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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820912/impact-of-novel-palmitoylated-prolactin-releasing-peptide-analogs-on-metabolic-changes-in-mice-with-diet-induced-obesity
#1
Veronika Pražienková, Martina Holubová, Helena Pelantová, Martina Bugáňová, Zdenko Pirník, Barbora Mikulášková, Andrea Popelová, Miroslava Blechová, Martin Haluzík, Blanka Železná, Marek Kuzma, Jaroslav Kuneš, Lenka Maletínská
Analogs of anorexigenic neuropeptides, such as prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), have a potential as new anti-obesity drugs. In our previous study, palmitic acid attached to the N-terminus of PrRP enabled its central anorexigenic effects after peripheral administration. In this study, two linkers, γ-glutamic acid at Lys11 and a short, modified polyethylene glycol at the N-terminal Ser and/or Lys11, were applied for the palmitoylation of PrRP31 to improve its bioavailability. These analogs had a high affinity and activation ability to the PrRP receptor GPR10 and the neuropeptide FF2 receptor, as well as short-term anorexigenic effect similar to PrRP palmitoylated at the N-terminus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820585/chemo-enzymatic-assembly-of-isotopically-labeled-folates
#2
Antonio Angelastro, William Michael Dawson, Louis Y P Luk, E Joel Loveridge, Rudolf K Allemann
Pterin-containing natural products have diverse functions in life but an efficient and easy scheme for their in vitro synthesis is not available. Here, we report a chemo-enzymatic 14-step, one-pot synthesis that can be used to generate 13C- and 15N-labeled dihydrofolates (H2F) from glucose, guanine and p-aminobenzoyl-L-glutamic acid. This synthesis stands out from previous approaches to produce H2F in that the average yield of each step is >91% and it requires only one single purification step. The use of a one-pot reaction allowed us to overcome potential problems with individual steps during the synthesis...
August 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817221/neuroprotective-effects-of-honokiol-from-chemistry-to-medicine
#3
REVIEW
Sylwia Talarek, Joanna Listos, Davide Barreca, Ester Tellone, Antoni Sureda, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Nady Braidy, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
The incidence of neurological disorders is growing in developed countries together with increased lifespan. Nowadays, there are still no effective treatments for neurodegenerative pathologies, which make necessary to search for new therapeutic agents. Natural products, most of them used in traditional medicine, are considered promising alternatives for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Honokiol is a natural bioactive phenylpropanoid compound, belonging to the class of neolignan, found in notable amounts in the bark of Magnolia tree, and has been reported to exert diverse pharmacological properties including neuroprotective activities...
August 17, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816586/oxidative-stress-in-the-visceral-fat-is-elevated-in-postmenopausal-women-with-gynecologic-cancer
#4
Megumi Narumi, Kazuhiro Takahashi, Hizuru Yamatani, Manabu Seino, Keiko Yamanouchi, Tsuyoshi Ohta, Toshifumi Takahashi, Hirohisa Kurachi, Satoru Nagase
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate differences in oxidative stress of visceral fat between premenopausal and postmenopausal women and clarify the antioxidant effect of estrogen on adipocytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Abdominal subcutaneous and omental visceral adipose tissues were obtained from 38 patients who underwent gynecological surgery. We measured the sizes of the adipocytes and evaluated the lipid peroxidation levels in the adipose tissues. We investigated whether estrogen inhibited the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that was induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816294/-optimization-of-alkaline-hydrolysis-based-on-the-side-chain-of-diethyl-ester-4-amino-n-5-formyl-n-8-n-10-dideazatetrahydrofolic-acid
#5
M M Yuan, M Wang, J Y Liu, Z L Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To optimize and establish the best hydrolysis method of diethyl ester 4-amino-N(5)-formyl-N(8), N(10)-dideazatetrahydrofolate through the optimization of simple compound of diethyl N-(4-aminobenzoyl)-L-glutamate. METHODS: To increase the low yield of hydrolysis reaction of diethyl ester 4-amino-N(5)-formyl-N(8), N(10)-dideazatetrahydrofolate due to the by-products and difficult purification, we studied the effect of NaOH and KOH, two kinds of alkalis, three concentrations between 0...
