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glutamate production

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457850/preparation-aroma-characteristics-and-volatile-compounds-of-flavorings-from-enzymatic-hydrolyzed-rice-bran-protein-concentrate
#1
Supeeraya Arsa, Chockchai Theerakulkait
BACKGROUND: Rice bran is by-product obtained from the rice milling industry. The aims of this research were to add value of rice bran by preparation of enzymatic hydrolyzed rice bran protein concentrate (HRPC) as a flavoring agent and the flavoring which was produced by HRPC has not been discovered. Different drying methods (freeze drying and spray drying) and fructose additions were studied for improvement of rice bran protein sensorial aroma characteristics. RESULTS: the most abundant amino acids in liquid HRPC (LH) were glutamic acid, arginine, aspartic acid and leucine, respectively...
February 19, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452187/purification-of-extra-cellular-poly-%C3%AE-glutamic-acid-as-an-antibacterial-agent-using-anion-exchange-chromatography
#2
M Ijadi Bajestani, S M Mousavi, S B Mousavi, A Jafari, S A Shojaosadati
BLAST analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence for the newly isolated bacterium, revealed significant identity (99.5%) with Bacillus sonorensis [Ijadi Bajestani, M., et al., International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2017. 96: p. 100-110]. According to the literature review for closely related species of Bacillus sonorensis, the production of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) as an extra cellular biopolymer was investigated for the isolated bacteria which is deposited in IBRC (Iranian Biological Resource Center) as Bacillus sp...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449937/thermal-decomposition-of-the-amino-acids-glycine-cysteine-aspartic-acid-asparagine-glutamic-acid-glutamine-arginine-and-histidine
#3
Ingrid M Weiss, Christina Muth, Robert Drumm, Helmut O K Kirchner
Background: The pathways of thermal instability of amino acids have been unknown. New mass spectrometric data allow unequivocal quantitative identification of the decomposition products. Results: Calorimetry, thermogravimetry and mass spectrometry were used to follow the thermal decomposition of the eight amino acids G, C, D, N, E, Q, R and H between 185 °C and 280 °C. Endothermic heats of decomposition between 72 and 151 kJ/mol are needed to form 12 to 70% volatile products...
2018: BMC Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446806/divergent-functional-roles-of-d-amino-acids-secreted-by-vibrio-cholerae
#4
REVIEW
Felipe Cava
The L-forms of amino acids are used in all kingdoms of life to synthesize proteins. However, the bacterium Vibriocholerae, the causative agent of cholera, produces D-amino acids which are released to the environment at millimolar concentrations. We baptized these D-amino acids as non-canonical D-amino acids (NCDAAs) since they are different from those (i.e. D-alanine and D-glutamate) normally present in the bacterial cell wall. In V. cholerae, production of NCDAAs relies on the BsrV enzyme, a periplasmic broad spectrum racemase...
September 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444988/nmda-type-glutamate-receptor-activation-promotes-vascular-remodeling-and-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#5
Sébastien J Dumas, Gilles Bru-Mercier, Audrey Courboulin, Marceau Quatredeniers, Catherine Rücker-Martin, Fabrice Antigny, Morad K Nakhleh, Benoit Ranchoux, Elodie Gouadon, Maria-Candida Vinhas, Matthieu Vocelle, Nicolas Raymond, Peter Dorfmüller, Elie Fadel, Frédéric Perros, Marc Humbert, Sylvia Cohen-Kaminsky
Background -Excessive proliferation and apoptosis resistance in pulmonary vascular cells underlie vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Specific treatments for PAH exist, mostly targeting endothelial dysfunction, but high pulmonary arterial pressure still causes heart failure and death. Pulmonary vascular remodeling may be driven by metabolic reprogramming of vascular cells to increase glutaminolysis and glutamate production. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), a major neuronal glutamate receptor, is also expressed on vascular cells, but its role in PAH is unknown...
