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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805947/penile-neurovascular-structure-revisited-immunohistochemical-studies-with-three-dimensional-reconstruction
#1
G N Yin, S-H Park, M-J Choi, A Limanjaya, K Ghatak, N N Minh, J Ock, K-M Song, J-K Ryu, J-K Suh
Penile erection is a neurovascular phenomenon that requires well coordinated and functional interaction between penile vascular and nervous systems. In order to provide a useful tool to examine pathologic changes in the erectile tissue, mainly focusing on penile neurovascular dysfunction, we established the technique to determine the differential distribution of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, pericytes, and nerve fibers in the mouse penis using immunohistochemical staining with three-dimensional reconstruction...
August 14, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803787/expression-analyses-of-phactr1-phosphatase-and-actin-regulator-1-during-mouse-brain-development
#2
Hidenori Ito, Makoto Mizuno, Kei Noguchi, Rika Morishita, Ikuko Iwamoto, Akira Hara, Koh-Ichi Nagata
Phactr1 (Phosphatase and actin regulator 1) is abundantly expressed in the central nervous system and considered to regulate various neuronal processes through the regulation of protein phosphorylation and actin cytoskeletal organization. In this study, we prepared a specific antibody against Phactr1, anti-Phactr1, and carried out biochemical and morphological analyses of Phactr1 with mouse brain tissues. Western blotting analyses revealed that Phactr1 was expressed in a tissue-dependent profile in the young adult mouse and in a developmental stage-dependent manner in the mouse brain...
August 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743168/calorie-restriction-reverses-age-related-alteration-of-cavernous-neurovascular-structure-in-the-rat
#3
A Limanjaya, K-M Song, M-J Choi, K Ghatak, N N Minh, D H Kang, J Ock, G N Yin, H Y Chung, J-K Ryu, J-K Suh
Calorie restriction (CR) refers to a reduction of calorie intake without compromising essential nutrients to avoid malnutrition. CR has been established as a non-genetic method of altering longevity and attenuating biological changes associated with aging. Aging is also an important risk factor for erectile dysfunction. The aim of this study was to examine whether CR diet can reverse the age-related alterations of erectile tissue in the aged rat. Four groups of rats were used: young rats (7 months) + ad libitum, aged rats (22 months) + ad libitum, young rats + CR diet, and aged rats + CR diet...
July 25, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681095/nail-patella-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
Ralph Witzgall
The pathognomonic symptoms of patients with nail-patella syndrome are their small or absent patellae and dysplastic or absent finger- and toenails. Many of the patients suffer from renal symptoms which also affect their prognosis. In 1998, mutations in the gene encoding the transcription factor LMX1B were identified as underlying this autosomal-dominant disease. The LMX1B gene is expressed in a variety of tissues, and the symptoms are reflected nicely by its expression pattern. LMX1B is essential for dorso-ventral pattern formation in the limbs, for differentiation of the anterior portions of the eyes, for development of certain neuron populations in the central nervous system, and for the differentiation and maintenance of podocytes...
August 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634272/the-secreted-msp-domain-of-c-elegans-vapb-homolog-vpr-1-patterns-the-adult-striated-muscle-mitochondrial-reticulum-via-smn-1
#5
Jessica Schultz, Se-Jin Lee, Tim Cole, Hieu D Hoang, Jack Vibbert, Pauline A Cottee, Michael A Miller, Sung Min Han
The major sperm protein domain (MSPd) has an extracellular signaling function implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Secreted MSPds derived from the C. elegans VAPB homolog VPR-1 promote mitochondrial localization to actin-rich I-bands in body wall muscle. Here we show that the nervous system and germ line are key MSPd secretion tissues. MSPd signals are transduced through the CLR-1 Lar-like tyrosine phosphatase receptor. We show that CLR-1 is expressed throughout the muscle plasma membrane, where it is accessible to MSPd within the pseudocoelomic fluid...
