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neural homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649723/distribution-and-female-reproductive-state-differences-in-orexigenic-and-anorexigenic-neurons-in-the-brain-of-the-mouth-brooding-african-cichlid-fish-astatotilapia-burtoni
#1
Danielle T Porter, David A Roberts, Karen P Maruska
Integration of reproduction and metabolism is necessary for species survival. While the neural circuits controlling energy homeostasis are well-characterized, the signals controlling the relay of nutritional information to the reproductive axis are less understood. The cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni is ideal for studying the neural regulation of feeding and reproduction because females cycle between a feeding gravid state and a period of forced starvation while they brood developing young inside their mouths...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647871/cytoskeleton-as-a-target-of-quinolinic-acid-neurotoxicity-insight-from-animal-models
#2
REVIEW
Paula Pierozan, Regina Pessoa-Pureur
Cytoskeletal proteins are increasingly recognized as having important roles as a target of the action of different neurotoxins. In the last years, several works of our group have shown that quinolinic acid (QUIN) was able to disrupt the homeostasis of the cytoskeleton of neural cells and this was associated with cell dysfunction and neurodegeneration. QUIN is an excitotoxic metabolite of tryptophan metabolism and its accumulation is associated with several neurodegenerative diseases. In the present review, we provide a comprehensive view of the actions of QUIN upstream of glutamate receptors, eliciting kinase/phosphatase signaling cascades that disrupt the homeostasis of the phosphorylation system associated with intermediate filament proteins of astrocytes and neurons...
June 24, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641777/role-of-parl-pink1-parkin-pathway-in-adipocyte-differentiation
#3
Ming-Yuh Shiau, Pin-Shen Lee, Ying-Jyun Huang, Ching-Ping Yang, Chiao-Wan Hsiao, Kai-Yun Chang, Huan-Wen Chen, Yih-Hsin Chang
OBJECTIVE: Adipogenesis determines the number of adipocytes which is increased when individuals become obese. Mitochondria undergo remarkable morphological and functional changes during adipogenesis. PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is pivotal to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis in neural cells. The present study aimed at investigating effects of PINK1 on adipogenesis and energy metabolism. METHODS: Expression of presenilin associated rhomboid-like protein (PARL), PINK1 and Parkin, as well as the interaction among these proteins was temporally examined during adipogenesis...
July 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641538/glt-1-upregulation-as-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-ischemic-brain-injury
#4
Yu-Yan Hu, Li Li, Xiao-Hui Xian, Min Zhang, Xiao-Cai Sun, Shu-Qin Li, Xin Cui, Jie Qi, Wen-Bin Li
Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, which plays an important role in many aspects of normal brain function such as neural development, motor functions, learning and memory etc. However, excessive accumulation of glutamate in the extracellular fluid will induce excitotoxicity which is considered to be a major mechanism of cell death in brain ischemia. There is no enzyme to decompose the glutamate in extracellular fluid, so extracellular glutamate homeostasis within the central nervous system is mainly regulated by the uptake activity of excitatory amino acid transporters...
June 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638936/nuclear-receptors-in-neural-stem-progenitor-cell-homeostasis
#5
REVIEW
Dimitrios Gkikas, Matina Tsampoula, Panagiotis K Politis
In the central nervous system, embryonic and adult neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) generate the enormous variety and huge numbers of neuronal and glial cells that provide structural and functional support in the brain and spinal cord. Over the last decades, nuclear receptors and their natural ligands have emerged as critical regulators of NSC homeostasis during embryonic development and adult life. Furthermore, substantial progress has been achieved towards elucidating the molecular mechanisms of nuclear receptors action in proliferative and differentiation capacities of NSCs...
June 21, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638120/neural-circuits-underlying-thirst-and-fluid-homeostasis
#6
REVIEW
Christopher A Zimmerman, David E Leib, Zachary A Knight
Thirst motivates animals to find and consume water. More than 40 years ago, a set of interconnected brain structures known as the lamina terminalis was shown to govern thirst. However, owing to the anatomical complexity of these brain regions, the structure and dynamics of their underlying neural circuitry have remained obscure. Recently, the emergence of new tools for neural recording and manipulation has reinvigorated the study of this circuit and prompted re-examination of longstanding questions about the neural origins of thirst...
