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actin in neuronal tissue

Oriane Blanquie, Frank Bradke
Recent years have seen cytoskeleton dynamics emerging as a key player in axon regeneration. The cytoskeleton, in particular microtubules and actin, ensures the growth of neuronal processes and maintains the singular, highly polarized shape of neurons. Following injury, adult central axons are tipped by a dystrophic structure, the retraction bulb, which prevents their regeneration. Abnormal cytoskeleton dynamics are responsible for the formation of this growth-incompetent structure but pharmacologically modulating cytoskeleton dynamics of injured axons can transform this structure into a growth-competent growth cone...
March 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
A V Revishchin, G M Solus, I I Poletaeva, G V Pavlova
Using immunoblotting, we showed that in rats of audiogenic epilepsy (AE) prone strain (Krushinsky- Molodkina, KM) the superior colliculus tissue (SC) contains significantly less quantity of glial neurotrophic factor (GDNF), beta-tubulin and actin in comparison to the same brain region in "0" rats, nonprone to AE. This fact led to the suggestion that the histological structure of the SC in KM rats could differ significantly from that of the "0" strain. Using neuromorphologу technique, we demonstrated that the total number of SC cells, as well as the number of neurons were significantly less in KM rats than in the "0" strain rats...
January 2018: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
Mirosława Panasiuk, Michał Rychłowski, Natalia Derewońko, Krystyna Bieńkowska-Szewczyk
Various types of intercellular connections that are essential for communication between cells are often utilized by pathogens. Recently, a new type of cellular connection, long, thin, actin-rich membrane extensions named tunneling nanotubes (TNTs), have been shown to play an important role in cell-to-cell spread of HIV and influenza virus. In the present report, we show that TNTs are frequently formed by cells infected by an alpha-herpesvirus BoHV-1 (bovine herpesvirus 1). Viral proteins, such as envelope glycoprotein gE, capsid protein VP26 and tegument protein Us3, as well as cellular organelles (mitochondria) were detected by immunofluorescence and live cell imaging of nanotubes formed by bovine primary fibroblasts and oropharynx cells (KOP)...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
Mónica Rubio Ayala, Tatiana Syrovets, Susanne Hafner, Vitalii Zablotskii, Alexandr Dejneka, Thomas Simmet
Cellular function is modulated by the electric membrane potential controlling intracellular physiology and signal propagation from a motor neuron to a muscle fiber resulting in muscle contraction. Unlike electric fields, magnetic fields are not attenuated by biological materials and penetrate deep into the tissue. We used complex spatiotemporal magnetic fields (17-70 mT) to control intracellular signaling in skeletal muscle cells. By changing different parameters of the alternating magnetic field (amplitude, inversion time, rotation frequency), we induced transient depolarization of cellular membranes leading to i) Na+ influx through voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC), ii) cytosolic calcium increase, and iii) VGSC- and ryanodine receptor-dependent increase of actin polymerization...
February 16, 2018: Biomaterials
Guo-Wei Jheng, Sung Sik Hur, Chia-Ming Chang, Chun-Chieh Wu, Jia-Shing Cheng, Hsiao-Hui Lee, Bon-Chu Chung, Yang-Kao Wang, Keng-Hui Lin, Juan C Del Álamo, Shu Chien, Jin-Wu Tsai
Cell migration is a critical process during development, tissue repair, and cancer metastasis. It requires complex processes of cell adhesion, cytoskeletal dynamics, and force generation. Lis1 plays an important role in the migration of neurons, fibroblasts and other cell types, and is essential for normal development of the cerebral cortex. Mutations in human LIS1 gene cause classical lissencephaly (smooth brain), resulting from defects in neuronal migration. However, how Lis1 may affect force generation in migrating cells is still not fully understood...
February 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Azizul Haque, Rachel Polcyn, Denise Matzelle, Naren L Banik
Neurodegeneration is a complex process that leads to irreversible neuronal damage and death in spinal cord injury (SCI) and various neurodegenerative diseases, which are serious, debilitating conditions. Despite exhaustive research, the cause of neuronal damage in these degenerative disorders is not completely understood. Elevation of cell surface α-enolase activates various inflammatory pathways, including the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and some growth factors that are detrimental to neuronal cells...