June 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624895/semaphorin4d-plexinb1-signaling-attenuates-photoreceptor-outer-segment-phagocytosis-by-reducing-rac1-activity-of-rpe-cells
#6
Ayelen Bulloj, Arvydas Maminishkis, Masayuki Mizui, Silvia C Finnemann
Semaphorins form a family of secreted and membrane-bound molecules that were identified originally as axonal guidance factors during neuronal development. Given their wide distribution in many including mature tissues, semaphorin 4D (sema4D) and its main functional receptor plexin B1 (plxnB1) are expected to fulfill additional functions that remain to be uncovered. A main characteristic of the plexin receptor family is its ability to reorganize the cytoskeleton. PlxnB1 specifically may directly interact with Rho family GTPases to regulate F-actin driven pathways in cells in culture...
June 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576707/development-of-transcripts-regulating-dendritic-spines-in-layer-3-pyramidal-cells-of-the-monkey-prefrontal-cortex-implications-for-the-pathogenesis-of-schizophrenia
#7
Samuel J Dienel, Holly H Bazmi, David A Lewis
Certain cognitive deficits in schizophrenia appear to emerge from altered postnatal development of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Dendritic spines on DLPFC layer 3 pyramidal cells are essential for certain cognitive functions, change in density over development, and are reduced in number in schizophrenia. Altered expression of molecular regulators of actin filament assembly and stability, which are essential for spine formation and maintenance, is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of spine deficits in the disease...
September 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487338/poststroke-sonic-hedgehog-agonist-treatment-improves-functional-recovery-by-enhancing-neurogenesis-and-angiogenesis
#8
Yongming Jin, Austin Barnett, Yifan Zhang, Xin Yu, Yu Luo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Because of the limitation in treatment window of the r-tPA (recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator), the development of delayed treatment for stroke is needed. In this study, we examined the efficacy of delayed poststroke treatment (post 3-8 days) of the sonic hedgehog pathway agonist on functional recovery and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: We evaluated functional recovery at 1 month after stroke using locomotion analysis and Barnes maze test for cognitive function...
June 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387217/defective-gpsm2-g%C3%AE-i3-signalling-disrupts-stereocilia-development-and-growth-cone-actin-dynamics-in-chudley-mccullough-syndrome
#9
Stephanie A Mauriac, Yeri E Hien, Jonathan E Bird, Steve Dos-Santos Carvalho, Ronan Peyroutou, Sze Chim Lee, Maite M Moreau, Jean-Michel Blanc, Aysegul Geyser, Chantal Medina, Olivier Thoumine, Sandra Beer-Hammer, Thomas B Friedman, Lukas Rüttiger, Andrew Forge, Bernd Nürnberg, Nathalie Sans, Mireille Montcouquiol
Mutations in GPSM2 cause Chudley-McCullough syndrome (CMCS), an autosomal recessive neurological disorder characterized by early-onset sensorineural deafness and brain anomalies. Here, we show that mutation of the mouse orthologue of GPSM2 affects actin-rich stereocilia elongation in auditory and vestibular hair cells, causing deafness and balance defects. The G-protein subunit Gαi3, a well-documented partner of Gpsm2, participates in the elongation process, and its absence also causes hearing deficits. We show that Gpsm2 defines an ∼200 nm nanodomain at the tips of stereocilia and this localization requires the presence of Gαi3, myosin 15 and whirlin...
April 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373358/neurofilaments-and-neurofilament-proteins-in-health-and-disease
#10
REVIEW
Aidong Yuan, Mala V Rao, Veeranna, Ralph A Nixon
SUMMARYNeurofilaments (NFs) are unique among tissue-specific classes of intermediate filaments (IFs) in being heteropolymers composed of four subunits (NF-L [neurofilament light]; NF-M [neurofilament middle]; NF-H [neurofilament heavy]; and α-internexin or peripherin), each having different domain structures and functions. Here, we review how NFs provide structural support for the highly asymmetric geometries of neurons and, especially, for the marked radial expansion of myelinated axons crucial for effective nerve conduction velocity...
