheral tocopherol deficiency and sensory neurodegeneration. Ttpa-/- mice maintained on diets with deficient α-tocopherol (α-TOH) had proprioceptive deficits by six months of age, axonal degeneration and neuronal chromatolysis within the dorsal column of the spinal cord and its projections into the medulla. Transmission electron microscopy revealed degeneration of dorsal column axons. We addressed the potential pathomechanism of α-TOH deficient neurodegeneration by global transcriptome sequencing within the spinal cord and cerebellum...
March 8, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Violeta Trejo-Reveles, Lynn McTeir, Kim Summers, Joe Rainger
Precise anterior segment (AS) development in the vertebrate eye is essential for maintaining ocular health throughout life. Disruptions to genetic programs can lead to severe structural AS disorders at birth, while more subtle AS defects may disrupt the drainage of ocular fluids and cause dysregulation of intraocular pressure homeostasis, leading to progressive vision loss. To date, the mouse has served as the major model to study AS development and pathogenesis. Here we present an accurate histological atlas of chick AS formation throughout eye development, with a focus on the formation of drainage structures...
March 8, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Ting Gong, Daniel J Torres, Marla J Berry, Matthew W Pitts
The hypothalamus is the central neural site governing food intake and energy expenditure. During the past 25 years, understanding of the hypothalamic cell types, hormones, and circuitry involved in the regulation of energy metabolism has dramatically increased. It is now well established that the adipocyte-derived hormone, leptin, acts upon two distinct groups of hypothalamic neurons that comprise opposing arms of the central melanocortin system. These two cell populations are anorexigenic neurons expressing proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and orexigenic neurons that express agouti-related peptide (AGRP)...
March 5, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Ritchy Hodebourg, Jennifer E Murray, Maxime Fouyssac, Mickaël Puaud, Barry J Everitt, David Belin
The alarming increase in heroin overdoses in the USA is a reminder of the need for efficacious and novel treatments for opiate addiction. This may reflect the relatively poor understanding of the neural basis of heroin, as compared to cocaine, seeking behavior. While cocaine reinforcement depends on the mesolimbic system, well established cocaine seeking is dependent on dorsolateral striatum (aDLS) dopamine-dependent mechanisms which are disrupted by N-acetylcysteine, through normalisation of corticostriatal glutamate homeostasis...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Bridget Shafit-Zagardo, Ross C Gruber, Juwen C DuBois
Tyro3, Axl, and Mertk, referred to as the TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases, are instrumental in maintaining cell survival and homeostasis in mammals. TAM receptors interact with multiple signaling molecules to regulate cell migration, survival, phagocytosis and clearance of metabolic products and cell debris called efferocytosis. The TAMs also function as rheostats to reduce the expression of proinflammatory molecules and prevent autoimmunity. All three TAM receptors are activated in a concentration-dependent manner by the vitamin K-dependent growth arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6)...
March 4, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Monica Manglani, Dorian B McGavern
Innate and adaptive immune interactions within the central nervous system (CNS) and surrounding meninges contribute significantly to neural homeostasis as well as a variety of different neurological disorders. Two-photon laser scanning microscopy is a deep tissue imaging technique that provides a means to image immune cell dynamics and interactions in the living CNS with high spatial and temporal resolution. Optical access to the brain and meninges can be achieved through the creation of thinned skull windows, which can be made without inducing damage and inflammation in the underlying tissue...