August 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811634/molecular-cloning-and-expression-of-osmotin-in-a-baculovirus-insect-system-purified-osmotin-mitigates-amyloid-beta-deposition-in-neuronal-cells
#6
Noman Bin Abid, Gwangho Yoon, Myeong Ok Kim
Osmotin is a pathogenesis-related plant protein, have gained focus of research because of its homology with mammalian adiponectin. The therapeutic properties of osmotin have been explored in recent years as it exhibits neuroprotective effects against amyloid beta-, glutamate- and ethanol-induced synaptic dysfunction and neurodegeneration. In the present study, the full-length gene of the tobacco plant osmotin was cloned and expressed in the Sf9 insect cell line using the baculovirus expression system. In vitro analysis of purified Osmotin protein showed excellent cell viability, p-AMPK activation and a reduction in amyloid-beta deposition...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811138/intermittent-hypoxia-training-powerful-non-invasive-cerebroprotection-against-ethanol-withdrawal-excitotoxicity
#7
REVIEW
Marianna E Jung, Robert T Mallet
Ethanol intoxication and withdrawal exact a devastating toll on the central nervous system. Abrupt ethanol withdrawal provokes massive release of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, which over-activates its postsynaptic receptors, causing intense Ca(2+) loading, p38 mitogen activated protein kinase activation and oxidative stress, culminating in ATP depletion, mitochondrial injury, amyloid β deposition and neuronal death. Collectively, these mechanisms produce neurocognitive and sensorimotor dysfunction that discourages continued abstinence...
August 12, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808059/linchpin-dna-binding-residues-serve-as-go-no-go-controls-in-the-replication-factor-c-catalyzed-clamp-loading-mechanism
#8
Juan Liu, Yayan Zhou, Manju M Hingorani
DNA polymerases depend on circular sliding clamps for processive replication. Clamps must be loaded onto primer-template DNA (ptDNA) by clamp loaders that open and close clamps around ptDNA in an ATP-fueled reaction. All clamp loaders share a core structure in which five subunits form a spiral chamber that binds the clamp at its base in a twisted open form and encloses ptDNA within, while binding and hydrolyzing ATP to topologically link the clamp and ptDNA. To understand how clamp loaders perform this complex task, here we focused on conserved arginines that might play a central coordinating role in the mechanism, since they can alternately contact ptDNA or Walker B glutamate in the ATPase site, and lie close to the clamp loader-clamp binding interface...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804999/diversity-of-astroglial-responses-across-human-neurodegenerative-disorders-and-brain-aging
#9
Isidro Ferrer
Astrogliopathy refers to alterations of astrocytes occurring in diseases of the nervous system, and it implies the involvement of astrocytes as key elements in the pathogenesis and pathology of diseases and injuries of the central nervous system. Reactive astrocytosis refers to the response of astrocytes to different insults to the nervous system, whereas astrocytopathy indicates hypertrophy, atrophy/degeneration and loss of function and pathological remodeling occurring as a primary cause of a disease or as a factor contributing to the development and progression of a particular disease...
September 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804802/improvement-of-glycerol-catabolism-in-bacillus-licheniformis-for-production-of-poly-%C3%AE-glutamic-acid
#10
Yangyang Zhan, Chengjun Zhu, Bojie Sheng, Dongbo Cai, Qin Wang, Zhiyou Wen, Shouwen Chen
Bacillus licheniformis WX-02 is a well-studied strain to produce poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) with numerous applications. This study is to improve WX-02 strain's capability of assimilating glycerol, a major byproduct of biofuels industries, through metabolic manipulation. Through gene knockout, the GlpK pathway was identified as the sole functional glycerol catabolism pathway, while the DhaK pathway was inactive for this strain under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The enhancement of glycerol utilization was attempted by substituting the native glpFK promoter with the constitutive promoter (P43), ytzE promoter (PytzE), and bacABC operon promoter (PbacA), respectively...
August 13, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802275/response-of-methylocystis-sp-strain-sc2-to-salt-stress-physiology-global-transcriptome-and-amino-acid-profiles
#11
Dongfei Han, Hannes Link, Werner Liesack
Soil microorganisms have to rapidly respond to salt-induced osmotic stress. Type II methanotrophs of the genus Methylocystis are widely distributed in upland soils, but are known to have a low salt tolerance. Here, we tested the ability of Methylocystis sp. strain SC2 to adapt to increased salinity. When exposed to 0.75% NaCl, methane oxidation was completely inhibited for 2.25 h and fully recovered within 6 h. Growth was inhibited for 23.5 h and then fully recovered. Its transcriptome was profiled after 0 min (control), 45 min (early response) and 14 h (late response) of stress exposure...