April 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224388/ocular-safety-of-intravitreal-clindamycin-hydrochloride-released-by-plga-implants
#11
Gabriella M Fernandes-Cunha, Silvia Ligório Fialho, Gisele Rodrigues da Silva, Armando Silva-Cunha, Min Zhao, Francine Behar-Cohen
BACKGROUND: Drug ocular toxicity is a field that requires attention. Clindamycin has been injected intravitreally to treat ocular toxoplasmosis, the most common cause of eye posterior segment infection worldwide. However, little is known about the toxicity of clindamycin to ocular tissues. We have previously showed non intraocular toxicity in rabbit eyes of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) implants containing clindamycin hydrochloride (CLH) using only clinical macroscotopic observation...
February 21, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199839/the-survival-of-motor-neuron-protein-acts-as-a-molecular-chaperone-for-mrnp-assembly
#12
Paul G Donlin-Asp, Claudia Fallini, Jazmin Campos, Ching-Chieh Chou, Megan E Merritt, Han C Phan, Gary J Bassell, Wilfried Rossoll
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a motor neuron disease caused by reduced levels of the survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein. SMN is part of a multiprotein complex that facilitates the assembly of spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs). SMN has also been found to associate with mRNA-binding proteins, but the nature of this association was unknown. Here, we have employed a combination of biochemical and advanced imaging methods to demonstrate that SMN promotes the molecular interaction between IMP1 protein and the 3' UTR zipcode region of β-actin mRNA, leading to assembly of messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) complexes that associate with the cytoskeleton to facilitate trafficking...
February 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194647/cofilin-mediates-lps-induced-microglial-cell-activation-and-associated-neurotoxicity-through-activation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-jak-stat-pathway
#13
Qasim Alhadidi, Zahoor A Shah
Microglial cells are activated in response to different types of injuries or stress in the CNS. Such activation is necessary to get rid of the injurious agents and restore tissue homeostasis. However, excessive activation of microglial cells is harmful and contributes to secondary injury. Pertinently, microglial cell activity was targeted in many preclinical and clinical studies but such strategy failed in clinical trials. The main reason behind the failed attempts is the complexity of the injury mechanisms which needs either a combination therapy or targeting a process that is involved in multiple pathways...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107513/the-zebrafish-anillin-egfp-reporter-marks-late-dividing-retinal-precursors-and-stem-cells-entering-neuronal-lineages
#14
Meret Cepero Malo, Anne-Laure Duchemin, Luca Guglielmi, Eva Patzel, Saadettin Sel, Gerd U Auffarth, Matthias Carl, Lucia Poggi
Monitoring cycling behaviours of stem and somatic cells in the living animal is a powerful tool to better understand tissue development and homeostasis. The tg(anillin:anillin-eGFP) transgenic line carries the full-length zebrafish F-actin binding protein Anillin fused to eGFP from a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) containing Anillin cis-regulatory sequences. Here we report the suitability of the Anillin-eGFP reporter as a direct indicator of cycling cells in the late embryonic and post-embryonic retina...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077579/neuron-enriched-rna-binding-proteins-regulate-pancreatic-beta-cell-function-and-survival
#15
Jonàs Juan-Mateu, Tatiana H Rech, Olatz Villate, Esther Lizarraga-Mollinedo, Anna Wendt, Jean-Valery Turatsinze, Letícia A Brondani, Tarlliza R Nardelli, Tatiane C Nogueira, Jonathan L S Esguerra, Maria Inês Alvelos, Piero Marchetti, Lena Eliasson, Décio L Eizirik
Pancreatic beta cell failure is the central event leading to diabetes. Beta cells share many phenotypic traits with neurons, and proper beta cell function relies on the activation of several neuron-like transcription programs. Regulation of gene expression by alternative splicing plays a pivotal role in brain, where it affects neuronal development, function, and disease. The role of alternative splicing in beta cells remains unclear, but recent data indicate that splicing alterations modulated by both inflammation and susceptibility genes for diabetes contribute to beta cell dysfunction and death...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062917/the-enteric-nervous-system-and-the-musculature-of-the-colon-are-altered-in-patients-with-spina-bifida-and-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Marjanne den Braber-Ymker, Martin Lammens, Michel J A M van Putten, Iris D Nagtegaal
Neurogenic bowel dysfunction occurs in a large percentage of adult patients with spina bifida (SB) and spinal cord injury (SCI), significantly affecting their quality of life. Although bowel motility is autonomously regulated by the enteric nervous system (ENS), disruption of the modulation of the ENS by extrinsic innervation as present in many patients with SB and SCI might lead to motility disorders. In order to gain insight in the pathophysiology, we studied histological changes of the neuromuscular structures in the colon of SB and SCI patients...
