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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444480/model-based-biotechnological-potential-analysis-of-kluyveromyces-marxianus-central-metabolism
#1
A Pentjuss, E Stalidzans, J Liepins, A Kokina, J Martynova, P Zikmanis, I Mozga, R Scherbaka, H Hartman, M G Poolman, D A Fell, A Vigants
The non-conventional yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus is an emerging industrial producer for many biotechnological processes. Here, we show the application of a biomass-linked stoichiometric model of central metabolism that is experimentally validated, and mass and charge balanced for assessing the carbon conversion efficiency of wild type and modified K. marxianus. Pairs of substrates (lactose, glucose, inulin, xylose) and products (ethanol, acetate, lactate, glycerol, ethyl acetate, succinate, glutamate, phenylethanol and phenylalanine) are examined by various modelling and optimisation methods...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439016/astrocytes-locally-translate-transcripts-in-their-peripheral-processes
#2
Kristina Sakers, Allison M Lake, Rohan Khazanchi, Rebecca Ouwenga, Michael J Vasek, Adish Dani, Joseph D Dougherty
Local translation in neuronal processes is key to the alteration of synaptic strength necessary for long-term potentiation, learning, and memory. Here, we present evidence that regulated de novo protein synthesis occurs within distal, perisynaptic astrocyte processes. Astrocyte ribosomal proteins are found adjacent to synapses in vivo, and immunofluorescent detection of peptide elongation in acute slices demonstrates robust translation in distal processes. We have also developed a biochemical approach to define candidate transcripts that are locally translated in astrocyte processes...
April 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438014/characterization-of-a-glutamate-decarboxylase-gad-from-enterococcus-avium-m5-isolated-from-jeotgal-a-fermented-korean-sea-food
#3
Kang Wook Lee, Jae Min Shim, Zhuang Yao, Jeong A Kim, Hyun-Jin Kim, Jeong Hwan Kim
To develop starters for the production of functional foods or materials, lactic acid bacteria producing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were screened from jeotgals, Korean fermented sea foods. One isolate producing high amount of GABA from monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) was identified as Enterococcus avium by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. E. avium M5 produced 18.47 ± 1.26 mg/ml GABA when incubated for 48 h at 37°C in MRS broth with MSG (3%, w/v). A gadB gene encoding glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) was cloned and overexpressed in E...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436007/overexpression-of-the-regulatory-subunit-of-glutamate-cysteine-ligase-enhances-monoclonal-antibody-production-in-cho-cells
#4
Camila A Orellana, Esteban Marcellin, Peter P Gray, Lars K Nielsen
For decades, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells have been the preferred host for therapeutic monoclonal antibody (mAb) production; however, increasing mAb titer by rational engineering remains a challenge. Our previous proteomic analysis in CHO cells suggested that a higher content of glutathione (GSH) might be related to higher productivity. GSH is an important antioxidant, cell detoxifier, and is required to ensure the formation of native disulfide bonds in proteins. To investigate the involvement of GSH in mAb production, we generated stable CHO cell lines overexpressing genes involved in the first step of GSH synthesis; namely the glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (Gclc) and the glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (Gclm)...