June 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634350/a-subset-of-cerebrovascular-pericytes-originates-from-mature-macrophages-in-the-very-early-phase-of-vascular-development-in-cns
#7
Seiji Yamamoto, Masashi Muramatsu, Erika Azuma, Masashi Ikutani, Yoshinori Nagai, Hiroshi Sagara, Bon-Nyeo Koo, Satomi Kita, Erin O'Donnell, Tsuyoshi Osawa, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Ken-Ichi Takano, Mitsuko Dohmoto, Michiya Sugimori, Isao Usui, Yasuhide Watanabe, Noboru Hatakeyama, Takahiro Iwamoto, Issei Komuro, Kiyoshi Takatsu, Kazuyuki Tobe, Shumpei Niida, Naoyuki Matsuda, Masabumi Shibuya, Masakiyo Sasahara
Pericytes are believed to originate from either mesenchymal or neural crest cells. It has recently been reported that pericytes play important roles in the central nervous system (CNS) by regulating blood-brain barrier homeostasis and blood flow at the capillary level. However, the origin of CNS microvascular pericytes and the mechanism of their recruitment remain unknown. Here, we show a new source of cerebrovascular pericytes during neurogenesis. In the CNS of embryonic day 10.5 mouse embryos, CD31(+)F4/80(+) hematopoietic lineage cells were observed in the avascular region around the dorsal midline of the developing midbrain...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629864/structure-function-relationships-in-human-d-aspartate-oxidase-characterisation-of-variants-corresponding-to-known-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms
#8
Masumi Katane, Ryo Kanazawa, Risa Kobayashi, Megumi Oishi, Kazuki Nakayama, Yasuaki Saitoh, Tetsuya Miyamoto, Masae Sekine, Hiroshi Homma
D-Aspartate oxidase (DDO) is a degradative enzyme that is stereospecific for the acidic amino acid D-aspartate, an endogenous agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Dysregulation of NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission has been implicated in the onset of various neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and in chronic pain. Thus, appropriate regulation of the amount of D-aspartate is believed to be important for maintaining proper neural activity in the nervous system. Herein, the effects of the non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) R216Q and S308N on several properties of human DDO were examined...
June 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628030/a-novel-flexible-cuff-like-microelectrode-for-dual-purpose-acute-and-chronic-electrical-interfacing-with-the-mouse-cervical-vagus-nerve
#9
April Shawn Caravaca, Téa Tsaava, Laura Goldman, Harold Silverman, Gary Riggott, Sangeeta Chavan, Chad Bouton, Kevin J Tracey, Robert Desimone, Ed Boyden, Harbaljit Singh Sohal, Peder S Olofsson
OBJECTIVE: Neural reflexes establish homeostasis and regulate the immune system. Advances in bioelectronic medicine indicate that electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve can be used to treat inflammatory disease, yet the understanding of neural signals that regulate inflammation is incomplete. Current interfaces with the vagus nerve do not permit effective chronic stimulation or recording in mouse models, which is vital to studying the molecular and neurophysiological mechanisms that control inflammation homeostasis in health and disease...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625813/neurogenesis-in-the-aging-brain
#10
REVIEW
Deana M Apple, Rene Solano-Fonseca, Erzsebet Kokovay
Adult neurogenesis is the process of producing new neurons from neural stem cells (NSCs) for integration into the brain circuitry. Neurogenesis occurs throughout life in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) of the lateral ventricle and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. However, during aging, NSCs and their progenitors exhibit reduced proliferation and neuron production, which is thought to contribute to age-related cognitive impairment and reduced plasticity that is necessary for some types of brain repair...
June 15, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620865/involvement-of-atm-and-trp53-in-neural-cell-loss-due-to-terf2-inactivation-during-mouse-brain-development
#11
Jusik Kim, Inseo Choi, Youngsoo Lee
Maintenance of genomic integrity is one of the critical features for proper neurodevelopment and inhibition of neurological diseases. The signals from both ATM and ATR to TP53 are well-known mechanisms to remove neural cells with DNA damage during neurogenesis. Here we examined the involvement of Atm and Atr in genomic instability due to Terf2 inactivation during mouse brain development. Selective inactivation of Terf2 in neural progenitors induced apoptosis, resulting in a complete loss of the brain structure...
June 15, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619516/the-inner-blood-retinal-barrier-cellular-basis-and-development
#12
Mónica Díaz-Coránguez, Carla Ramos, David A Antonetti
The blood-retinal barrier (BRB) regulates transport across retinal capillaries maintaining proper neural homeostasis and protecting the neural tissue from potential blood borne toxicity. Loss of the BRB contributes to the pathophysiology of a number of blinding retinal diseases including diabetic retinopathy. In this review, we address the basis of the BRB, including the molecular mechanisms that regulate flux across the retinal vascular bed. The routes of transcellular and paracellular flux are described as well as alterations in these pathways in response to permeabilizing agents in diabetes...
June 12, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615314/mitochondria-and-reactive-oxygen-species-contribute-to-neurogenic-hypertension
#13
REVIEW
Samuel H H Chan, Julie Y H Chan
Beyond its primary role as fuel generators, mitochondria are engaged in a variety of cellular processes, including redox homeostasis. Mitochondrial dysfunction, therefore, may have a profound impact on high-energy-demanding organs such as the brain. Here, we review the roles of mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics, and their associated signaling in cellular redox homeostasis, and illustrate their contributions to the oxidative stress-related neural mechanism of hypertension, focusing on specific brain areas that are involved in the generation or modulation of sympathetic outflows to the cardiovascular system...