February 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005071/rab8a-rab11a-regulate-intercellular-communications-between-neural-cells-via-tunneling-nanotubes
#17
Hui Zhu, Chengbin Xue, Xi Xu, Yibing Guo, Xiaohong Li, Jingjing Lu, Shaoqing Ju, Yongjun Wang, Zheng Cao, Xiaosong Gu
Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are F-actin-based membrane tubes, and can form between cultured cells and within vital tissues. TNTs mediate intercellular communications that range from electrical signaling to the transfer of organelles. Following peripheral nerve injury, the orchestrated intercellular communications among neural and non-neural cells are required for effective nerve regeneration. It remains unknown whether TNTs exist between neural cells in the peripheral nerve system and how TNTs affect neural regeneration...
December 22, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964758/expression-of-acid-sensing-ion-channels-and-selection-of-reference-genes-in-mouse-and-naked-mole-rat
#18
Laura-Nadine Schuhmacher, Ewan St John Smith
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are a family of ion channels comprised of six subunits encoded by four genes and they are expressed throughout the peripheral and central nervous systems. ASICs have been implicated in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes: pain, breathing, synaptic plasticity and excitotoxicity. Unlike mice and humans, naked mole-rats do not perceive acid as a noxious stimulus, even though their sensory neurons express functional ASICs, likely an adaptation to living in a hypercapnic subterranean environment...
December 13, 2016: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942867/thymosin-%C3%AE-4-overexpression-regulates-neuron-production-and-spatial-distribution-in-the-developing-avian-optic-tectum
#19
Mael Lever, Carsten Theiss, Gabriela Morosan-Puopolo, Beate Brand-Saberi
Thymosin β4 (Tβ4), the principal G-actin regulating entity in eukaryotic cells, has also multiple intra- and extracellular functions related to tissue regeneration and healing. While its effect in adult organs is being widely investigated, currently, little is known about its influence on embryonic tissues, i.e., in the developing nervous system. The importance of Tβ4 for neural stem cell proliferation in the embryonic chicken optic tectum (OT) has previously been shown by us for the first time. In the present study, using in ovo electroporation, we carried out a quantification of the effects of the Tβ4-overexpression on the developing chicken OT between E4 and E6 at the hemisphere as well as cellular level...
December 10, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881869/netrin-1-induced-stem-cell-bioactivity-contributes-to-the-regeneration-of-injured-tissues-via-the-lipid-raft-dependent-integrin-%C3%AE-6%C3%AE-4-signaling-pathway
#20
Soo Sang Lee, Sei-Jung Lee, Sang Hun Lee, Jung Min Ryu, Hyeon Su Lim, Jun Sung Kim, Eun Ju Song, Young Hyun Jung, Hyun Jik Lee, Chung Hun Kim, Ho Jae Han
Netrin-1 (Ntn-1) is a multifunctional neuronal signaling molecule; however, its physiological significance, which improves the tissue-regeneration capacity of stem cells, has not been characterized. In the present study, we investigate the mechanism by which Ntn-1 promotes the proliferation of hUCB-MSCs with regard to the regeneration of injured tissues. We found that Ntn-1 induces the proliferation of hUCB-MSCs mainly via Inα6β4 coupled with c-Src. Ntn-1 induced the recruitment of NADPH oxidases and Rac1 into membrane lipid rafts to facilitate ROS production...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
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