April 24, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429368/-aralar-agc1-deficiency-a-neurodevelopmental-disorder-with-severe-impairment-of-neuronal-mitochondrial-respiration-does-not-produce-a-primary-increase-in-brain-lactate
#5
Inés Juaristi, María L García-Martin, Tiago B Rodrigues, Jorgina Satrústegui, Irene Llorente-Folch, Beatriz Pardo
ARALAR/AGC1 (aspartate-glutamate mitochondrial carrier 1) is an important component of the NADH malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS). AGC1-deficiency is a rare disease causing global cerebral hypomyelination, developmental arrest, hypotonia, and epilepsy (OMIM ID #612949); the aralar-KO mouse recapitulates the major findings in humans. This study was aimed at understanding the impact of ARALAR-deficiency in brain lactate levels as a biomarker. We report that lactate was equally abundant in wild-type and aralar-KO mouse brain in vivo at PND 17...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427419/tnf-%C3%AE-promotes-extracellular-vesicle-release-in-mouse-astrocytes-through-glutaminase
#6
Kaizhe Wang, Ling Ye, Hongfang Lu, Huili Chen, Yanyan Zhang, Yunlong Huang, Jialin C Zheng
BACKGROUND: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-contained vesicles shed from cells. EVs contain proteins, lipids, and nucleotides, all of which play important roles in intercellular communication. The release of EVs is known to increase during neuroinflammation. Glutaminase, a mitochondrial enzyme that converts glutamine to glutamate, has been implicated in the biogenesis of EVs. We have previously demonstrated that TNF-α promotes glutaminase expression in neurons. However, the expression and the functionality of glutaminase in astrocytes during neuroinflammation remain unknown...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424047/deciphering-mechanisms-underlying-the-genetic-variation-of-general-production-and-liver-quality-traits-in-the-overfed-mule-duck-by-pqtl-analyses
#7
Yoannah François, Alain Vignal, Caroline Molette, Nathalie Marty-Gasset, Stéphane Davail, Laurence Liaubet, Christel Marie-Etancelin
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyse the mechanisms that underlie phenotypic quantitative trait loci (QTL) in overfed mule ducks by identifying co-localized proteomic QTL (pQTL). The QTL design consisted of three families of common ducks that were progeny-tested by using 294 male mule ducks. This population of common ducks was genotyped using a genetic map that included 334 genetic markers located across 28 APL chromosomes (APL for Anas platyrhynchos). Mule ducks were phenotyped for 49 traits related to growth, metabolism, overfeeding ability and meat and fatty liver quality, and 326 soluble fatty liver proteins were quantified...
April 19, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423341/glutathione-primes-t-cell-metabolism-for-inflammation
#8
Tak W Mak, Melanie Grusdat, Gordon S Duncan, Catherine Dostert, Yannic Nonnenmacher, Maureen Cox, Carole Binsfeld, Zhenyue Hao, Anne Brüstle, Momoe Itsumi, Christian Jäger, Ying Chen, Olaf Pinkenburg, Bärbel Camara, Markus Ollert, Carsten Bindslev-Jensen, Vasilis Vasiliou, Chiara Gorrini, Philipp A Lang, Michael Lohoff, Isaac S Harris, Karsten Hiller, Dirk Brenner
Activated T cells produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), which trigger the antioxidative glutathione (GSH) response necessary to buffer rising ROS and prevent cellular damage. We report that GSH is essential for T cell effector functions through its regulation of metabolic activity. Conditional gene targeting of the catalytic subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (Gclc) blocked GSH production specifically in murine T cells. Gclc-deficient T cells initially underwent normal activation but could not meet their increased energy and biosynthetic requirements...
April 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422217/increased-substrate-affinity-in-the-escherichia-coli-l28r-dihydrofolate-reductase-mutant-causes-trimethoprim-resistance
#9
Haleh Abdizadeh, Yusuf Talha Tamer, Omer Acar, Erdal Toprak, Ali Rana Atilgan, Canan Atilgan
Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is a ubiquitous enzyme with an essential role in cell metabolism. DHFR catalyzes the reduction of dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate, which is a precursor for purine and thymidylate synthesis. Several DHFR targeting antifolate drugs including trimethoprim, a competitive antibacterial inhibitor, have therefore been developed and are clinically used. Evolution of resistance against antifolates is a common public health problem rendering these drugs ineffective. To combat the resistance problem, it is important to understand resistance-conferring changes in the DHFR structure and accordingly develop alternative strategies...
