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glutamate production

Xianhua Li, Yanhong Liu, Qian Jia, Virginia LaMacchia, Kathryn O'Donoghue, Zuyi Huang
Oleuropein and its hydrolysis products are olive phenolic compounds that have antimicrobial effects on a variety of pathogens, with the potential to be utilized in food and pharmaceutical products. While the existing research is mainly focused on individual genes or enzymes that are regulated by oleuropein for antimicrobial activities, little work has been done to integrate intracellular genes, enzymes and metabolic reactions for a systematic investigation of antimicrobial mechanism of oleuropein. In this study, the first genome-scale modeling method was developed to predict the system-level changes of intracellular metabolism triggered by oleuropein in Staphylococcus aureus, a common food-borne pathogen...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Shelby Calkins, M B Couger, Colin Jackson, Jordan Zandler, Garett C Hudgins, Radwa A Hanafy, Connie Budd, Donald P French, Wouter D Hoff, Noha Youssef
Staphylococcus hominis is a predominant member of the human skin microbiome. We here report on the genomic analysis of Staphylococcus hominis strain Hudgins that was isolated from the wrist area of human skin. The partial genome assembly of S. hominis Hudgins consists of 2,211,863 bp of DNA with 2174 protein-coding genes and 90 RNA genes. Based on the genomic analysis of KEGG pathways, the organism is expected to be a versatile heterotroph potentially capable of hydrolyzing the sugars glucose, fructose, mannose, and the amino acids alanine, aspartate, glutamate, glycine, threonine, cysteine, methionine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, arginine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan for energy production through aerobic respiration, with occasional lactate and acetate fermentation...
December 2016: Genomics Data
A Hosseini, H R Sadeghnia, A Rajabian
Oxidative stress and apoptosis contribute to neuronal degeneration in many neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) and is considered responsible for the pathogenesis of many neurological disorders. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is thought to be involved in glutamate-induced apoptosis process. In this study, the neuroprotective effects of Citrus aurantium in the glutamate-induced rat's adrenal pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12 cells) were investigated...
2016: Folia Neuropathologica
Grazyna Nowak, Diana Takacsova Bakajsova, Judit Megyesi
Previously, we documented that activation of protein kinase C-ε (PKC-ε) mediates mitochondrial dysfunction in cultured renal proximal tubule cells (RPTC). This study tested whether deletion of the PKC-ε decreases dysfunction of renal cortical mitochondria and improves kidney function after renal ischemia. PKC-ε levels in mitochondria of ischemic kidneys increased 24h after ischemia. Complex I- and complex II-coupled state 3 respirations were reduced 44% and 27%, respectively, in wild-type (WT) but unchanged and increased in PKC-ε-deficient (KO) mice after ischemia...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Michel van Schaardenburgh, Martin Wohlwend, Øivind Rognmo, Erney J R Mattsson
PURPOSE: Mitochondria are essential for energy production in the muscle cell and for this they are dependent upon a sufficient supply of oxygen by the circulation. Exercise training has shown to be a potent stimulus for physiological adaptations and mitochondria play a central role. Whether changes in mitochondrial respiration are seen after exercise in patients with a reduced circulation is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the time course and whether one session of calf raise exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration in the calf muscle of patients with peripheral vascular disease...
2016: PloS One
Junli Zhang, Huanjiao Weng, Wenwen Ding, Zhen Kang
Five-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), the universal precursor of all tetrapyrroles, has various applications in medicine and agriculture industries. Glutamyl-tRNA reductase (GluTR) as the first key enzyme of C5 pathway is feedback regulated by heme, and its N-terminus plays a critical role on its stability control. Here, the GluTR N-terminus was engineered by inserting different numbers of positively charged lysine and arginine residues. The results confirmed that insertion of lysine or arginine residues (especially one arginine residue) behind Thr2 significantly increased the stability of GluTR...
October 18, 2016: Bioengineered
Jianhua Yang, Anna Joëlle Ruff, Stefanie Nicole Hamer, Feng Cheng, Ulrich Schwaneberg
Escherichia coli is a common host for recombinant protein production in which production titers are highly dependent on the employed expression system. Promoters are thereby a key element to control gene expression levels. In this study, a novel PLICable promoter toolbox was developed which enables in a single cloning step and after a screening experiment to identify out of ten IPTG-inducible promoters (T7, A3, lpp, tac, pac, Sp6, lac, npr, trc and syn) the most suitable one for high level protein production...