February 14, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444621/excitotoxicity-in-the-pathogenesis-of-neurological-and-psychiatric-disorders-therapeutic-implications
#6
Jordi Olloquequi, Elizabeth Cornejo-Córdova, Ester Verdaguer, Francesc X Soriano, Octavio Binvignat, Carme Auladell, Antoni Camins
Neurological and psychiatric disorders are leading contributors to the global disease burden, having a serious impact on the quality of life of both patients and their relatives. Although the molecular events underlying these heterogeneous diseases remain poorly understood, some studies have raised the idea of common mechanisms involved. In excitotoxicity, there is an excessive activation of glutamate receptors by excitatory amino acids, leading to neuronal damage. Thus, the excessive release of glutamate can lead to a dysregulation of Ca 2+ homeostasis, triggering the production of free radicals and oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and eventually cell death...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441491/in-silico-preliminary-association-of-ammonia-metabolism-genes-gls-cps1-and-glul-with-risk-of-alzheimer-s-disease-major-depressive-disorder-and-type-2-diabetes
#7
Jeddidiah W D Griffin, Ying Liu, Patrick C Bradshaw, Kesheng Wang
Ammonia is a toxic by-product of protein catabolism and is involved in changes in glutamate metabolism. Therefore, ammonia metabolism genes may link a range of diseases involving glutamate signaling such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and type 2 diabetes (T2D). We analyzed data from a National Institute on Aging study with a family-based design to determine if 45 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in glutaminase (GLS), carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1), or glutamate-ammonia ligase (GLUL) genes were associated with AD, MDD, or T2D using PLINK software...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438802/endocannabinoid-signaling-in-embryonic-neuronal-motility-and-cell-cell-contact-role-of-mglur5-and-trpc3-channels
#8
Pauli M Turunen, Lauri M Louhivuori, Verna Louhivuori, Jyrki P Kukkonen, Karl E Åkerman
Cell-cell communication plays a central role in the guidance of migrating neuronal precursor cells during the development of the cerebral cortex. Endocannabinoids (eCBs) have previously been shown to be one of the central factors regulating neuronal migration. In this study the effects of eCBs on different parameters, expected to affect embryonic cortical neuronal motility have been analyzed in neurosphere derived neuroblasts using time-lapse microscopy. Increased endogenous production of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG) causes bursts of neuroblast motility...
February 10, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432726/co-expression-of-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-and-protein-gene-product-9-5-surrounding-the-lumen-of-human-schlemm-s-canal
#9
Pingting Ji, Liwen Chen, Jieling Gong, Yuxiang Yuan, Mu Li, Yin Zhao, Hong Zhang
Previous studies of aqueous humor outflow have focused primarily on resistance at the trabecular meshwork (TM), and little is known about the function of Schlemm's canal (SC). Here, we aimed to investigate whether SC is innervated by the peripheral nervous system. Ten eye specimens from eight donors were processed for histological analysis. CD31 was used to identify SC, after which we used protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 as a marker to detect nerve fibers around SC. We then characterized the nerves by double staining for PGP9...
February 9, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432647/efficient-production-of-trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline-from-glucose-by-metabolic-engineering-of-recombinant-escherichia-coli
#10
Hong-Lei Zhang, Chao Zhang, Chao-Hong Pei, Meng-Nan Han, Zhi-Dong Xu, Cun-Hui Li, Wei Li
Trans-4-Hydroxy-L-proline (trans-Hyp) is a valuable chiral building block for the synthesis of pharmaceutical intermediates. Bioconversion of L-proline using recombinant strain with proline-4-hydroxylase (P4H) is a preferred biocatalytic process in the economical production of trans-Hyp. In the present study, a recombinant E. coli overexpressing hydroxylase (P4H), γ-glutamyl kinase and glutamate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ProBA) genes were constructed by knocking out the key genes in the metabolism. These key genes contained putA encoding proline dehydrogenase (PutA) in the L-proline metabolism and other catalytic enzyme genes, sucAB encoding α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (SucAB), aceAK encoding isocitratelyase (AceA) and isocitrate dehydrogenase kinase/phosphatase (AceK) in the TCA cycle...
