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neural homeostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809157/brain-micro-inflammation-at-specific-vessels-dysregulates-organ-homeostasis-via-the-activation-of-a-new-neural-circuit
#1
Yasunobu Arima, Takuto Ohki, Naoki Nishikawa, Kotaro Higuchi, Mitsutoshi Ota, Yuki Tanaka, Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Mohamed Elfeky, Ryota Sakai, Yuki Mori, Tadafumi Kawamoto, Andrea Stofkova, Yukihiro Sakashita, Yuji Morimoto, Masaki Kuwatani, Toshihiko Iwanaga, Yoshichika Yoshioka, Naoya Sakamoto, Akihiko Yoshimura, Mitsuyoshi Takiguchi, Saburo Sakoda, Marco Prinz, Daisuke Kamimura, Masaaki Murakami
Impact of stress on diseases including gastrointestinal failure is well-known, but molecular mechanism is not understood. Here we show underlying molecular mechanism using EAE mice. Under stress conditions, EAE caused severe gastrointestinal failure with high-mortality. Mechanistically, autoreactive-pathogenic CD4+ T cells accumulated at specific vessels of boundary area of third-ventricle, thalamus, and dentate-gyrus to establish brain micro-inflammation via stress-gateway reflex. Importantly, induction of brain micro-inflammation at specific vessels by cytokine injection was sufficient to establish fatal gastrointestinal failure...
August 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801591/new-variant-and-expression-studies-provide-further-insight-into-the-genotype-phenotype-correlation-in-yap1-related-developmental-eye-disorders
#2
R Holt, F Ceroni, D A Bax, S Broadgate, D Gold Diaz, C Santos, D Gerrelli, N K Ragge
YAP1, which encodes the Yes-associated protein 1, is part of the Hippo pathway involved in development, growth, repair and homeostasis. Nonsense YAP1 mutations have been shown to co-segregate with autosomal dominantly inherited coloboma. Therefore, we screened YAP1 for variants in a cohort of 258 undiagnosed UK patients with developmental eye disorders, including anophthalmia, microphthalmia and coloboma. We identified a novel 1 bp deletion in YAP1 in a boy with bilateral microphthalmia and bilateral chorioretinal coloboma...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801522/vascular-niche-contribution-to-age-associated-neural-stem-cell-dysfunction
#3
Deana Marie Apple, Erzsebet Kokovay
Neural stem cells (NSCs) persist throughout life in the dentate gyrus and the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ), where they continuously provide new neurons and some glia. These cells are found in specialized niches that regulate quiescence, activation, differentiation, and cell fate choice. A key aspect of the regulatory niche is the vascular plexus, which modulates NSC behavior during tissue homeostasis and regeneration. During aging, NSCs become depleted and dysfunctional, resulting in reduced neurogenesis and poor brain repair...
August 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799191/serum-proteome-in-a-sporadic-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-geographical-cluster
#4
Stefano De Benedetti, Elisabetta Gianazza, Cristina Banfi, Alessandro Marocchi, Christian Lunetta, Silvana Penco, Francesco Bonomi, Stefania Iametti
PURPOSE: This study was meant to characterize the serum proteome in a small geographical cluster of sporadic ALS subjects originating from a restricted geographical area and sharing the same environmental exposure, in a broader context of evaluating the relevance of environmental factors to disease onset, status, and progression. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: An Artificial Neural Network based software was used to compare the relative abundance of proteins identified as different (by means of bi-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry) in the serum proteome of patients and age-matched healthy controls...
August 10, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766392/vagal-influences-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#5
S E Rasmussen, M Pfeiffer-Jensen, A M Drewes, A D Farmer, B W Deleuran, K Stengaard-Pedersen, B Brock, C Brock
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory disease with a prevalence of 0.5-1% in Western populations. Conventionally, it is treated with therapeutic interventions that include corticosteroids, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, and biological agents. RA exerts a significant socio-economic burden and despite the use of existing treatments some patients end up with disabling symptoms. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a brain-body interface that serves to regulate homeostasis by integrating the external environment with the internal milieu...
August 2, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757477/the-roles-and-mechanisms-of-the-hippo-yap-signaling-pathway-in-the-nervous-system
#6
Bao Xiaomei, He Qing, Wang Ying, Huang Zhihui, Yuan Zengqiang
The Hippo signaling pathway, consisting of a highly conserved kinase cascade and downstream transcription co-activators YAP (Yes-associated protein)/TAZ (transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif), plays a key role in tissue homeostasis and organ size control by regulating the proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of cells. During normal development, the precise control of neural cell numbers and spatial distributions of these neural cells is important for brain development. Recent studies have shown that the Hippo/YAP signaling pathway is actively involved in the self-renewal of neural stem cells, proliferation of neural progenitor cells, differentiation and activation of glial cells, and myelination of glial cells as well as in the development of neurological diseases...
