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glutamate production

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911093/dna-microarray-profiling-highlights-nrf2-mediated-chemoprevention-targeted-by-wasabi-derived-isothiocyanates-in-hepg2-cells
#1
Phoebe Zapanta Trio, Atsuyoshi Kawahara, Shunsuke Tanigawa, Kozue Sakao, De-Xing Hou
6-MSITC and 6-MTITC are sulforaphane (SFN) analogs found in Japanese Wasabi. As we reported previously, Wasabi isothiocyanates (ITCs) are activators of Nrf2-antioxidant response element pathway, and also inhibitors of pro-inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2. This study is the first to assess the global changes in transcript levels by Wasabi ITCs, comparing with SFN, in HepG2 cells. We performed comparative gene expression profiling by treating HepG2 cells with ITCs, followed by DNA microarray analyses using HG-U133 plus 2...
December 2, 2016: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909736/discovery-and-history-of-amino-acid-fermentation
#2
Shin-Ichi Hashimoto
There has been a strong demand in Japan and East Asia for L-glutamic acid as a seasoning since monosodium glutamate was found to present umami taste in 1907. The discovery of glutamate fermentation by Corynebacterium glutamicum in 1956 enabled abundant and low-cost production of the amino acid, creating a large market. The discovery also prompted researchers to develop fermentative production processes for other L-amino acids, such as lysine. Currently, the amino acid fermentation industry is so huge that more than 5 million metric tons of amino acids are manufactured annually all over the world, and this number continues to grow...
December 2, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908928/development-and-validation-of-a-normal-phase-chiral-hplc-method-for-analysis-of-afoxolaner-using-a-chiralpak%C3%A2-ad-3-column
#3
Jinyou Zhuang, Satish Kumar, Abu Rustum
Afoxolaner is a new antiparasitic molecule from the isoxazoline family that acts on the insect acarine gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate receptors. Isoxazoline family of compounds has been employed as active pharmaceutical ingredient in drug products prescribed for control of fleas and ticks in dogs. Afoxolaner with a chiral center at isoxazoline ring exists as a racemic mixture. A normal phase chiral high performance liquid chromatography analytical method has been developed to verify that afoxolaner is a racemic mixture as demonstrated by specific rotation, as well as to determine enantiomeric purity of single enantiomer samples...
November 2016: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902861/thioaldehydes-from-aldehyde-hydrogen-sulfide-interaction-under-organocatalysis
#4
Joseph S Francisco, Manoj Kumar
Thioaldehydes are an important class of sulfur compounds involved in atmospheric, synthetic organic and biological chemistry. Traditionally, they are believed to be formed by the nucleophilic attack of bisulfide anion on the carbonyl compounds. Herein we suggest a novel mechanism that does not require the formation of bisulfide anion, but rather involves an interaction between hydrogen sulfide and an aldehyde. Though the uncatalyzed or the water-catalyzed reactions involve high barriers, the formic acid-catalyzed reactions involve moderate barriers that should be accessible in planetary atmospheres...
November 30, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902845/cloning-and-heterologous-expression-of-chlorophyll-a-synthase-in-rhodobacter-sphaeroides
#5
Emre M Ipekoğlu, Koray Göçmen, Mehmet T Öz, Muazzez Gürgan, Meral Yücel
Rhodobacter sphaeroides is a purple non-sulfur bacterium which photoheterotrophically produces hydrogen from organic acids under anaerobic conditions. A gene coding for putative chlorophyll a synthase (chlG) from cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus marinus was amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction and cloned into an inducible-expression plasmid which was subsequently transferred to R. sphaeroides for heterologous expression. Induced expression of chlG in R. sphaeroides led to changes in light absorption spectrum within 400-700 nm...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894844/the-tricarboxylic-acid-cycle-activity-in-cultured-primary-astrocytes-is-strongly-accelerated-by-the-protein-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-tyrphostin-23
#6
Michaela C Hohnholt, Eva-Maria Blumrich, Helle S Waagepetersen, Ralf Dringen
Tyrphostin 23 (T23) is a well-known inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinases and has been considered as potential anti-cancer drug. T23 was recently reported to acutely stimulate the glycolytic flux in primary cultured astrocytes. To investigate whether T23 also affects the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, we incubated primary rat astrocyte cultures with [U-(13)C]glucose in the absence or the presence of 100 μM T23 for 2 h and analyzed the (13)C metabolite pattern. These incubation conditions did not compromise cell viability and confirmed that the presence of T23 doubled glycolytic lactate production...