February 18, 2018: Brain Sciences
Dong-Li Li, Xue-Jiao Chang, Xiao-Lu Xie, Shu-Cheng Zheng, Qiu-Xia Zhang, Shu-Ao Jia, Ke-Jian Wang, Hai-Peng Liu
The β-thymosins are a group of structurally related, highly conserved intracellular small peptides in vertebrates with various biological functions, including cytoskeletal remodeling, neuronal development, cell migration, cell survival, tissue repair and inhibition of inflammation. In contrast to vertebrates, the function of β-thymosin is not fully understood in crustaceans. Previously, we found that a thymosin-repeated protein1 (CqTRP1) gene was up-regulated after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge in haematopoietic tissue (Hpt) cells from the red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus...
February 8, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Timothy J Hines, Xu Gao, Subhshri Sahu, Meghann M Lange, Jill R Turner, Jeffery L Twiss, Deanna S Smith
LIS1 mutations cause lissencephaly (LIS), a severe developmental brain malformation. Much less is known about its role in the mature nervous system. LIS1 regulates the microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein 1 (dynein), and as LIS1 and dynein are both expressed in the adult nervous system, Lis1 could potentially regulate dynein-dependent processes such as axonal transport. We therefore knocked out Lis1 in adult mice using tamoxifen-induced, Cre-ER-mediated recombination. When an actin promoter was used to drive Cre-ER expression (Act-Cre-ER), heterozygous Lis1 knockout (KO) caused no obvious change in viability or behavior, despite evidence of widespread recombination by a Cre reporter three weeks after tamoxifen exposure...
January 2018: ENeuro
Reddy Peera Kommaddi, Debajyoti Das, Smitha Karunakaran, Siddharth Nanguneri, Deepti Bapat, Ajit Ray, Eisha Shaw, David A Bennett, Deepak Nair, Vijayalakshmi Ravindranath
Dendritic spine loss is recognized as an early feature of Alzheimer's disease, however the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Dendritic spine structure is defined by filamentous actin (F-actin) and we observed depolymerization of synaptosomal F-actin accompanied by increased G-actin, as early as 1 month of age in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD; APPswe/PS1ΔE9, male mice). This led to recall deficit after contextual fear conditioning (cFC) at 2 months of age in APPswe/PS1ΔE9 male mice, which could be reversed by actin polymerizing agent, jasplakinolide...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Matthias Schürmann, Viktoria Brotzmann, Marlena Bütow, Johannes Greiner, Anna Höving, Christian Kaltschmidt, Barbara Kaltschmidt, Holger Sudhoff
Due to their extraordinarily broad differentiation potential and persistence during adulthood, adult neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) are highly promising candidates for clinical applications, particularly when facing the challenging treatment of neurodegenerative diseases or complex craniofacial injuries. Successful application of human NCSCs in regenerative medicine and pharmaceutical research mainly relies on the availability of sufficient amounts of tissue for cell isolation procedures. Facing this challenge, we here describe for the first time a novel population of NCSCs within the middle turbinate of the human nasal cavity...
December 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
Yoshibumi Ueda, Moritoshi Sato
Structures arising from actin-based cell membrane movements, including ruffles, lamellipodia, and filopodia, play important roles in a broad spectrum of cellular functions, such as cell motility, axon guidance in neurons, wound healing, and micropinocytosis. Previous studies investigating these cell membrane dynamics often relied on pharmacological inhibition, RNA interference, and constitutive active/dominant negative protein expression systems. However, such studies did not allow the modulation of protein activity at specific regions of cells, tissues, and organs in animals with high spatial and temporal precision...
November 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Dirk Junghans, Sebastian Herzog
Calponin 3 (Cnn3) is a member of the Cnn family of actin-binding molecules that is highly expressed in the mammalian brain and has been shown to control dendritic spine morphology, density, and plasticity by regulating actin cytoskeletal reorganization and dynamics. However, little is known about the role of Cnn3 during embryonic development. In this study, we analyzed mutant animals deficient in Cnn3 to gain a better understanding of its role in brain morphogenesis. Embryos lacking Cnn3 exhibited massive malformation of the developing brain including exoencephaly, closure defects at the rostral neural tube, and strong enlargement of brain tissue...
January 2018: FEBS Journal
B Musicki, S Karakus, W Akakpo, F H Silva, J Liu, H Chen, B R Zirkin, A L Burnett
Sickle cell disease (SCD)-associated priapism is characterized by decreased nitric oxide (NO) signaling and downregulated phosphodiesterase (PDE)5 protein expression and activity in the penis. Priapism is also associated with testosterone deficiency, but molecular mechanisms underlying testosterone effects in the penis in SCD are not known. Given the critical role of androgens in erection physiology and NO synthase (NOS)/PDE5 expression, we hypothesized that testosterone replacement to eugonadal testosterone levels reduces priapism by reversing impaired endothelial (e)NOS activity and molecular abnormalities involving PDE5...
