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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087461/low-glucose-stress-decreases-cellular-nadh-and-mitochondrial-atp-in-colonic-epithelial-cancer-cells-influence-of-mitochondrial-substrates
#1
Magdalena L Circu, Ronald E Maloney, Tak Yee Aw
In this study, we investigated how colonic epithelial cells maintained pyridine nucleotide (NADH/NAD(+)) redox homeostasis upon acute metabolic variation imposed by glucose deprivation or supplementation with mitochondrial substrates, succinate and malate/glutamate (M/G). Our results showed that low glucose caused cellular NADH/NAD(+) redox imbalance that diminished lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and resulted in lower lactate contents. The concurrent activation of malic enzyme (ME) suggested a role for malate in preserving cellular pyruvate that remained unchanged at low glucose...
January 10, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078521/exogenously-applied-poly-%C3%AE-glutamic-acid-alleviates-salt-stress-in-wheat-seedlings-by-modulating-ion-balance-and-the-antioxidant-system
#2
Zhengfei Guo, Na Yang, Changhua Zhu, Lijun Gan
Salt stress is a main abiotic stress that limits agricultural productivity in many parts of the world. To investigate whether poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) can alleviate the negative effects of salt stress on wheat, a foliar application of 400 mg/L γ-PGA was applied to wheat seedlings, which were then subjected to 150 mM NaCl. Our results showed that after application of γ-PGA, the plant height, the plant weight, and the antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase were significantly increased compared with the treatment of 150 mM NaCl alone...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070827/glutamic-acid-promotes-monacolin-k-production-and-monacolin-k-biosynthetic-gene-cluster-expression-in-monascus
#3
Chan Zhang, Jian Liang, Le Yang, Shiyuan Chai, Chenxi Zhang, Baoguo Sun, Chengtao Wang
This study investigated the effects of glutamic acid on production of monacolin K and expression of the monacolin K biosynthetic gene cluster. When Monascus M1 was grown in glutamic medium instead of in the original medium, monacolin K production increased from 48.4 to 215.4 mg l(-1), monacolin K production increased by 3.5 times. Glutamic acid enhanced monacolin K production by upregulating the expression of mokB-mokI; on day 8, the expression level of mokA tended to decrease by Reverse Transcription-polymerase Chain Reaction...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065856/hypoxia-promotes-mitochondrial-glutamine-metabolism-through-hif1%C3%AE-gdh-pathway-in-human-lung-cancer-cells
#4
Zi-Feng Jiang, Min Wang, Jian-Lin Xu, Ya-Jing Ning
Drug-resistance is common in human lung cancer therapy. Hypoxia remarkably contributes to drug-resistance in lung cancer but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here we demonstrate that hypoxia-induced glutamine metabolism is involved in drug resistance in lung cancer cells. Hypoxia increases glutamine up-take, glutamate to α-ketoglutarate flux and the generation of ATP in lung cancer cells by up-regulating the expression of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). Hypoxia-induced expression of GDH relies on the up-regulation of HIF1α but not HIF2α...