August 11, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802074/altered-amino-acid-concentrations-in-nafld-impact-of-obesity-and-insulin-resistance
#12
Melania Gaggini, Fabrizia Carli, Chiara Rosso, Emma Buzzigoli, Milena Marietti, Veronica Della Latta, Demetrio Ciociaro, Maria Lorena Abate, Roberto Gambino, Maurizio Cassader, Elisabetta Bugianesi, Amalia Gastaldelli
Plasma concentrations of amino acids (AA), in particular branched chain (BCAA), are often found increased in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, if this is due to increased muscular protein catabolism, obesity and/or increased insulin resistance (IR) or impaired tissue metabolism is not known. Thus, we evaluated a) if subjects with NAFLD non-obese (NAFLD-NO), compared to obese (NAFLD-Ob) display altered plasma AA compared to controls (CT); b) if AA concentrations are associated to IR and liver histology...
August 12, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800966/reconstruction-of-a-metabolic-regulatory-network-in-escherichia-coli-for-purposeful-switching-from-cell-growth-mode-to-production-mode-in-direct-gaba-fermentation-from-glucose
#13
Yuki Soma, Yuri Fujiwara, Takuya Nakagawa, Keigo Tsuruno, Taizo Hanai
γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a drug and functional food additive and is used as a monomer for producing the biodegradable plastic, polyamide 4. Recently, direct GABA fermentation from glucose has been developed as an alternative to glutamate-based whole cell bioconversion. Although total productivity in fermentation is determined by the specific productivity and cell amount responsible for GABA production, the optimal metabolic state for GABA production conflicts with that for bacterial cell growth. Herein, we demonstrated metabolic state switching from the cell growth mode based on the metabolic pathways of the wild type strain to a GABA production mode based on a synthetic metabolic pathway in Escherichia coli through rewriting of the metabolic regulatory network and pathway engineering...
August 8, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798756/aerial-warfare-a-volatile-dialogue-between-the-plant-pathogen-verticillium-longisporum-and-its-antagonist-paenibacillus-polymyxa
#14
Daria Rybakova, Ute Rack-Wetzlinger, Tomislav Cernava, Angelika Schaefer, Maria Schmuck, Gabriele Berg
Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium spp. results in severe yield losses in a broad range of crops. Verticillium outbreaks are challenging to control, and exacerbated by increases in soil temperatures and drought associated with global warming. Employing natural antagonists as biocontrol agents offers a promising approach to addressing this challenge. Paenibacillus polymyxa Sb3-1 was proven to reduce the growth of Verticillium longisporum during in vitro experiments and was shown to promote the growth of oilseed rape seedlings infested with V...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794442/the-conserved-lysine-265-allosterically-modulates-nucleotide-and-actin-binding-site-coupling-in-myosin-2
#15
Vincent A Behrens, Stefan Münnich, Georg Adler-Gunzelmann, Claudia Thiel, Arnon Henn, Sharissa L Latham, Manuel H Taft
Myosin motor proteins convert chemical energy into force and movement through their interactions with nucleotide and filamentous actin (F-actin). The evolutionarily conserved lysine-265 (K265) of the myosin-2 motor from Dictyostelium discoideum (Dd) is proposed to be a key residue in an allosteric communication pathway that mediates actin-nucleotide coupling. To better understand the role of K265, point mutations were introduced within the Dd myosin-2 M765-2R framework, replacing this lysine with alanine (K265A), glutamic acid (K265E) or glutamine (K265Q), and the functional and kinetic properties of the resulting myosin motors were assessed...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790999/immunization-with-recombinant-tcdb-encapsulated-nanocomplex-induces-protection-against-clostridium-difficile-challenge-in-a-mouse-model
#16
Yi-Wen Liu, Yu-Hung Chen, Jenn-Wei Chen, Pei-Jane Tsai, I-Hsiu Huang