October 18, 2016: Biotechnology Journal
Andreas Maus, Godefridus J Peters
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), or grade IV astrocytoma, is the most common type of primary brain tumor. It has a devastating prognosis with a 2-year-overall survival rate of only 26 % after standard treatment, which includes surgery, radiation, and adjuvant chemotherapy with temozolomide. Also lower grade gliomas are difficult to treat, because they diffusely spread into the brain, where extensive removal of tissue is critical. Better understanding of the cancer's biology is a key for the development of more effective therapy approaches...
October 17, 2016: Amino Acids
Su Jin Kang, Ji Yeon Seo, Kye Man Cho, Chang Kwon Lee, Jeong Hwan Kim, Jong-Sang Kim
A new type of doenjang was manufactured by mixing soaked soybean, koji (Rhizopus oryzae), cheonggukjang (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MJ1-4 and B. amyloliquefaciens EMD17), and Pichia farinosa SY80 as a yeast, salt, and water, followed by fermentation with koji that was made by fermenting whole wheat with R. oryzae. The mixed culture doenjang was designed to have a more palatable flavor and stronger biological activities than the conventional product. The extract of mixed culture doenjang showed higher antioxidant activity than the commercial doenjang as evaluated by the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay although it was not significantly different from the commercial product in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging activities...
September 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Daria Chrobok, Simon R Law, Bastiaan Brouwer, Pernilla Lindén, Agnieszka Ziolkowska, Daniela Liebsch, Reena Narsai, Bozena Szal, Thomas Moritz, Nicolas Rouhier, James Whelan, Per Gardestrom, Olivier Keech
The functions of mitochondria during leaf senescence, a type of programmed cell death aiming at the massive retrieval of nutrients from the senescing organ to the rest of the plant, remain elusive. Here, combining experimental and analytical approaches, we showed that mitochondrial integrity is conserved until the latest stages of leaf senescence, while their number drops by 30%. Adenylate phosphorylation state assays and mitochondrial respiratory measurements indicated that the leaf energy status is also maintained during this time period...
October 15, 2016: Plant Physiology
Xiuxia Liu, Wei Zhang, Zihao Zhao, Xiaofeng Dai, Yankun Yang, Zhonghu Bai
Corynebacterium glutamicum, a Gram-positive bacterium, has been widely used for the industrial production of amino acids, such as glutamate and lysine, for decades. Due to several characteristics - its ability to secrete properly folded and functional target proteins into culture broth, its low levels of endogenous extracellular proteins and its lack of detectable extracellular hydrolytic enzyme activity - C. glutamicum is also a very favorable host cell for the secretory production of heterologous proteins, important enzymes, and pharmaceutical proteins...
October 13, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Bradley Smith, Xenia L Schafer, Aslihan Ambeskovic, Cody M Spencer, Hartmut Land, Joshua Munger
Metabolic reprogramming is critical to oncogenesis, but the emergence and function of this profound reorganization remain poorly understood. Here we find that cooperating oncogenic mutations drive large-scale metabolic reprogramming, which is both intrinsic to cancer cells and obligatory for the transition to malignancy. This involves synergistic regulation of several genes encoding metabolic enzymes, including the lactate dehydrogenases LDHA and LDHB and mitochondrial glutamic pyruvate transaminase 2 (GPT2)...
October 11, 2016: Cell Reports
Izaskun Buendia, Giammarco Tenti, Patrycja Michalska, Iago Méndez-López, Enrique Luengo, Michele Satriani, Juan Fernando Padin Nogueira, Manuela G López, María Teresa Ramos, Antonio G García, J Carlos Menéndez, Rafael León
During brain ischemia, oxygen and glucose deprivation induces calcium overload, extensive oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and, finally, massive neuronal loss. In the search of a neuroprotective compound to mitigate this neuronal loss, we have designed and synthesized a new multitarget hybrid (ITH14001) directed at the reduction of calcium overload by acting on two regulators of calcium homeostasis; the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (mNCX) and L-type voltage dependent calcium channels (VDCCs). This compound is a hybrid of CGP37157 (mNCX inhibitor) and nimodipine (L-type VDCCs blocker), and its pharmacological evaluation revealed a moderate ability to selectively inhibit both targets...