November 25, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893013/proton-chemical-shift-imaging-of-the-brain-in-pediatric-and-adult-developmental-stuttering
#7
Joseph O'Neill, Zhengchao Dong, Ravi Bansal, Iliyan Ivanov, Xuejun Hao, Jay Desai, Elena Pozzi, Bradley S Peterson
Importance: Developmental stuttering is a neuropsychiatric condition of incompletely understood brain origin. Our recent functional magnetic resonance imaging study indicates a possible partial basis of stuttering in circuits enacting self-regulation of motor activity, attention, and emotion. Objective: To further characterize the neurophysiology of stuttering through in vivo assay of neurometabolites in suspect brain regions. Design, Setting, and Participants: Proton chemical shift imaging of the brain was performed in a case-control study of children and adults with and without stuttering...
November 23, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891125/poly-%C3%AE-glutamic-acids-contribute-to-biofilm-formation-and-plant-root-colonization-in-selected-environmental-isolates-of-bacillus-subtilis
#8
Yiyang Yu, Fang Yan, Yun Chen, Christopher Jin, Jian-Hua Guo, Yunrong Chai
Bacillus subtilis is long known to produce poly-γ-glutamic acids (γ-PGA) as one of the major secreted polymeric substances. In B. subtilis, the regulation of γ-PGA production and its physiological role are still unclear. B. subtilis is also capable of forming structurally complex multicellular communities, or biofilms, in which an extracellular matrix consisting of secreted proteins and polysaccharides holds individual cells together. Biofilms were shown to facilitate B. subtilis-plant interactions. In this study, we show that different environmental isolates of B...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885629/glutaminases
#9
Javier Márquez, José M Matés, José A Campos-Sandoval
Mammalian glutaminases catalyze the stoichiometric conversion of L-glutamine to L-glutamate and ammonium ions. In brain, glutaminase is considered the prevailing pathway for synthesis of the neurotransmitter pool of glutamate. Besides neurotransmission, the products of glutaminase reaction also fulfill crucial roles in energy and metabolic homeostasis in mammalian brain. In the last years, new functional roles for brain glutaminases are being uncovered by using functional genomic and proteomic approaches. Glutaminases may act as multifunctional proteins able to perform different tasks: the discovery of multiple transcript variants in neurons and glial cells, novel extramitochondrial localizations, and isoform-specific proteininteracting partners strongly support possible moonlighting functions for these proteins...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885625/glucose-lactate-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-acetate-gaba-and-succinate-as-substrates-for-synthesis-of-glutamate-and-gaba-in-the-glutamine-glutamate-gaba-cycle
#10
Leif Hertz, Douglas L Rothman
The glutamine-glutamate/GABA cycle is an astrocytic-neuronal pathway transferring precursors for transmitter glutamate and GABA from astrocytes to neurons. In addition, the cycle carries released transmitter back to astrocytes, where a minor fraction (~25 %) is degraded (requiring a similar amount of resynthesis) and the remainder returned to the neurons for reuse. The flux in the cycle is intense, amounting to the same value as neuronal glucose utilization rate or 75-80 % of total cortical glucose consumption...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885573/poly-%C3%AE-glutamic-acid-and-poly-%C3%AE-glutamic-acid-based-nanocomplexes-enhance-type-ii-collagen-production-in-intervertebral-disc
#11
Joana C Antunes, Catarina Leite Pereira, Graciosa Q Teixeira, Ricardo V Silva, Joana Caldeira, Sibylle Grad, Raquel M Gonçalves, Mário A Barbosa
Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration often leads to low back pain, which is one of the major causes of disability worldwide, affecting more than 80% of the population. Although available treatments for degenerated IVD decrease symptoms' progression, they fail to address the underlying causes and to restore native IVD properties. Poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) has recently been shown to support the production of chondrogenic matrix by mesenchymal stem/stromal cells. γ-PGA/chitosan (Ch) nanocomplexes (NCs) have been proposed for several biomedical applications, showing advantages compared with either polymer alone...