January 5, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064054/chemoenzyamtic-synthesis-and-self-assembling-gelation-behavior-of-amylose-grafted-poly-%C3%AE-glutamic-acid
#5
Takuya Shouji, Kazuya Yamamoto, Jun-Ichi Kadokawa
In this study, we investigated chmemoenzymatic synthesis of amylose-grafted poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA) as a new artificial saccharide-peptide conjugate composed of two biological macromolecules. Maltooligosaccharide as a primer of enzymatic polymerization by phosphorylase catalysis was first introduced on the PGA main chain by the condensation reaction using the condensing agent in NaOH aq. Thermostable phosphorylase-catalyzed enzymatic polymerization of α-d-glucose 1-phosphate (G-1-P) as a monomer was then performed from the primer chain ends of the product to obtain amylose-grafted PGAs, which formed hydrogels in reaction media depending on the G-1-P/primer feed ratios...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063777/observation-of-the-side-chain-o-methylation-of-glutamic-acid-or-aspartic-acid-containing-model-peptides-by-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#6
A Emin Atik, Melda Z Guray, Talat Yalcin
O-methylation of the side chains of glutamic acid (E) and aspartic acid (D) residues is generally observed modification when an acidified methanol/water (MeOH/dH2O) mixture is used as a solvent system during sample preparation for proteomic research. This chemical modification may result misidentification with endogenous protein methylation; therefore, a special care should be taken during sample handling prior to mass spectrometric analysis. In the current study, we systematically examined the extent of E/D methylation and C-terminus carboxyl group of synthetic model peptides in terms of different incubation temperatures, storage times, and added acid types as well as its percentages...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058453/early-history-of-the-breeding-of-amino-acid-producing-strains
#7
Shigeru Nakamori
Amino acid production started in Japan in 1908 with the extraction of monosodium glutamate (MSG) from acid hydrolysates of proteins. In addition to extraction, other methods of amino acid production include chemical synthesis, fermentation, and enzymatic synthesis both for glutamic acid and other amino acids. In this chapter, we review the historical transition of these production methods; currently, fermentation is the chief production method of amino acids. All wild-type microorganisms possess a negative feedback control system (feedback inhibition and repression) on the enzymes within the amino acid biosynthetic pathways...
January 6, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057867/molecular-diversity-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-mrna-containing-neurons-in-the-hypothalamus
#8
Roman A Romanov, Alan Alpar, Tomas Hökfelt, Tibor Harkany
Hormonal responses to acute stress rely on the rapid induction of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) production in the mammalian hypothalamus, with subsequent instructive steps culminating in corticosterone release at the periphery. Hypothalamic CRH neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus are therefore considered "stress neurons". However, significant morphological and funtional diversity amongst neurons that can transiently produce CRH in other hypothalamic nuclei has been proposed, particularly since histochemical evidence associates CRH to both GABA and glutamate neurotransmission...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057575/the-preparation-of-poly-%C3%AE-glutamic-acid-nhs-ester-as-a-natural-cross-linking-agent-of-collagen
#9
Junhui Yang, Cuicui Ding, Liulian Huang, Min Zhang, Lihui Chen
γ-PGA-NHS ester, which was prepared using poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) as the raw materials, was synthesized to be a novel cross-linker of collagen. Fourier transform infrared spectra analysis suggested that the products displayed the characteristic absorption peak of ester. Results from nuclear magnetic resonance analysis indicated that the esterification degree of γ-PGA-NHS ester was increased with the increase of NHS. Modified collagen was prepared and characterized. The results of circular dichroism analysis indicated modified collagen retained the triple helix structure of natural collagen...
January 3, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051338/activity-dependent-sulfhydration-signal-controls-nmdar-dependent-synaptic-plasticity-via-increasing-d-serine-availability
#10
Yuan-Long Li, Pei-Fei Wu, Jian-Guo Chen, Sheng Wang, Qian-Qian Han, Dan Li, Wen Wang, Xin-Lei Guan, Di Li, Li-Hong Long, Jian-Geng Huang, Fang Wang
AIMS: Reactive sulfur species (RSS) including hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and its oxydates have been raised as novel redox signaling molecules. The present study aimed at examining whether endogenous sulfhydration signal are required for long-term potentiation (LTP), a cellular model for memory. RESULTS: Here, we found that increased synaptic activity triggered sulfide generationand protein sulfhydration. Activity-triggered sulfide production was essential for N-methyl-D-aspartate subtype glutamate receptors (NMDARs)-dependent LTP via maintaining the availability of D-serine, a primary co-agonist for synaptic NMDARs...
January 4, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043777/quercetin-glutamic-acid-conjugate-with-a-non-hydrolysable-linker-a-novel-scaffold-for-multidrug-resistance-reversal-agents-through-inhibition-of-p-glycoprotein
#11
Mi Kyoung Kim, Yunyoung Kim, Hyunah Choo, Youhoon Chong
Previously, we have reported remarkable effect of a quercetin-glutamic acid conjugate to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) of cancer cells to a broad spectrum of anticancer agents through inhibition of P-glycoprotein (Pgp)-mediated drug efflux. Due to the hydrolysable nature, MDR-reversal activity of the quercetin conjugate was attributed to its hydrolysis product, quercetin. However, several lines of evidence demonstrated that the intact quercetin-glutamic acid conjugate has stronger MDR-reversal activity than quercetin...