October 12, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Qingnan Chu, Zhimin Sha, Takuji Nakamura, Norikuni Oka, Mitsuru Osaki, Toshihiro Watanabe
In this study, we determined the capacity of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv. Hoyoharuka) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) to utilize different forms of nitrogen (N) in a rhizobox experiment. We assessed the distribution of different forms of N and microbial metabolism in the rhizosphere. Seedlings were grown for 35 days without N or with 130 mg N kg-1 soil as ammonium sulfate or farmyard cattle manure. We detected no treatment-dependent changes in biomass production in the roots and shoots of the soybeans...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Siegfried Zerche, Klaus-Thomas Haensch, Uwe Druege, Mohammad-Reza Hajirezaei
BACKGROUND: Adventitious root (AR) formation in axillary shoot tip cuttings is a crucial physiological process for ornamental propagation that is utilised in global production chains for young plants. In this process, the nitrogen and carbohydrate metabolisms of a cutting are regulated by its total nitrogen content (Nt), dark exposure during transport and irradiance levels at distinct production sites and phases through a specific plasticity to readjust metabolite pools. Here, we examined how elevated Nt contents with a combined dark exposure of cuttings influence their internal N-pools including free amino acids and considered early anatomic events of AR formation as well as further root development in Petunia hybrida cuttings...
October 10, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Xiaohui Zhao, Linda A Kotilinek, Benjamin Smith, Chris Hlynialuk, Kathleen Zahs, Martin Ramsden, James Cleary, Karen H Ashe
In Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other tauopathies, the tau protein forms fibrils, which are believed to be neurotoxic. However, fibrillar tau has been dissociated from neuron death and network dysfunction, suggesting the involvement of nonfibrillar species. Here we describe a novel pathological process in which caspase-2 cleavage of tau at Asp314 impairs cognitive and synaptic function in animal and cellular models of tauopathies by promoting the missorting of tau to dendritic spines. The truncation product, Δtau314, resists fibrillation and is present at higher levels in brains from cognitively impaired mice and humans with AD...
October 10, 2016: Nature Medicine
Daniel Horák, Milan Beneš, Zuzana Procházková, Miroslava Trchová, Arsenii Borysov, Artem Pastukhov, Konstantin Paliienko, Tatiana Borisova
Changes in cholesterol concentration in the plasma membrane of presynaptic nerve terminals nonspecifically modulate glutamate transport and homeostasis in the central nervous system. Reduction of the cholesterol content in isolated rat brain nerve terminals (synaptosomes) using cholesterol-depleting agents decreases the glutamate uptake and increases the extracellular level of glutamate in nerve terminals. Extraction of cholesterol from the plasma membrane and its further removal from the synaptosomes by external magnetic field can be achieved by means of magnetic nanoparticles with immobilized cholesterol-depleting agent such as O-methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD)...
October 4, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
David W Nauen
Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptor autoimmune encephalitis can arise in the setting of ovarian teratoma and often responds to resection. When it occurs in the absence of tumor, failure to respond to treatment may be more likely, and affected patients often require intensive care. To further understand the mechanisms and potential management, we present findings from an autopsy conducted on a young woman who died of refractory autoimmune encephalitis of this type. Rituximab was administered 70 days before death, and both 37 and 14 days before death, CD19(+) lymphocytes were only 0...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
Victoria Jakobi, Paul Salmen, Michael Paulus, Metin Tolan, Axel Rosenhahn
In this work, the interaction of soy sauces with hydrophobic surfaces has been analyzed. Hydrophobic self-assembled monolayers on gold or silicon dioxide were used to harvest conditioning layers from soy sauce products with varying amounts of additives. The data was compared to adsorption of soy protein and glutamic acid as common ingredients. Spectral ellipsometry revealed that all tested sauces led to the formation of thin overlayers on hydrophobic surfaces. Products with less additives yielded adlayers in the same thickness range as pure soy protein...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Tomoyo Sakata-Kato, Dyann F Wirth
Given that resistance to all drugs in clinical use has arisen, discovery of new anti-malarial drug targets is eagerly anticipated. The Plasmodium mitochondrion has been considered a promising drug target largely based on its significant divergence from the host organelle as well as its involvement in ATP production and pyrimidine biosynthesis. However, the functions of Plasmodium mitochondrial protein complexes and associated metabolic pathways are not fully characterized. Here, we report the development of novel and robust bioenergetic assay protocols for Plasmodium falciparum asexual parasites utilizing a Seahorse Bioscience XFe24 Extracellular Flux Analyzer...
October 9, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
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