January 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881066/new-insights-emerging-from-recent-investigations-on-human-group-ii-pyridoxal-5-phosphate-decarboxylases
#12
Alessandro Paiardini, Giorgio Giardina, Giada Rossignoli, Carla Borri Voltattorni, Mariarita Bertoldi
Aromatic amino acid, cysteine sulfinic acid, glutamate and histidine decarboxylases, belonging to group II of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes, catalyze the synthesis of dopamine/serotonin, hypotaurine, ϒ-aminobutyric acid and histamine, respectively. Considering that these reaction's products are all essential bioactive molecules, group II decarboxylases have been long studied from an evolutionary, biochemical and pharmacological standpoint. Despite the fact that they all belong to a common fold-type, during evolution each decarboxylase has evolved unique structural elements responsible for its substrate specificity...
November 22, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880963/enhanced-production-of-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-by-optimizing-culture-conditions-of-lactobacillus-brevis-hye1-isolated-from-kimchi-a-korean-fermented-food
#13
Hee Seon Lim, In-Tae Cha, Seong Woon Roh, Hae-Hun Shin, Myung-Ji Seo
This study evaluated the effects of culture conditions, including carbon and nitrogen sources, L-monosodium glutamate (MSG), and initial pH, on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production by Lactobacillus brevis HYE1 isolated from kimchi, a Korean traditional fermented food. L. brevis HYE1 was screened by the production analysis of GABA and genetic analysis of glutamate decarboxylase gene, resulting in 14.64 mM GABA after 48 h of cultivation in MRS media containing 1% (w/v) MSG. In order to increase GABA production by L...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878924/differences-in-rumen-fermentation-characteristics-between-low-yield-and-high-yield-dairy-cows-in-early-lactation
#14
Ahmad Sofyan, Makoto Mitsumori, Hideyuki Ohmori, Yutaka Uyeno, Toshiya Hasunuma, Kiyoshi Akiyama, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Hiroaki Yokokawa, Tsuneko Yamaguchi, Takumi Shinkai, Makoto Hirako, Shiro Kushibiki
Relationship between rumen fermentation parameters, blood biochemical profiles and milk production traits in different yielding dairy cows during early lactation was investigated. Twelve dairy cows were divided into two groups based on their milk yield, that is low-yield (LY) and high-yield (HY) groups. Rumen fluid and blood were collected at 3 weeks prepartum and 4, 8 and 12 weeks postpartum. Results showed that proportions of acetate, propionate to total short chain fatty acids and acetate : propionate ratio were changed (P < 0...
November 23, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872964/toward-sustainable-amino-acid-production
#15
Yoshihiro Usuda, Yoshihiko Hara, Hiroyuki Kojima
Because the global amino acid production industry has been growing steadily and is expected to grow even more in the future, efficient production by fermentation is of great importance from economic and sustainability viewpoints. Many systems biology technologies, such as genome breeding, omics analysis, metabolic flux analysis, and metabolic simulation, have been employed for the improvement of amino acid-producing strains of bacteria. Synthetic biological approaches have recently been applied to strain development...