December 23, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040184/effect-of-osmotic-dehydration-of-olives-as-pre-fermentation-treatment-and-partial-substitution-of-sodium-chloride-by-monosodium-glutamate-in-the-fermentation-profile-of-kalamata-natural-black-olives
#12
Stamatoula Bonatsou, Vasilis Iliopoulos, Athanasios Mallouchos, Eleni Gogou, Vasiliki Oikonomopoulou, Magdalini Krokida, Petros Taoukis, Efstathios Z Panagou
This study examined the effect of osmotic dehydration of Kalamata natural black olives as pre-fermentation treatment in combination with partial substitution of NaCl by monosodium glutamate (MSG) on the fermentation profile of olives. Osmotic dehydration was undertaken by immersing the olives in 70% (w/w) glucose syrup overnight at room temperature. Further on, three different mixtures of NaCl and MSG with/without prior osmotic dehydration of olives were investigated, namely (i) 6.65% NaCl - 0.35% MSG (5% substitution), (ii) 6...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039371/granular-layer-neurons-control-cerebellar-neurovascular-coupling-through-an-nmda-receptor-no-dependent-system
#13
Lisa Mapelli, Giuseppe Gagliano, Teresa Soda, Umberto Laforenza, Francesco Moccia, Egidio D'Angelo
: Neurovascular coupling (NVC) is the process whereby neuronal activity controls blood vessel diameter. In the cerebellum, the molecular layer is regarded as the main NVC determinant. However, the granular layer is a region with variable metabolic demand caused by large activity fluctuations, that shows a prominent expression of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and is therefore much more suitable for effective NVC. Here we show that, in the granular layer of acute rat cerebellar slices, capillary diameter rapidly changes following mossy fiber stimulation...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033726/optimization-of-desferrioxamine-e-production-by-streptomyces-parvulus
#14
Tamás Gáll, Gábor Lehoczki, Gyöngyi Gyémánt, Tamás Emri, Zsuzsa M Szigeti, György Balla, József Balla, István Pócsi
Siderophores are produced by a number of microbes to capture iron with outstandingly high affinity, which property also generates biomedical and industrial interests. Desferrioxamine E (DFO-E) secreted by streptomycetes bacteria can be an ideal candidate for iron chelation therapy, which necessitates its cost-effective production for in vitro and animal studies. This study focused on the optimization of DFO-E production by Streptomyces parvulus CBS548.68. Different combinations of various carbon and nitrogen sources as well as the addition of 3-morpholinopropane-1-sulfonic acid (MOPS) markedly affected DFO-E yields, which were attributed, at least in part, to the higher biomass productions found in MOPS-supplemented cultures...
December 2016: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025122/protective-effect-of-rutaecarpine-against-t-bhp-induced-hepatotoxicity-by-upregulating-antioxidant-enzymes-via-the-camkii-akt-and-nrf2-are-pathways
#15
Sun Woo Jin, Yong Pil Hwang, Chul Yung Choi, Hyung Gyun Kim, Se Jong Kim, Yongan Kim, Young Chul Chung, Kyung Jin Lee, Tae Cheon Jeong, Hye Gwang Jeong
Rutaecarpine, an indolopyridoquinazolinone alkaloid isolated from the unripe fruit of Evodia rutaecarpa, has been shown to have cytoprotective potential, but the molecular mechanism underlying this activity remains unclear. Our study was designed to investigate the cytoprotective effect of rutaecarpine against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) and to elucidate its action mechanism of action of rutaecarpine in a cultured HepG2 cell line and in mouse liver. Rutaecarpine decreased t-BHP-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cytotoxicity, and apoptosis in HepG2 cells...