July 20, 2017: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754993/neurometabolic-and-electrophysiological-changes-during-cortical-spreading-depolarization-multimodal-approach-based-on-a-lactate-glucose-dual-microbiosensor-arrays
#7
Cátia F Lourenço, Ana Ledo, Greg A Gerhardt, João Laranjinha, Rui M Barbosa
Spreading depolarization (SD) is a slow propagating wave of strong depolarization of neural cells, implicated in several neuropathological conditions. The breakdown of brain homeostasis promotes significant hemodynamic and metabolic alterations, which impacts on neuronal function. In this work we aimed to develop an innovative multimodal approach, encompassing metabolic, electric and hemodynamic measurements, tailored but not limited to study SD. This was based on a novel dual-biosensor based on microelectrode arrays designed to simultaneously monitor lactate and glucose fluctuations and ongoing neuronal activity with high spatial and temporal resolution...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747602/inflammation-amplifier-and-gateway-reflex-the-regulation-of-inflammation-by-neuroimmune-interaction
#8
Ikuma Nakagawa, Masaaki Murakami
  Central nervous system (CNS), which is made up of brain and spinal cord, is protected from the invasion of harmful agents, such as various pathogens, chemical products or immune cells by a special structure "Blood Brain Barrier (BBB)". BBB highly preserves the homeostasis of CNS environment. On the other hand, there are many diseases in CNS regions which is associated with infection or autoimmunity, that means there may exist the "gateway" for pathogens or immune cells to attack CNS. Until recently, the molecular mechanism of the gateway formation has not been elucidated...
2017: Nihon Rinshō Men'eki Gakkai Kaishi, Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744256/corticotropin-releasing-hormone-as-the-homeostatic-rheostat-of-feto-maternal-symbiosis-and-developmental-programming-in-utero-and-neonatal-life
#9
REVIEW
Viridiana Alcántara-Alonso, Pamela Panetta, Patricia de Gortari, Dimitris K Grammatopoulos
A balanced interaction between the homeostatic mechanisms of mother and the developing organism during pregnancy and in early neonatal life is essential in order to ensure optimal fetal development, ability to respond to various external and internal challenges, protection from adverse programming, and safeguard maternal care availability after parturition. In the majority of pregnancies, this relationship is highly effective resulting in successful outcomes. However, in a number of pathological settings, perturbations of the maternal homeostasis disrupt this symbiosis and initiate adaptive responses with unpredictable outcomes for the fetus or even the neonate...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739487/the-ros-mediated-activation-of-il-6-stat3-signaling-pathway-is-involved-in-the-27-hydroxycholesterol-induced-cellular-senescence-in-nerve-cells
#10
Jiao Liu, Yun Liu, Juan Chen, Chunyan Hu, Mengying Teng, Kailin Jiao, Zhaoxia Shen, Dongmei Zhu, Jia Yue, Zhong Li, Yuan Li
The oxysterol 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC) is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERMs), which like endogenous estrogen 17β-estradiol (E2) induces the proliferation of ER-positive breast cancer cells in vitro. Interestingly, the observation that 27HC induces adverse effects in neural system, distinguishing it from E2. It has been suggested that high levels of circulating cholesterol increase the entry of 27HC into the brain, which may induce learning and memory impairment. Based on this evidence, 27HC may be associated with neurodegenerative processes and interrupted cholesterol homeostasis in the brain...
July 21, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736262/bdnf-a-key-player-in-cardiovascular-system
#11
REVIEW
Ewa Pius-Sadowska, Bogusław Machaliński
Neurotrophins (NTs) were first identified as target-derived survival factors for neurons of the central and peripheral nervous system (PNS). They are known to control neural cell fate, development and function. Independently of their neuronal properties, NTs exert unique cardiovascular activity. The heart is innervated by sensory, sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons, which require NTs during early development and in the establishment of mature properties, contributing to the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735382/combined-medication-of-antiretroviral-drugs-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-emtricitabine-and-raltegravir-reduces-neural-progenitor-cell-proliferation-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#12
Peipei Xu, Yingchun Wang, Zhao Qin, Lisha Qiu, Min Zhang, Yunlong Huang, Jialin C Zheng
The application of combination antiretroviral therapy has greatly reduced the death rate from AIDS. However, up to 50% of patients on combination antiretroviral therapy develop HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), which is associated with residual neuroinflammation and oxidative injury in the brain. Neural stem cells (NSCs) and progenitors play a vital role in repairing neuronal injuries. Therefore, we hypothesize that combination antiretroviral therapy may adversely affect NSCs/progenitors, contributing to the increasing prevalence of HAND...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733241/live-imaging-using-a-fret-glucose-sensor-reveals-glucose-delivery-to-all-cell-types-in-the-drosophila-brain
#13
Anne Volkenhoff, Johannes Hirrlinger, Johannes M Kappel, Christian Klämbt, Stefanie Schirmeier
All complex nervous systems are metabolically separated from circulation by a blood-brain barrier (BBB) that prevents uncontrolled leakage of solutes into the brain. Thus, all metabolites needed to sustain energy homeostasis must be transported across this BBB. In invertebrates, such as Drosophila, the major carbohydrate in circulation is the disaccharide trehalose and specific trehalose transporters are expressed by the glial BBB. Here we analyzed whether glucose is able to contribute to energy homeostasis in Drosophila...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729853/role-of-melatonin-galanin-and-rfamide-neuropeptides-qrfp26-and-qrfp43-in-the-neuroendocrine-control-of-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-function