Clostridium difficile is considered to be one of the major cause of infectious diarrhea in healthcare systems worldwide. Symptoms of C. difficile infection are caused largely by the production of two cytotoxins: toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB). Vaccine development is considered desirable as it would decrease the mounting medical costs and mortality associated with C. difficile infections. Biodegradable nanoparticles composed of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) and chitosan have proven to be a safe and effective antigen delivery system for many viral vaccines...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783731/metabolic-control-of-th17-and-induced-treg-cell-balance-by-an-epigenetic-mechanism
#17
Tao Xu, Kelly M Stewart, Xiaohu Wang, Kai Liu, Min Xie, Jae Kyu Ryu, Ke Li, Tianhua Ma, Haixia Wang, Lu Ni, Saiyong Zhu, Nan Cao, Dongwei Zhu, Yu Zhang, Katerina Akassoglou, Chen Dong, Edward M Driggers, Sheng Ding
Metabolism has been shown to integrate with epigenetics and transcription to modulate cell fate and function. Beyond meeting the bioenergetic and biosynthetic demands of T-cell differentiation, whether metabolism might control T-cell fate by an epigenetic mechanism is unclear. Here, through the discovery and mechanistic characterization of a small molecule, (aminooxy)acetic acid, that reprograms the differentiation of T helper 17 (TH17) cells towards induced regulatory T (iTreg) cells, we show that increased transamination, mainly catalysed by GOT1, leads to increased levels of 2-hydroxyglutarate in differentiating TH17 cells...
August 2, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780379/proinflammatory-cytokine-mif-plays-a-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-but-does-not-affect-hepatic-mitochondrial-function
#18
Miriam Rodriguez-Sosa, Tecilli Cabellos-Avelar, Yuriko Sanchez-Zamora, Imelda Juárez-Avelar, Esperanza García-Reyes, Alejandra Lira-León, José Del Carmen Benítez-Flores, Thalia Pacheco-Fernández, Marcia Hiriart, Emma Berta Gutiérrez-Cirlos
BACKGROUND: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Although the effect of high glucose on liver function has been described, the role of MIF in hepatic mitochondrial function during T2DM has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: We examine the influence of MIF to hepatic mitochondrial function in T2DM mouse model. METHODS: WT and Mif(-/-) BALB/c mice were treated with a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ)...
August 2, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777375/inhibition-of-bcl-xl-prevents-pro-death-actions-of-%C3%AE-n-bcl-xl-at-the-mitochondrial-inner-membrane-during-glutamate-excitotoxicity
#19
Han-A Park, Pawel Licznerski, Nelli Mnatsakanyan, Yulong Niu, Silvio Sacchetti, Jing Wu, Brian M Polster, Kambiz N Alavian, Elizabeth A Jonas
ABT-737 is a pharmacological inhibitor of the anti-apoptotic activity of B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) protein; it promotes apoptosis of cancer cells by occupying the BH3-binding pocket. We have shown previously that ABT-737 lowers cell metabolic efficiency by inhibiting ATP synthase activity. However, we also found that ABT-737 protects rodent brain from ischemic injury in vivo by inhibiting formation of the pro-apoptotic, cleaved form of Bcl-xL, ΔN-Bcl-xL. We now report that a high concentration of ABT-737 (1 μM), or a more selective Bcl-xL inhibitor WEHI-539 (5 μM) enhances glutamate-induced neurotoxicity while a low concentration of ABT-737 (10 nM) or WEHI-539 (10 nM) is neuroprotective...
August 4, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776982/flux-analysis-of-free-amino-sugars-and-amino-acids-in-soils-by-isotope-tracing-with-a-novel-liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-platform
#20
Yuntao Hu, Qing Zheng, Wolfgang Wanek
Soil fluxomics analysis can provide pivotal information for understanding soil biochemical pathways and their regulation, but direct measurement methods are rare. Here, we describe an approach to measure soil extracellular metabolite (amino sugar and amino acid) concentrations and fluxes based on a (15)N isotope pool dilution technique via liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. We produced commercially unavailable (15)N and (13)C labeled amino sugars and amino acids by hydrolyzing peptidoglycan isolated from isotopically labeled bacterial biomass and used them as tracers ((15)N) and internal standards ((13)C)...
August 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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