November 22, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872961/boosting-anaplerotic-reactions-by-pyruvate-kinase-gene-deletion-and-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxylase-desensitization-for-glutamic-acid-and-lysine-production-in-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#16
Atsushi Yokota, Kazunori Sawada, Masaru Wada
In the 1980s, Shiio and coworkers demonstrated using random mutagenesis that the following three phenotypes were effective for boosting lysine production by Corynebacterium glutamicum: (1) low-activity-level citrate synthase (CS(L)), (2) phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) resistant to feedback inhibition by aspartic acid (PEPC(R)), and (3) pyruvate kinase (PYK) deficiency. Here, we reevaluated these phenotypes and their interrelationship in lysine production using recombinant DNA techniques.The pyk deletion and PEPC(R) (D299N in ppc) independently showed marginal effects on lysine production, but both phenotypes synergistically increased lysine yield, demonstrating the importance of PEPC as an anaplerotic enzyme in lysine production...
November 22, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872241/the-type-iii-effector-nled-from-enteropathogenic-e-coli-differentiates-between-host-substrates-p38-and-jnk
#17
Kristina Creuzburg, Cristina Giogha, Tania Wong Fok Lung, Nichollas E Scott, Sabrina Mühlen, Elizabeth L Hartland, Jaclyn S Pearson
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a gastrointestinal pathogen that utilises a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject an array of virulence effector proteins into host enterocytes to subvert numerous cellular processes for successful colonisation and dissemination. The T3SS effector NleD is a 28 kDa zinc metalloprotease that is translocated into host enterocytes where it directly cleaves and inactivates the MAP kinase signaling proteins, JNK and p38. Here a library of 91 random transposon based, in-frame, linker insertion mutants of NleD were tested for their ability to cleave JNK and p38 during transient transfection of cultured epithelial cells...
November 21, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867835/combined-13-c-assisted-metabolomics-and-metabolic-flux-analysis-reveals-the-impacts-of-glutamate-on-the-central-metabolism-of-high-%C3%AE-galactosidase-producing-pichia-pastoris
#18
Ping Liu, Mingzhi Huang, Menglei Guo, Jiangchao Qian, Weilu Lin, Ju Chu, Yingping Zhuang, Siliang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Pichia pastoris is a popular recombinant protein expression system for its accessibility of efficient gene manipulation and high protein production. Sufficient supply of precursors, energy, and redox cofactors is crucial for high recombinant protein production. In our present work, we found that the addition of glutamate improved the recombinant β-galactosidase (β-gal) production by P. pastoris G1HL. METHODS: To elucidate the impacts of glutamate on the central metabolism in detail, a combined (13)C-assisted metabolomics and (13)C metabolic flux analysis was conducted based on LC-MS/MS and GC-MS data...
2016: Bioresources and Bioprocessing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856285/neurotrophic-and-neuroprotective-effects-of-oxyntomodulin-in-neuronal-cells-and-a-rat-model-of-stroke
#19
Yazhou Li, Kou-Jen Wu, Seong-Jin Yu, Ian A Tamargo, Yun Wang, Nigel H Greig
Proglucagon-derived peptides, especially glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its long-acting mimetics, have exhibited neuroprotective effects in animal models of stroke. Several of these peptides are in clinical trials for stroke. Oxyntomodulin (OXM) is a proglucagon-derived peptide that co-activates the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) and the glucagon receptor (GCGR). The neuroprotective action of OXM, however, has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, the neuroprotective effect of OXM was first examined in human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells and rat primary cortical neurons...
November 14, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854256/natural-deep-eutectic-solvents-nades-as-a-tool-for-bioavailability-improvement-pharmacokinetics-of-rutin-dissolved-in-proline-glycine-after-oral-administration-in-rats-possible-application-in-nutraceuticals
#20
Marta Faggian, Stefania Sut, Beatrice Perissutti, Valeria Baldan, Iztok Grabnar, Stefano Dall'Acqua
There is a need for innovation in plant-derived pharmaceuticals, food supplements and nutraceutical products regarding the use of more eco-sustainable solvents for their extraction. Furthermore, the poor oral bioavailability of several phytochemicals with health promoting effects stimulates the research in the field of pharmaceutical formulations. Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents (NADES) are formed by natural compounds, and can be considered as future solvents being especially useful for the preparation of nutraceuticals and food-grade extracts...
November 14, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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