February 21, 2018: Current Protocols in Immunology
Atsukazu Kuwahara, Yuko Kuwahara, Toshio Inui, Yoshinori Marunaka
The diffuse chemosensory system (DCS) is well developed in the apparatuses of endodermal origin like gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The primary function of the GI tract is the extraction of nutrients from the diet. Therefore, the GI tract must possess an efficient surveillance system that continuously monitors the luminal contents for beneficial or harmful compounds. Recent studies have shown that specialized cells in the intestinal lining can sense changes in the luminal content. The chemosensory cells in the GI tract belong to the DCS which consists of enteroendocrine and related cells...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hang-Soo Park, Hyosung Kwon, Jewon Yu, Yeonju Bae, Jae-Yong Park, Kyung-Ah Choi, Yeonho Choi, Sunghoi Hong
Direct conversion is a powerful approach to safely generate mature neural lineages with potential for treatment of neurological disorders. Astrocytes play a crucial role in neuronal homeostasis and their dysfunctions contribute to several neurodegenerative diseases. Using a single-cell approach for precision, we describe here a robust method using optimized DNA amounts for the direct conversion of mouse fibroblasts to astrocytes. Controlled amount of the reprogramming factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and cMyc was directly delivered into a single fibroblast cell...
March 6, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Sarah Robins, Maia Kokoeva
<br>There is increasing evidence that glia act not only as neuronal support cells, but that they can also influence physiological outcomes via effects on neural signalling. The role of NG2-glia in this regard is especially enigmatic, as they are known to interact with neural circuits but their precise functions other than as oligodendrocyte progenitor cells remain elusive. Here we summarise recent evidence suggesting that NG2-glia play a role in the maintenance of energy homeostasis, most notably via the support of leptin sensing neural circuits...
March 5, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Maria Maryanovich, Shoichiro Takeishi, Paul S Frenette
Bones provide both skeletal scaffolding and space for hematopoiesis in its marrow. Previous work has shown that these functions were tightly regulated by the nervous system. The central and peripheral nervous systems tightly regulate compact bone remodeling, its metabolism, and hematopoietic homeostasis in the bone marrow (BM). Accumulating evidence indicates that the nervous system, which fine-tunes inflammatory responses and alterations in neural functions, may regulate autoimmune diseases. Neural signals also influence the progression of hematological malignancies such as acute and chronic myeloid leukemias...
March 2, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Yasuhiro Horibata, Orly Elpeleg, Ayelet Eran, Yoshio Hirabayashi, David Savitzki, Galit Tal, Hanna Mandel, Hiroyuki Sugimoto
Ethanolamine phosphotransferase 1 (EPT1), also known as selenoprotein 1 (SELENOI), is an enzyme that transfers phosphoethanolamine from cytidine diphosphate (CDP)-ethanolamine to lipid acceptors to produce ethanolamine glycerophospholipids such as diacyl-linked phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and ether-linked plasmalogen (plasmenyl-PE). However, to date there has been no analysis of the metabolomic consequence of the mutation of EPT1 on the concentration of ethanolamine glycerophospholipids in mammalian cells...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Bianca Acevedo, Elaine Aron, Sarah Pospos, Dana Jessen
During the past decade, research on the biological basis of sensory processing sensitivity (SPS)-a genetically based trait associated with greater sensitivity and responsivity to environmental and social stimuli-has burgeoned. As researchers try to characterize this trait, it is still unclear how SPS is distinct from seemingly related clinical disorders that have overlapping symptoms, such as sensitivity to the environment and hyper-responsiveness to incoming stimuli. Thus, in this review, we compare the neural regions implicated in SPS with those found in fMRI studies of-Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Schizophrenia (SZ) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) to elucidate the neural markers and cardinal features of SPS versus these seemingly related clinical disorders...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Limei Zhang, Vito S Hernández, Jerome D Swinny, Anil K Verma, Torsten Giesecke, Andrew C Emery, Kerim Mutig, Luis M Garcia-Segura, Lee E Eiden
The lateral habenula (LHb) has a key role in integrating a variety of neural circuits associated with reward and aversive behaviors. There is limited information about how the different cell types and neuronal circuits within the LHb coordinate physiological and motivational states. Here, we report a cell type in the medial division of the LHb (LHbM) in male rats that is distinguished by: (1) a molecular signature for GABAergic neurotransmission (Slc32a1/VGAT) and estrogen receptor (Esr1/ERα) expression, at both mRNA and protein levels, as well as the mRNA for vesicular glutamate transporter Slc17a6/VGLUT2, which we term the GABAergic estrogen-receptive neuron (GERN); (2) its axonal projection patterns, identified by in vivo juxtacellular labeling, to both local LHb and to midbrain modulatory systems; and (3) its somatic expression of receptors for vasopressin, serotonin and dopamine, and mRNA for orexin receptor 2...