April 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420170/fisetin-protects-pc12-cells-from-tunicamycin-mediated-cell-death-via-reactive-oxygen-species-scavenging-and-modulation-of-nrf2-driven-gene-expression-sirt1-and-mapk-signaling-in-pc12-cells
#10
Jui-Hung Yen, Pei-Shan Wu, Shu-Fen Chen, Ming-Jiuan Wu
BACKGROUND: Fisetin (3,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a dietary flavonol and exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective activities. However, high concentration of fisetin is reported to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and cause cytotoxicity in cancer cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the cytoprotective effects of low concentration of fisetin against tunicamycin (Tm)-mediated cytotoxicity in neuronal-like catecholaminergic PC12 cells...
April 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404805/mutant-idh1-and-seizures-in-patients-with-glioma
#11
Hao Chen, Jonathon Judkins, Cheddhi Thomas, Meijing Wu, Laith Khoury, Carolina G Benjamin, Donato Pacione, John G Golfinos, Priya Kumthekar, Farhad Ghamsari, Li Chen, Pamela Lein, Dane M Chetkovich, Matija Snuderl, Craig Horbinski
OBJECTIVE: Because the d-2-hydroxyglutarate (D2HG) product of mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1(mut)) is released by tumor cells into the microenvironment and is structurally similar to the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, we sought to determine whether IDH1(mut) increases the risk of seizures in patients with glioma, and whether D2HG increases the electrical activity of neurons. METHODS: Three WHO grade II-IV glioma cohorts from separate institutions (total N = 712) were retrospectively assessed for the presence of preoperative seizures and tumor location, WHO grade, 1p/19q codeletion, and IDH1(mut) status...
April 12, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400209/astaxanthin-attenuates-glutamate-induced-apoptosis-via-inhibition-of-calcium-influx-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#12
Xiaotong Lin, Yan Zhao, Shanhe Li
Astaxanthin (AST) is a carotenoid that has been shown to have neuroprotective effects. In this study, it was found that AST significantly inhibited glutamate-induced loss of cell viability and apoptosis. AST pretreatment attenuated glutamate-induced activation of caspase-3, reduction of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, and increase of pro-apoptotic protein Bak. In addition, AST pretreatment suppressed the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species. AST treatment also prevented glutamate-induced increase of the level of activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which has been shown to promote apoptotic events...
April 8, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400023/effect-of-salt-addition-on-acid-resistance-response-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-against-acetic-acid
#13
Young-Min Bae, Sun-Young Lee
A combination of salt and acid is commonly used in the production of many foods, such as pickles and fermented foods. However, in our previous studies, addition of salt significantly reduced the inhibitory effect of acetic acid against E. coli O157:H7 in laboratory media and pickled cucumbers. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effect of salt addition on the acid resistance (AR) response of E. coli O157:H7 after treatment with acetic acid. The combined effect of acetic acid and salt showed different results depending on media tested...
August 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397779/the-transmembrane-morphogenesis-protein-gp1-of-filamentous-phages-contains-walker-a-and-walker-b-motifs-essential-for-phage-assembly
#14
Belinda Loh, Maximilian Haase, Lukas Mueller, Andreas Kuhn, Sebastian Leptihn
In contrast to lytic phages, filamentous phages are assembled in the inner membrane and secreted across the bacterial envelope without killing the host. For assembly and extrusion of the phage across the host cell wall, filamentous phages code for membrane-embedded morphogenesis proteins. In the outer membrane of Escherichia coli, the protein gp4 forms a pore-like structure, while gp1 and gp11 form a complex in the inner membrane of the host. By comparing sequences with other filamentous phages, we identified putative Walker A and B motifs in gp1 with a conserved lysine in the Walker A motif (K14), and a glutamic and aspartic acid in the Walker B motif (D88, E89)...
