keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

neural homeostasis

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208745/astrocytic-pathological-calcium-homeostasis-and-impaired-vesicle-trafficking-in-neurodegeneration
#1
REVIEW
Nina Vardjan, Alexej Verkhratsky, Robert Zorec
Although the central nervous system (CNS) consists of highly heterogeneous populations of neurones and glial cells, clustered into diverse anatomical regions with specific functions, there are some conditions, including alertness, awareness and attention that require simultaneous, coordinated and spatially homogeneous activity within a large area of the brain. During such events, the brain, representing only about two percent of body mass, but consuming one fifth of body glucose at rest, needs additional energy to be produced...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197123/altered-regional-gray-matter-volume-in-obese-men-a-structural-mri-study
#2
Bin Zhang, Xiao Tian, Derun Tian, Jinhong Wang, Qiming Wang, Chunshui Yu, Chunbo Li, Jijun Wang
Obesity is associated with a number of health problems, especial insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes. Our previous study showed that obese males had decreased neural activity in the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and increased activity in the left putamen (Zhang et al., 2015b), which could indicate altered eating behaviors in obesity related to a hyper-functioning striatum and hypo-functioning inhibitory control. Accordingly, our goal of the current study was to determine whether there are alterations in the brain structures within these two neural systems in obese individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195068/expression-of-nerve-growth-factor-in-rat-stomach-implications-for-interactions-between-endothelial-neural-and-epithelial-cells
#3
A S Tarnawski, A Ahluwalia, M K Jones, T Brzozowski
: This study was aimed to determine the expression and localization of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the gastric mucosa. Transmural gastric specimens were obtained from euthanized rats. STUDIES: 1) expression of NGF and TrkA receptor by Western blotting; 2) histological evaluation of gastric wall architecture; 3) expression of NGF using immunostaining. Immunostaining showed strong and differential expression of NGF in neural elements of gastric myenteric and submucosal plexuses; in epithelial cells: mainly in chief and progenitor cells, in enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells; and, in endothelial cells (ECs) lining blood vessels...
December 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194443/sustained-inflammation-after-pericyte-depletion-induces-irreversible-blood-retina-barrier-breakdown
#4
Shuntaro Ogura, Kaori Kurata, Yuki Hattori, Hiroshi Takase, Toshina Ishiguro-Oonuma, Yoonha Hwang, Soyeon Ahn, Inwon Park, Wataru Ikeda, Sentaro Kusuhara, Yoko Fukushima, Hiromi Nara, Hideto Sakai, Takashi Fujiwara, Jun Matsushita, Masatsugu Ema, Masanori Hirashima, Takashi Minami, Masabumi Shibuya, Nobuyuki Takakura, Pilhan Kim, Takaki Miyata, Yuichiro Ogura, Akiyoshi Uemura
In the central nervous system, endothelial cells (ECs) and pericytes (PCs) of blood vessel walls cooperatively form a physical and chemical barrier to maintain neural homeostasis. However, in diabetic retinopathy (DR), the loss of PCs from vessel walls is assumed to cause breakdown of the blood-retina barrier (BRB) and subsequent vision-threatening vascular dysfunctions. Nonetheless, the lack of adequate DR animal models has precluded disease understanding and drug discovery. Here, by using an anti-PDGFRβ antibody, we show that transient inhibition of the PC recruitment to developing retinal vessels sustained EC-PC dissociations and BRB breakdown in adult mouse retinas, reproducing characteristic features of DR such as hyperpermeability, hypoperfusion, and neoangiogenesis...