#14
REVIEW
Iacopo Gesmundo, Tania Villanova, Dana Banfi, Giacomo Gamba, Riccarda Granata
Glucose homeostasis is finely regulated by a number of hormones and peptides released mainly from the brain, gastrointestinal tract, and muscle, regulating pancreatic secretion through cellular receptors and their signal transduction cascades. The endocrine function of the pancreas is controlled by islets within the exocrine pancreatic tissue that release hormones like insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide, and ghrelin. Moreover, both exocrine and endocrine pancreatic functions are regulated by a variety of hormonal and neural mechanisms, such as ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, or the inhibitory peptide somatostatin...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729439/striatal-gpr88-modulates-foraging-efficiency
#15
Aundrea Rainwater, Elisenda Sanz, Richard D Palmiter, Albert Quintana
The striatum is anatomically and behaviorally implicated in behaviors that promote efficient foraging. To investigate this function, we studied instrumental choice behavior in mice lacking GPR88, a striatum-enriched orphan G-protein-coupled receptor that modulates striatal medium spiny neuron (MSN) excitability. Our results reveal that hungry mice lacking GPR88 (KO mice) were slow to acquire food-reinforced lever-press, but could lever press similar to controls on a progressive-ratio schedule. Both WT and KO mice discriminated between reward and no-reward levers; however, KO mice failed to discriminate based on relative quantity- reward (1 versus 3 food pellets) or effort (3 versus 9 lever presses)...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718448/neuronal-activity-in-ontogeny-and-oncology
#16
REVIEW
Humsa Venkatesh, Michelle Monje
The nervous system plays a central role in regulating the stem cell niche in many organs, and thereby pivotally modulates development, homeostasis, and plasticity. A similarly powerful role for neural regulation of the cancer microenvironment is emerging. Neurons promote the growth of cancers of the brain, skin, prostate, pancreas, and stomach. Parallel mechanisms shared in development and cancer suggest that neural modulation of the tumor microenvironment may prove a universal theme, although the mechanistic details of such modulation remain to be discovered for many malignancies...
February 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715675/resting-state-brain-networks-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-and-impulse-control-disorders
#17
Alessandro Tessitore, Gabriella Santangelo, Rosa De Micco, Alfonso Giordano, Simona Raimo, Marianna Amboni, Fabrizio Esposito, Paolo Barone, Gioacchino Tedeschi, Carmine Vitale
INTRODUCTION: To investigate intrinsic neural networks connectivity changes in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with and without impulse control disorders (ICD). METHODS: Fifteen patients with PD with ICD (ICD+), 15 patients with PD without ICD (ICD-) and 24 age and sex-matched healthy controls (HC) were enrolled in the study. To identify patients with and without ICD and/or punding, we used the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview (MIDI) and a clinical interview based on diagnostic criteria for each symptom...
June 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713269/the-emerging-role-for-zinc-in-depression-and-psychosis
#18
REVIEW
Matthew A Petrilli, Thorsten M Kranz, Karine Kleinhaus, Peter Joe, Mara Getz, Porsha Johnson, Moses V Chao, Dolores Malaspina
Zinc participation is essential for all physiological systems, including neural functioning, where it participates in a myriad of cellular processes. Converging clinical, molecular, and genetic discoveries illuminate key roles for zinc homeostasis in association with clinical depression and psychosis which are not yet well appreciated at the clinical interface. Intracellular deficiency may arise from low circulating zinc levels due to dietary insufficiency, or impaired absorption from aging or medical conditions, including alcoholism...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710142/perspective-neuroregenerative-nutrition
#19
Dennis A Steindler, Brent A Reynolds
Good health while aging depends upon optimal cellular and organ functioning that contribute to the regenerative ability of the body during the lifespan, especially when injuries and diseases occur. Although diet may help in the maintenance of cellular fitness during periods of stability or modest decline in the regenerative function of an organ, this approach is inadequate in an aged system, in which the ability to maintain homeostasis is further challenged by aging and the ensuing suboptimal functioning of the regenerative unit, tissue-specific stem cells...
July 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708000/reactive-oxygen-species-and-mitochondrial-homeostasis-as-regulators-of-stem-cell-fate-and-function
#20
Darren Qiancheng Tan, Toshio Suda
SIGNIFICANCE: The precise role and impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in stem cells, which are essential for lifelong tissue homeostasis and regeneration, remains of significant interest to the field. The long-term regenerative potential of a stem cell compartment is determined by the delicate balance between quiescence, self-renewal and differentiation; all of which can be influenced by ROS levels. Recent advances: The past decade has seen a growing appreciation for the importance of ROS and redox homeostasis in various stem cell compartments; particularly those of hematopoietic, neural and muscle tissues...
July 14, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
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