November 16, 2017: Andrology
Jessica M Stukel, Rebecca Kuntz Willits
Cells are sensitive to physical cues in their environment, such as the stiffness of the substrate, peptide density, and peptide affinity. Understanding how neural stem cells (NSCs) sense and respond to these matrix cues has the potential to improve disease outcome, particularly if a regenerative response can be exploited. While the material properties are known to influence other stem cells, little is known about how NSC differentiation is altered by this interplay of mechanical, or bulk properties, with peptide concentration and affinity, or microscale properties...
November 14, 2017: Biomedical Materials
V P Bykova, A A Bakhtin, D P Polyakov, A S Yunusov, N A Daikhes
The paper describes a case of nasal glial heterotopia in a 10-month-old girl with a mixed (intranasal and subcutaneous) localization, which is accompanied by the divergence of the nasal bones. Histological examination supplemented by immunohistochemical reactions with antibodies to vimentin, S100 protein, neuron-specific enolase, as well as Ki-67 and smooth muscle actin confirmed the neural nature of the tumor. Fields of mature astrocytic glia including individual cells with neuronal differentiation were found among the fibrous and fibrovascular tissues...
2017: Arkhiv Patologii
Wiebke K Ludwig-Peitsch
Adhesion, segregation, and cellular plasticity are regulated by actin filaments anchored at the plaques of adherens junctions, sites of mechanical stabilization, and interfaces of multiple signaling networks. Drebrins were originally identified in neuronal cells, but the isoform drebrin E was also detected at adherens junctions of a wide range of non-neuronal cells, including polarized epithelia, endothelia, and fibroblasts. Here the protein is enriched at actin filament bundles associated with junctional plaques...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Irina V Majoul, Justus S Ernesti, Eugenia V Butkevich, Rainer Duden
In this chapter we summarize knowledge on the role of drebrin in cell-cell communications. Specifically, we follow drebrin-connexin-43 interactions and drebrin behavior at the cell-cell interface described earlier. Drebrin is a part of the actin cytoskeleton which is a target of numerous bacteria and viruses invading mammalian cells. Drebrin phosphorylation, self-inhibition and transition between filaments, particles, and podosomes underlie cellular mechanisms involved in diseases and cognitive disorders. Cytoskeletal rearrangements influence the state of gap junction contacts which regulate cell signaling and metabolic flow of information across cells in tissues...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Tomoaki Shirao, Yuko Sekino
Drebrin was first discovered by our group as "developmentally regulated brain protein" from the chicken optic tectum. Drebrin is an actin-binding protein, which is classified into two major isoforms produced by alternative splicing from a single DBN1 gene. The isoform predominantly expressed in the adult brain (drebrin A) is neuron specific, containing a neuron-specific sequence (Ins2) in the middle of the molecule. Drebrin A is highly concentrated in dendritic spines, and its accumulation level is regulated by synaptic activity...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
G N Yin, S-H Park, M-J Choi, A Limanjaya, K Ghatak, N N Minh, J Ock, K-M Song, J-K Ryu, J-K Suh
Penile erection is a neurovascular phenomenon that requires well coordinated and functional interaction between penile vascular and nervous systems. In order to provide a useful tool to examine pathologic changes in the erectile tissue, mainly focusing on penile neurovascular dysfunction, we established the technique to determine the differential distribution of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, pericytes, and nerve fibers in the mouse penis using immunohistochemical staining with three-dimensional reconstruction...
August 14, 2017: Andrology
Hidenori Ito, Makoto Mizuno, Kei Noguchi, Rika Morishita, Ikuko Iwamoto, Akira Hara, Koh-Ichi Nagata
Phactr1 (Phosphatase and actin regulator 1) is abundantly expressed in the central nervous system and considered to regulate various neuronal processes through the regulation of protein phosphorylation and actin cytoskeletal organization. In this study, we prepared a specific antibody against Phactr1, anti-Phactr1, and carried out biochemical and morphological analyses of Phactr1 with mouse brain tissues. Western blotting analyses revealed that Phactr1 was expressed in a tissue-dependent profile in the young adult mouse and in a developmental stage-dependent manner in the mouse brain...
August 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
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