February 9, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194183/regulation-of-stem-cell-properties-of-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-by-jak-stat-and-mapk-signaling-in-the-mammalian-retina
#5
REVIEW
Krista M Beach, Jianbo Wang, Deborah C Otteson
In humans and other mammals, the neural retina does not spontaneously regenerate, and damage to the retina that kills retinal neurons results in permanent blindness. In contrast to embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and embryonic/fetal retinal stem cells, Müller glia offer an intrinsic cellular source for regenerative strategies in the retina. Müller glia are radial glial cells within the retina that maintain retinal homeostasis, buffer ion flux associated with phototransduction, and form the blood/retinal barrier within the retina proper...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193862/differential-modulation-of-global-and-local-neural-oscillations-in-rem-sleep-by-homeostatic-sleep-regulation
#6
Bowon Kim, Bernat Kocsis, Eunjin Hwang, Youngsoo Kim, Robert E Strecker, Robert W McCarley, Jee Hyun Choi
Homeostatic rebound in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep normally occurs after acute sleep deprivation, but REM sleep rebound settles on a persistently elevated level despite continued accumulation of REM sleep debt during chronic sleep restriction (CSR). Using high-density EEG in mice, we studied how this pattern of global regulation is implemented in cortical regions with different functions and network architectures. We found that across all areas, slow oscillations repeated the behavioral pattern of persistent enhancement during CSR, whereas high-frequency oscillations showed progressive increases...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193513/the-importance-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract-in-controlling-food-intake-and-regulating-energy-balance
#7
M P Monteiro, R L Batterham
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the key interface between ingested nutrients and the body, plays a critical role in regulating energy homeostasis. Gut-derived signals convey information regarding incoming nutrients to the brain, initiating changes in eating behavior and energy expenditure, to maintain energy balance. Here we review hormonal, neural and nutrient signals emanating from the GI tract and evidence for their role in controlling feeding behavior. Mechanistic studies that have utilized pharmacological and/or transgenic approaches targeting an individual hormone/mediator have yielded somewhat disappointing bodyweight changes, often leading to the hormone/mediator in question being dismissed as a potential obesity therapy...
February 10, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182013/duodenal-glp-1-signaling-regulates-hepatic-glucose-production-through-a-pkc-%C3%AE-dependent-neurocircuitry
#8
Mengliu Yang, Jinzhi Wang, Shaobo Wu, Lei Yuan, Xiaodong Zhao, Chaohong Liu, Jing Xie, Yanjun Jia, Yerui Lai, Allan Zijian Zhao, Guenther Boden, Ling Li, Gangyi Yang
Intestinal glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a hormone that stimulates insulin secretion and acts as a neuropeptide to control glucose homeostasis, but little is known whether intestinal GLP-1 has any effect in the control of hepatic glucose production (HGP). Here we found that intraduodenal infusion of GLP-1 activated duodenal PKC-δ, lowered HGP and was accompanied by a decrease in hepatic expression of gluconeogenic enzymes and an increase in hepatic insulin signaling in rats. However, gut co-infusion of either the GLP-1 receptor antagonist Ex-9, or the PKC-δ inhibitor rottlerin with GLP-1, negated the ability of gut GLP-1 to lower HGP and to increase hepatic insulin signaling during clamps...
February 9, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181357/post-embryonic-fish-brain-proliferation-zones-exhibit-neuroepithelial-type-gene-expression-profile
#9
E Dambroise, M Simion, T Bourquard, S Bouffard, B Rizzi, Y Jaszczyszyn, M Bourge, P Affaticati, A Heuzé, J Jouralet, J Edouard, S Brown, C Thermes, A Poupon, E Reiter, F Sohm, F Bourrat, J-S Joly
In mammals, neuroepithelial cells play an essential role in embryonic neurogenesis, whereas glial stem cells are the principal source of neurons at post-embryonic stages. By contrast, neuroepithelial-like stem/progenitor (NE) cells have been shown to be present throughout life in teleosts. We used 3-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of cleared transgenic wdr12:GFP medaka brains to demonstrate that this cell type is widespread in juvenile and to identify new regions containing NE cells. We established the gene expression profile of optic tectum (OT) NE cells by cell sorting followed by RNA-seq...
February 9, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178707/cerebrospinal-fluid-and-hydrocephalus-physiology-diagnosis-and-treatment
#10
Andreas K Filis, Kamran Aghayev, Frank D Vrionis
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is found around and inside the brain and vertebral column. CSF plays a crucial role in the protection and homeostasis of neural tissue. METHODS: Key points on the physiology of CSF as well as the diagnostic and treatment options for hydrocephalus are discussed. RESULTS: Understanding the fundamentals of the production, absorption, dynamics, and pathophysiology of CSF is crucial for addressing hydrocephalus...