December 23, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018382/identification-and-analysis-of-nahco3-stress-responsive-genes-in-wild-soybean-glycine-soja-roots-by-rna-seq
#16
Jinlong Zhang, Jiaxue Wang, Wei Jiang, Juge Liu, Songnan Yang, Junyi Gai, Yan Li
Soil alkalinity is a major abiotic constraint to crop productivity and quality. Wild soybean (Glycine soja) is considered to be more stress-tolerant than cultivated soybean (G. max), and has considerable genetic variation for increasing alkalinity tolerance of soybean. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptome profile in the roots of an alkalinity tolerant wild soybean variety N24852 at 12 and 24 h after 90 mM NaHCO3 stress by RNA-sequencing. Compared with the controls, a total of 449 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 95 and 140 up-regulated genes, and 108 and 135 down-regulated genes at 12 and 24 h after NaHCO3 treatment, respectively...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017777/the-cardioprotective-effect-of-sildenafil-is-mediated-by-the-activation-of-malate-dehydrogenase-and-an-increase-in-the-malate-aspartate-shuttle-in-cardiomyocytes
#17
Gevi Federica, Campolo Federica, Naro Fabio, Zolla Lello
Recent evidence has shown showed the cardioprotective effect of PDE5 inhibition in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, heart failure and cardiac hypertrophy. To investigate the biochemical changes that occur during PDE5 inhibition in cardiac cells, this study assessed the metabolic profile of the HL1 cell line, a murine atrial cell line with adult cardiomyocyte properties. After one hour of treatment with sildenafil, glycolysis was moderately but selectively stimulated, unlike the pentose phosphate pathway and the Krebs cycle...
December 22, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013429/enhanced-production-of-poly-%C3%AE-glutamic-acid-by-bacillus-licheniformis-tistr-1010-with-environmental-controls
#18
Nuttawut Kongklom, Zhongping Shi, Yusuf Chisti, Sarote Sirisansaneeyakul
Bacillus licheniformis TISTR 1010 was used for glutamic acid-independent production of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA). A fed-batch production strategy was developed involving feedings of glucose, citric acid, and ammonium chloride at specified stages of the fermentation. With the dissolved oxygen concentration controlled at ≥50% of air saturation and the pH controlled at ~7.4, the fed-batch operation at 37 °C afforded a peak γ-PGA concentration of 39.9 ± 0.3 g L(-1) with a productivity of 0.926 ± 0...
December 24, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012668/diclofenac-in-arabidopsis-cells-rapid-formation-of-conjugates
#19
Qiuguo Fu, Qingfu Ye, Jianbo Zhang, Jaben Richards, Dan Borchardt, Jay Gan
Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) are continuously introduced into the soil-plant system, through practices such as agronomic use of reclaimed water and biosolids containing these trace contaminants. Plants may accumulate PPCPs from soil, serving as a conduit for human exposure. Metabolism likely controls the final accumulation of PPCPs in plants, but is in general poorly understood for emerging contaminants. In this study, we used diclofenac as a model compound, and employed (14)C tracing, and time-of-flight (TOF) and triple quadruple (QqQ) mass spectrometers to unravel its metabolism pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana cells...
December 21, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011762/idh1-deficiency-attenuates-gluconeogenesis-in-mouse-liver-by-impairing-amino-acid-utilization
#20
Jing Ye, Yu Gu, Feng Zhang, Yuanlin Zhao, Yuan Yuan, Zhenyue Hao, Yi Sheng, Wanda Y Li, Andrew Wakeham, Rob A Cairns, Tak W Mak
Although the enzymatic activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) was defined decades ago, its functions in vivo are not yet fully understood. Cytosolic IDH1 converts isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG), a key metabolite regulating nitrogen homeostasis in catabolic pathways. It was thought that IDH1 might enhance lipid biosynthesis in liver or adipose tissue by generating NADPH, but we show here that lipid contents are relatively unchanged in both IDH1-null mouse liver and IDH1-deficient HepG2 cells generated using the CRISPR-Cas9 system...
December 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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