February 12, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428756/effect-of-adding-clay-with-or-without-a-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-fermentation-product-on-the-health-and-performance-of-lactating-dairy-cows-challenged-with-dietary-aflatoxin-b1
#11
Y Jiang, I M Ogunade, D H Kim, X Li, A A Pech-Cervantes, K G Arriola, A S Oliveira, J P Driver, L F Ferraretto, C R Staples, D Vyas, A T Adesogan
The study was conducted to examine the effect of supplementing bentonite clay with or without a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP; 19 g of NutriTek + 16 g of MetaShield, both from Diamond V, Cedar Rapids, IA) on the performance and health of dairy cows challenged with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Twenty-four lactating Holstein cows (64 ± 11 d in milk) were stratified by parity and milk production and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment sequences. The experiment had a balanced 4 × 4 Latin square design with 6 replicate squares, four 33-d periods, and a 5-d washout interval between periods...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425869/fluorescence-studies-on-the-aggregation-behaviors-of-collagen-modified-with-nhs-activated-poly-%C3%AE-glutamic-acid
#12
Min Zhang, Junhui Yang, Qili Yang, Liulian Huang, Hui Wu, Lihui Chen, Cuicui Ding
The poly(γ-glutamic acid)-NHS (γ-PGA-NHS) esters were used to endow collagen with both of excellent water-solubility and thermal stability via cross-linking reaction between γ-PGA-NHS and collagen. In the present work, the effect of γ-PGA-NHS on the aggregation of collagen molecules was studied by fluorescence techniques. The fluorescence emission spectra of pyrene in collagen solutions and the intrinsic fluorescence emission spectra of collagen suggested different effects of γ-PGA-NHS on collagen molecules: inhibiting aggregation below critical aggregation concentration (CAC) and promoting aggregation above CAC...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425760/agathisflavone-a-flavonoid-derived-from-poincianella-pyramidalis-tul-enhances-neuronal-population-and-protects-against-glutamate-excitotoxicity
#13
Cleide Dos Santos Souza, Maria Socorro Grangeiro, Erica Patricia Lima Pereira, Cleonice Creusa Dos Santos, Alessandra Bispo da Silva, Geraldo Pedral Sampaio, Daiana Dias Ribeiro Figueiredo, Jorge Mauricio David, Juceni Pereira David, Victor Diogenes Amaral da Silva, Arthur Morgan Butt, Silvia Lima Costa
Flavonoids are bioactive compounds that are known to be neuroprotective against glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, one of the major causes of neurodegeneration. The mechanisms underlying these effects are unresolved, but recent evidence indicates flavonoids may modulate estrogen signaling, which can delay the onset and ameliorate the severity of neurodegenerative disorders. Furthermore, the roles played by glial cells in the neuroprotective effects of flavonoids are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the flavonoid agathisflavone (FAB) in primary neuron-glial co-cultures from postnatal rat cerebral cortex...
February 6, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422839/exercise-induced-fatigue-impairs-bidirectional-corticostriatal-synaptic-plasticity
#14
Jing Ma, Huimin Chen, Xiaoli Liu, Lingtao Zhang, Decai Qiao
Exercise-induced fatigue (EF) is a ubiquitous phenomenon in sports competition and training. It can impair athletes' motor skill execution and cognition. Corticostriatal synaptic plasticity is considered to be the cellular mechanism of movement control and motor learning. However, the effect of EF on corticostriatal synaptic plasticity remains elusive. In the present study, using field excitatory postsynaptic potential recording, we found that the corticostriatal long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) were both impaired in EF mice...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422330/enhancement-of-cell-growth-and-phycocyanin-production-in-arthrospira-spirulina-platensis-by-metabolic-stress-and-nitrate-fed-batch
#15
Emmanuel Manirafasha, Theophile Murwanashyaka, Theoneste Ndikubwimana, Nur Rashid Ahmed, Jingyi Liu, Yinghua Lu, Xianhai Zeng, Xueping Ling, Keju Jing
Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis is known to have high-quality proteins content and phycocyanin as one of the major pigment constituents of the cells, and the most challenging problem associated with phycocyanin production in Arthrospira is to optimize its intracellular accumulation. The present study evaluated the metabolic stress conditions (by nutrient enrichment) of Arthrospira platensis FACHB-314 for boosting biomass growth and high content phycocyanin accumulation. Experimental results showed that 5 mM sodium glutamate and 7...