February 26, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Edgar Herrera-Delgado, Ruben Perez-Carrasco, James Briscoe, Peter Sollich
Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) control cellular function and decision making during tissue development and homeostasis. Mathematical tools based on dynamical systems theory are often used to model these networks, but the size and complexity of these models mean that their behaviour is not always intuitive and the underlying mechanisms can be difficult to decipher. For this reason, methods that simplify and aid exploration of complex networks are necessary. To this end we develop a broadly applicable form of the Zwanzig-Mori projection...
February 22, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Dafin F Muresanu, Dana Slavoaca, Antox Alvarez, Volker Homberg, Ovidiu Bajenaru, Alla Guekht, Wolf-Dieter Heiss, Livia Popa, Johannes Vester, Ioana Muresanu, Codruta Birle, Maria Balea
Vascular dementia is the second most common cause of dementia, with clinical features that depend on neural substrates affected by the vascular lesions. Like most neurological disorders, it involves alterations that range from the molecular level to neuronal networks. Such alterations begin as compensatory mechanisms that reshape every subsystem involved in the brain's homeostasis. Although there have been recent huge advances in understanding the pathophysiology of cognitive dysfunction, a suitable therapeutic approach to vascular dementia remains elusive...
February 19, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
George V Rebec
AIMS: This review summarizes evidence for dysfunctional connectivity between cortical and striatal neurons in Huntington's disease (HD), a fatal neurodegenerative condition caused by a single gene mutation. The focus is on data derived from recording of electrophysiological signals in behaving transgenic mouse models. DISCUSSIONS: Firing patterns of individual neurons and the frequency oscillations of local field potentials indicate a disruption in corticostriatal processing driven, in large part, by interactions between cells that contain the mutant gene rather than the mutant gene alone...
February 21, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Stefan W Ryter, Divya Bhatia, Mary E Choi
SIGNIFICANCE: Autophagy, a lysosome-dependent homeostatic process inherent to cells and tissues, has emerging significance in the pathogenesis of human disease. This process enables the degradation and turnover of cytoplasmic substrates via membrane-dependent sequestration in autophagic vesicles (autophagosomes) and subsequent lysosomal delivery of cargo. Recent Advances: Selective forms of autophagy can target specific substrates (e.g., organelles, protein aggregates, lipids) for processing...
February 20, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Arianna Colini Baldeschi, Eugenia Pittaluga, Federica Andreola, Simona Rossi, Mauro Cozzolino, Giuseppe Nicotera, Gianluca Sferrazza, Pasquale Pierimarchi, Annalucia Serafino
In the last decades increasing evidence indicated a crucial role of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling in development of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons. Recently dysregulation of this pathway has been proposed as a novel pathomechanism leading to Parkinson's disease (PD) and some of the molecules participating to the signaling have been evaluated as potential therapeutic targets for PD. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a cardiac-derived hormone having a critical role in cardiovascular homeostasis. ANP and its receptors (NPRs) are widely expressed in mammalian central nervous system (CNS) where they could be implicated in the regulation of neural development, synaptic transmission and information processing, as well as in neuroprotection...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Sumit Bhattacharya, Laura García-Posadas, Robin R Hodges, Helen P Makarenkova, Sharmila Masli, Darlene A Dartt
The purpose of this study is to determine neural, vascular, protein secretion, and cellular signaling changes with disease progression in lacrimal glands of the thrombospondin-1 -/- (TSP-1 -/- ) mouse model of dry eye compared to C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice. Neural innervation was reduced in TSP-1 -/- lacrimal glands compared to WT controls, whereas the number of blood vessels was increased. Intracellular Ca 2+ stores and the amount of lysosomes, mitochondria, and secretory granules, but not the endoplasmic reticulum, were reduced in TSP-1 -/- compared to WT acini at 12 weeks of age...
February 14, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
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