April 9, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394604/neuroprotective-activity-of-cerebrosides-from-typhonium-giganteum-by-regulating-caspase-3-and-bax-bcl-2-signaling-pathways-in-pc12-cells
#15
Yang Jin, Jun-Ting Fan, Xiao-Ling Gu, Li-Ying Zhang, Jing Han, Shu-Hu Du, Ai-Xia Zhang
An investigation of the potential neuroprotective natural product constituents of the rhizomes of Typhonium giganteum led to the isolation of two new cerebrosides, typhonosides B (1) and C (2), along with 11 known analogues (3-13). The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation. The activity of these compounds against glutamate-induced cell apoptosis was investigated in PC12 cells. All compounds exhibited such activity, which was related to the length of the fatty acyl chain...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392541/analysis-of-strain-specific-genes-in-glutamic-acid-producing-corynebacterium-glutamicum-ssp-lactofermentum-aj-1511
#16
Yousuke Nishio, Chie Koseki, Naoto Tonouchi, Kazuhiko Matsui, Shinichi Sugimoto, Yoshihiro Usuda
Strains of the bacterium, Corynebacterium glutamicum, are widely used for the industrial production of L-glutamic acid and various other substances. C. glutamicum ssp. lactofermentum AJ 1511, formerly classified as Brevibacterium lactofermentum, and the closely related C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 have been used as industrial strains for more than 50 years. We determined the whole genome sequence of C. glutamicum AJ 1511 and performed genome-wide comparative analysis with C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 to determine strain-specific genetic differences...
April 7, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389405/delayed-nrf2-regulated-antioxidant-gene-induction-in-response-to-silica-nanoparticles
#17
Hongqiao Zhang, Lulu Zhou, Jenay Yuen, Nancy Birkner, Valerie Leppert, Peggy A O'Day, Henry Jay Forman
Silica nanoparticles with iron on their surface cause the production of oxidants and stimulate an inflammatory response in macrophages. Nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2 - like factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling and its regulated antioxidant genes play critical roles in maintaining redox homeostasis. In this study we investigated the regulation of four representative Nrf2-regulated antioxidant genes; i.e., glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) catalytic subunit (GCLC), GCL modifier subunit (GCLM), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO-1), by iron-coated silica nanoparticles (SiO2-Fe) in human THP-1 macrophages...
April 4, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386293/long-term-intake-of-uncaria-rhynchophylla-reduces-s100b-and-rage-protein-levels-in-kainic-acid-induced-epileptic-seizures-rats
#18
Nou-Ying Tang, Yi-Wen Lin, Tin-Yun Ho, Chin-Yi Cheng, Chao-Hsiang Chen, Ching-Liang Hsieh
Epileptic seizures are crucial clinical manifestations of recurrent neuronal discharges in the brain. An imbalance between the excitatory and inhibitory neuronal discharges causes brain damage and cell loss. Herbal medicines offer alternative treatment options for epilepsy because of their low cost and few side effects. We established a rat epilepsy model by injecting kainic acid (KA, 12 mg/kg, i.p.) and subsequently investigated the effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) and its underlying mechanisms. Electroencephalogram and epileptic behaviors revealed that the KA injection induced epileptic seizures...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377778/foliar-and-seed-application-of-amino-acids-affects-the-antioxidant-metabolism-of-the-soybean-crop
#19
Walquíria F Teixeira, Evandro B Fagan, Luís H Soares, Renan C Umburanas, Klaus Reichardt, Durval D Neto
In recent years, the application of natural substances on crops has been intensified in order to increase the resistance and yield of the soybean crop. Among these products are included plant biostimulants that may contain algae extracts, amino acids, and plant regulators in their composition. However, there is little information on the isolated effect of each of these constituents. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of the application of isolated amino acids on the antioxidant metabolism of the soybean crop...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376309/dietary-modulation-of-cortical-excitation-and-inhibition
#20
Anika K Smith, Alex R Wade, Kirsty Eh Penkman, Daniel H Baker
The balance of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the brain affects both neural responses and behaviour in humans and animals. Here we investigated whether dietary intervention aimed at increasing levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) can influence neural responses to basic sensory stimuli. Using a steady-state electroencephalography (EEG) paradigm, we found that the neural response to visual patterns was reduced in individuals who consumed a yeast extract product rich in substances associated with the production of GABA (glutamate and B vitamins), but not in a control group who consumed a placebo substance ( n = 14 per group)...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
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