January 2017: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178518/an-evolutionarily-conserved-soxb-hdac2-crosstalk-regulates-neurogenesis-in-a-cnidarian
#11
Hakima Flici, Christine E Schnitzler, R Cathriona Millane, Graham Govinden, Amy Houlihan, Stephanie D Boomkamp, Sanbing Shen, Andreas D Baxevanis, Uri Frank
SoxB transcription factors and histone deacetylases (HDACs) are each major players in the regulation of neurogenesis, but a functional link between them has not been previously demonstrated. Here, we show that SoxB2 and Hdac2 act together to regulate neurogenesis in the cnidarian Hydractinia echinata during tissue homeostasis and head regeneration. We find that misexpression of SoxB genes modifies the number of neural cells in all life stages and interferes with head regeneration. Hdac2 was co-expressed with SoxB2, and its downregulation phenocopied SoxB2 knockdown...
February 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170170/the-infrapatellar-fat-pad-as-a-source-of-perivascular-stem-cells-with-increased-chondrogenic-potential-for-regenerative-medicine
#12
Paul Hindle, Nusrat Khan, Leela Biant, Bruno Péault
Perivascular stem cells (PSCs) are the natural ancestors of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and are the stem cells responsible for homeostasis and repair in vivo. Prospectively identified and isolated PSCs have demonstrated increased plasticity and osteogenic potential. Cells from the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) have demonstrated increased chondrogenic potential compared with those from subcutaneous fat. This research assessed the chondrogenic potential of IFP PSCs compared with MSCs from the IFP and bone marrow...
January 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164768/protective-effect-of-aspirin-against-oligomeric-a%C3%AE-42-induced-mitochondrial-alterations-and-neurotoxicity-in-differentiated-ec-p19-neuronal-cells
#13
Hamendra Singh Parmar, Zbynek Houdek, Martin Pesta, Vaclava Cerna, Pavel Dvorak, Jiri Hatina
Amyloid-beta (Aβ) induced mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the major causes of neuronal toxicity in Alzheimer's disease. Many recent reports suggest involvement of mitochondrial alterations through intracellular accumulation of oligomeric Aβ. These mitochondrial alterations include increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), mt-DNA depletion, decreased oxidative phosphorylation and ATP production, membrane depolarization, reduced number of mitochondria etc. These all defects cumulatively caused neural toxicity and alterations in cellular energy homeostasis...
February 2, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157614/machine-learning-for-the-prediction-of-l-%C3%A2-chinensis-carbon-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-contents-and-understanding-of-mechanisms-underlying-grassland-degradation
#14
Yuefen Li, Shuo Liang, Yiying Zhao, Wenbo Li, Yuejiao Wang
The grasslands of Western Jilin Province in China have experienced severe degradation during the last 50 years. Radial basis function neural networks (RBFNN) and support vector machines (SVM) were used to predict the carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus contents of Leymus chinensis (L. chinensis) and explore the degree of grassland degradation using the matter-element extension model. Both RBFNN and SVM demonstrated good prediction accuracy. The results indicated that there was severe degradation, as samples were mainly concentrated in the 3rd and 4th levels...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155242/sensory-neuron-regulation-of-gastrointestinal-inflammation-and-bacterial-host-defence
#15
N Y Lai, K Mills, I M Chiu
Sensory neurons in the gastrointestinal tract have multifaceted roles in maintaining homeostasis, detecting danger and initiating protective responses. The gastrointestinal tract is innervated by three types of sensory neurons: dorsal root ganglia, nodose/jugular ganglia and intrinsic primary afferent neurons. Here, we examine how these distinct sensory neurons and their signal transducers participate in regulating gastrointestinal inflammation and host defence. Sensory neurons are equipped with molecular sensors that enable neuronal detection of diverse environmental signals including thermal and mechanical stimuli, inflammatory mediators and tissue damage...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151556/probing-nano-organization-of-astroglia-with-multi-color-super-resolution-microscopy
#16
Janosch P Heller, Piotr Michaluk, Kohtaroh Sugao, Dmitri A Rusakov