July 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614084/propofol-affects-neurodegeneration-and-neurogenesis-by-regulation-of-autophagy-via-effects-on-intracellular-calcium-homeostasis
#14
Hui Qiao, Yun Li, Zhendong Xu, Wenxian Li, Zhijian Fu, Yuezhi Wang, Alexander King, Huafeng Wei
BACKGROUND: In human cortical neural progenitor cells, we investigated the effects of propofol on calcium homeostasis in both the ryanodine and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate calcium release channels. We also studied propofol-mediated effects on autophagy, cell survival, and neuro- and gliogenesis. METHODS: The dose-response relationship between propofol concentration and duration was studied in neural progenitor cells. Cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase release assays...
June 14, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607354/igf-1-mediated-neurogenesis-involves-a-novel-rit1-akt-sox2-cascade
#15
Sajad Mir, Weikang Cai, Shaun W Carlson, Kathryn E Saatman, Douglas A Andres
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is known to have diverse effects on brain structure and function, including the promotion of stem cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus. However, the intracellular pathways downstream of the IGF-1 receptor that contribute to these diverse physiological actions remain relatively uncharacterized. Here, we demonstrate that the Ras-related GTPase, RIT1, plays a critical role in IGF-1-dependent neurogenesis. Studies in hippocampal neuronal precursor cells (HNPCs) demonstrate that IGF-1 stimulates a RIT1-dependent increase in Sox2 levels, resulting in pro-neural gene expression and increased cellular proliferation...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603087/cysteine-rich-whey-protein-isolate-immunocal%C3%A2-ameliorates-deficits-in-the-gfap-hmox1-mouse-model-of-schizophrenia
#16
Wei Song, Ayda Tavitian, Marisa Cressatti, Carmela Galindez, Adrienne Liberman, Hyman M Schipper
Schizophrenia is a neuropsychiatric disorder that features neural oxidative stress and glutathione (GSH) deficits. Oxidative stress is augmented in brain tissue of GFAP.HMOX1 transgenic mice which exhibit schizophrenia-relevant characteristics. The whey protein isolate, Immunocal® serves as a GSH precursor upon oral administration. In this study, we treated GFAP.HMOX1 transgenic mice daily with either Immunocal (33mg/ml drinking water) or equivalent concentrations of casein (control) between the ages of 5 and 6...
June 8, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599247/inflammasomes-the-cardinal-pathology-mediators-are-activated-by-pathogens-allergens-and-mutagens-a-critical-review-with-focus-on-nlrp3
#17
REVIEW
Seema Patel
Inflammation is a pivotal defense system of body. Unfortunately, when homeostasis falters, the same inflammatory mechanism acts as a double-edged sword, and turns offensive, paving the path for a broad array of pathologies. A multi-protein complex termed as inflammasome perceives the PAMPs (pathogen associated molecular patterns) and DAMPs (danger associated molecular patterns), executing immune responses. This activation predominantly encompasses the elaboration of effector cytokines IL-1β, IL-18, and the cysteine proteases (caspase 1 and 11)...
August 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596733/melatonin-supplementation-a-strategy-to-prevent-neurological-diseases-through-maintaining-integrity-of-blood-brain-barrier-in-old-people
#18
Wen-Cao Liu, Xiaona Wang, Xinyu Zhang, Xi Chen, Xinchun Jin
Blood brain barrier (BBB) plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis of microenvironment that is essential to neural function of the central nervous system (CNS). When facing various extrinsic or intrinsic stimuli, BBB is damaged which is an early event in pathogenesis of a variety of neurological diseases in old patients including acute and chronic cerebral ischemia, Alzheimer's disease and etc. Treatments that could maintain the integrity of BBB may prevent neurological diseases following various stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596732/moderating-effects-of-cortisol-on-neural-cognitive-association-in-cognitively-normal-elderly-subjects
#19
Way K W Lau, Mei Kei Leung, Andrew C K Law, Tatia M C Lee
Cortisol homeostasis is important for healthy brain and cognitive aging. The aim of the current study is to investigate the role of serum cortisol levels in the relationship between regional brain volumes and cognitive processing speed in a group of cognitively normal elderly subjects. Forty-one healthy elderly participants were from a parallel longitudinal study. The reported data in this study reflects baseline measurements. Whole-brain anatomical scanning was performed using a 3.0 Tesla Philips Medical Systems Achieva scanner...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596721/cannabinoid-receptor-signaling-in-central-regulation-of-feeding-behavior-a-mini-review
#20
REVIEW
Marco Koch
Cannabinoids are lipid messengers that modulate a variety of physiological processes and modify the generation of specific behaviors. In this regard, the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) represents the most relevant target molecule of cannabinoids so far. One main function of central CB1 signaling is to maintain whole body energy homeostasis. Thus, cannabinoids functionally interact with classical neurotransmitters in neural networks that control energy metabolism and feeding behavior. The promotion of CB1 signaling can increase appetite and stimulate feeding, while blockade of CB1 suppresses hunger and induces hypophagia...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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