December 23, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421593/protective-effects-of-a-traditional-chinese-herbal-formula-jiang-xian-hugan-on-concanavalin-a-induced-mouse-hepatitis-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-nrf2-signaling-pathways
#16
Huan-Huan Tang, Hai-Long Li, Yue-Xuan Li, Yan You, Yun-Yun Guan, Su-Lin Zhang, Li-Xin Liu, Wei-Lian Bao, Yong Zhou, Xiao-Yan Shen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Jiang-Xian HuGan (JXHG) formulated by five natural products including Freshwater clam (Corbicula fluminea), Curcuma longa L., Ligustrum lucidum, Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. and Paeonia lactiflora Pall., has exhibited a great hepatoprotective effect. AIM OF THIS STUDY: We investigated the effect of JXHG on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced acute live injury in mice, and to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Jiangkanling Capsule (900mg/kg), low-dose JXHG (LJXHG, 700mg/kg), high-dose JXHG (HJXHG, 1400mg/kg) were administered to mice by oral gavage daily for 20 days prior to a single intravenous injection of ConA (20mg/kg)...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420880/multifunctional-polymeric-micelles-with-amplified-fenton-reaction-for-tumor-ablation
#17
Yuheng Wang, Wei Yin, Wendong Ke, Weijian Chen, Chuanxin He, Zhishen Ge
Relative to normal cells, tumor cells lack adequate capability of reactive oxygen scavenging. Thus, tumor cells can be selectively killed by increasing the concentration of reactive oxygen species in tumor tissue. In this report, we construct an integrated multifunctional polymeric nanoparticle which can selectively improve hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels in tumor tissue and convert them into more active hydroxyl radicals by Fenton reaction. First, the diblock copolymers containing polyethylene glycol (PEG) and poly(glutamic acid) modified by β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) were synthesized...
February 8, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417763/combined-treatment-with-a-selective-pde10a-inhibitor-tak-063-and-either-haloperidol-or-olanzapine-at-subeffective-doses-produces-potent-antipsychotic-like-effects-without-affecting-plasma-prolactin-levels-and-cataleptic-responses-in-rodents
#18
Kazunori Suzuki, Akina Harada, Hirobumi Suzuki, Clizia Capuani, Annarosa Ugolini, Mauro Corsi, Haruhide Kimura
Activation of indirect pathway medium spiny neurons (MSNs) via promotion of cAMP production is the principal mechanism of action of current antipsychotics with dopamine D2 receptor antagonism. TAK-063 [1-[2-fluoro-4-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)phenyl]-5-methoxy-3-(1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)pyridazin-4(1H)-one] is a novel phosphodiesterase 10A inhibitor that activates both direct and indirect pathway MSNs through increasing both cAMP and cGMP levels by inhibition of their degradation. The activation of indirect pathway MSNs through the distinct mechanism of action of these drugs raises the possibility of augmented pharmacological effects by combination therapy...
February 2018: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417050/d-amino-acid-oxidase-plg72-interaction-and-d-serine-modulation
#19
REVIEW
Loredano Pollegioni, Luciano Piubelli, Gianluca Molla, Elena Rosini
pLG72 is a small, primate-specific protein of 153 amino acids. It is the product of the G72 gene, expressed in testis, spinal cord, and brain. The presence of G72 transcript and pLG72 has recurrently been called into question, however G72 mRNA and pLG72 protein levels were higher in blood and brain of patients with schizophrenia than in healthy controls. On the one hand, the SNP rs2391191 corresponding to the R30K substitution in pLG72 was genetically linked to schizophrenia, reduced thickness of the brain cortex in schizophrenia-affected individuals, and altered memory function...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416686/exosomes-released-by-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-1-grm1-expressing-melanoma-cells-increase-cell-migration-and-invasiveness
#20
Allison L Isola, Kevinn Eddy, Krzysztof Zembrzuski, James S Goydos, Suzie Chen
Exosomes are naturally occurring membrane-bound nanovesicles generated constitutively and released by various cell types, and often in higher quantities by tumor cells. Exosomes may facilitate communication between the primary tumor and its local microenvironment, supporting cell invasion and other early events in metastasis. A neuronal receptor, metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (GRM1), when ectopically expressed in melanocytes, induces in vitro melanocytic transformation and spontaneous malignant melanoma development in vivo in a transgenic mouse model...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
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