Astroglia are essential for brain development, homeostasis, and metabolic support. They also contribute actively to the formation and regulation of synaptic circuits, by successfully handling, integrating, and propagating physiological signals of neural networks. The latter occurs mainly by engaging a versatile mechanism of internal Ca(2+) fluctuations and regenerative waves prompting targeted release of signaling molecules into the extracellular space. Astroglia also show substantial structural plasticity associated with age- and use-dependent changes in neural circuitry...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148780/pth4-an-ancient-parathyroid-hormone-lost-in-eutherian-mammals-reveals-a-new-brain-to-bone-signaling-pathway
#17
Paula Suarez-Bregua, Eva Torres-Nuñez, Ankur Saxena, Pedro Guerreiro, Ingo Braasch, David A Prober, Paloma Moran, Jose Miguel Cerda-Reverter, Shao Jun Du, Fatima Adrio, Deborah M Power, Adelino V M Canario, John H Postlethwait, Marianne E Bronner, Cristian Cañestro, Josep Rotllant
Regulation of bone development, growth, and remodeling traditionally has been thought to depend on endocrine and autocrine/paracrine modulators. Recently, however, brain-derived signals have emerged as key regulators of bone metabolism, although their mechanisms of action have been poorly understood. We reveal the existence of an ancient parathyroid hormone (Pth)4 in zebrafish that was secondarily lost in the eutherian mammals' lineage, including humans, and that is specifically expressed in neurons of the hypothalamus and appears to be a central neural regulator of bone development and mineral homeostasis...
February 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144959/atrophin-protein-rere-positively-regulates-notch-targets-in-the-developing-vertebrate-spinal-cord
#18
Hui Wang, Hongxing Gui, Michael S Rallo, Zhiyan Xu, Michael P Matise
The Notch signaling pathway controls cell fate decision, proliferation and other biological functions in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Precise regulation of the canonical Notch pathway ensures robustness of the signal throughout development and adult tissue homeostasis. Aberrant Notch signaling results in profound developmental defects and is linked to many human diseases. In this study, we identified the Atrophin family protein RERE (also called Atro2) as a positive regulator of Notch target Hes genes in the developing vertebrate spinal cord...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144902/ameliorative-effects-of-endurance-exercise-with-two-different-intensities-on-nandrolone-decanoate-induced-neurodegeneration-in-rats-involving-redox-and-apoptotic-systems
#19
Siyavash Joukar, Reza Vahidi, Alireza Farsinejad, Majid Asadi-Shekaari, Beydolah Shahouzehi
Despite the importance of this issue, less has been paid to the influence of exercise on the neural side effects of anabolic androgenic steroids and mechanisms. We investigated the effects of two levels of endurance exercise on neurodegeneration side effects of nandrolone. The study period was 8 weeks. Wistar rats were divided into nine groups including the control (CTL) group, mild exercise (mEx) group, and vehicle (Arach) group which received arachis oil intramuscularly, nandrolone (Nan) group which received nandrolone decanoate 5 mg/kg two times weekly, mEx+Arach group which treated with arachis oil along with mild exercise, mEx+Nan group which treated with nandrolone along with mild exercise, severe exercise (sEx) group, sEx+Arach, and sEx+Nan groups...
January 31, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138551/deletion-of-p22-phox-dependent-oxidative-stress-in-the-hypothalamus-protects-against-obesity-by-modulating-%C3%AE-3-adrenergic-mechanisms
#20
Heinrich E Lob, Jiunn Song, Chansol Hurr, Alvin Chung, Colin N Young, Allyn L Mark, Robin L Davisson
A role for oxidative stress in the brain has been suggested in the pathogenesis of diet-induced obesity (DIO), although the underlying neural regions and mechanisms remain incompletely defined. We tested the hypothesis that NADPH oxidase-dependent oxidative stress in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), a hypothalamic energy homeostasis center, contributes to the development of DIO. Cre/LoxP technology was coupled with selective PVN adenoviral microinjection to ablate p22(phox) , the obligatory subunit for NADPH oxidase activity, in mice harboring a conditional p22(phox) allele...
January 26, 2017: JCI Insight
keyword
keyword
41036
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"