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actin in neuronal tissue

Jairo A Diaz, Mauricio F Murillo, Jhonan A Mendoza, Ana M Barreto, Lina S Poveda, Lina K Sanchez, Laura C Poveda, Katherine T Mora
Emergent biological responses develop via unknown processes dependent on physical collision. In hypoxia, when the tissue architecture collapses but the geometric core is stable, actin cytoskeleton filament components emerge, revealing a hidden internal order that identifies how each molecule is reassembled into the original mold, using one common connection, i.e., a fractal self-similarity that guides the system from the beginning in reverse metamorphosis, with spontaneous self-assembly of past forms that mimics an embryoid phenotype...
2016: American Journal of Stem Cells
Marquitta Smith, Thuvan Piehler, Richard Benjamin, Karen L Farizatto, Morgan C Pait, Michael F Almeida, Vladimir V Ghukasyan, Ben A Bahr
Explosives create shockwaves that cause blast-induced neurotrauma, one of the most common types of traumatic brain injury (TBI) linked to military service. Blast-induced TBIs are often associated with reduced cognitive and behavioral functions due to a variety of factors. To study the direct effects of military explosive blasts on brain tissue, we removed systemic factors by utilizing rat hippocampal slice cultures. The long-term slice cultures were briefly sealed air-tight in serum-free medium, lowered into a 37°C water-filled tank, and small 1...
October 5, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Shuting Xia, Zikai Zhou, Zhengping Jia
The Rho family small GTPases and their effectors, including PAKs, are extensively studied in the context of the actin cytoskeleton, excitatory synaptic function, spine morphology and memory formation. However, their roles in inhibitory synaptic function remain poorly understood. We have recently shown that PAK1 is a potent regulator of GABAergic synaptic transmission. Thus, disruption of PAK1 leads to significant impairments in inhibitory postsynaptic currents which are manifested as reduced GABA presynaptic releases...
September 20, 2016: Small GTPases
Sachin Suresh Tiwari, Keiko Mizuno, Anshua Ghosh, Wajeeha Aziz, Claire Troakes, Jason Daoud, Vidushi Golash, Wendy Noble, Tibor Hortobágyi, Karl Peter Giese
Characteristic features of Alzheimer's disease are memory loss, plaques resulting from abnormal processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP), and presence of neurofibrillary tangles and dystrophic neurites containing hyperphosphorylated tau. Currently, it is not known what links these abnormalities together. Cytoplasmic FMR1 interacting protein 2 (CYFIP2) has been suggested to regulate mRNA translation at synapses and this may include local synthesis of APP and alpha-calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II, a kinase that can phosphorylate tau...
October 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Daniel A Ryskamp, Amber M Frye, Tam T T Phuong, Oleg Yarishkin, Andrew O Jo, Yong Xu, Monika Lakk, Anthony Iuso, Sarah N Redmon, Balamurali Ambati, Gregory Hageman, Glenn D Prestwich, Karen Y Torrejon, David Križaj
An intractable challenge in glaucoma treatment has been to identify druggable targets within the conventional aqueous humor outflow pathway, which is thought to be regulated/dysregulated by elusive mechanosensitive protein(s). Here, biochemical and functional analyses localized the putative mechanosensitive cation channel TRPV4 to the plasma membrane of primary and immortalized human TM (hTM) cells, and to human and mouse TM tissue. Selective TRPV4 agonists and substrate stretch evoked TRPV4-dependent cation/Ca(2+) influx, thickening of F-actin stress fibers and reinforcement of focal adhesion contacts...
2016: Scientific Reports
Juan Yu, Shuyun Lin, Mei Wang, Lijun Liang, Zijiao Zou, Xinfeng Zhou, Meichi Wang, Ping Chen, Ying Wang
Metastasis suppressor 1 (MTSS1) or missing in metastasis (MIM) is an actin- and membrane-binding protein with tumor suppressor functions. MTSS1 is important for cell morphology, motility, metastasis. The role of MTSS1 in cell morphology has been widely investigated in non-neuronal tissues; however the role of MTSS1 in neurite outgrowth remains unclear. Here we investigated the effect of MTSS1 on neurite outgrowth in primary cerebellar granule and hippocampal neurons of mouse. We found that overexpression of MTSS1 in cerebellar granule neurons significantly enhanced dendrite elaboration but inhibited axon elongation...
October 1, 2016: Neuroscience
Jihae Shin, Johnny S Salameh, Joel D Richter
CPEB4 is an RNA binding protein expressed in neuronal tissues including brain and spinal cord. CPEB4 has two domains: one that is structured for RNA binding and one that is unstructured and low complexity that has no known function. Unstructured low complexity domains (LCDs) in proteins are often found in RNA-binding proteins and have been implicated in motor neuron degenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, indicating that these regions mediate normal RNA processing as well as pathological events...
2016: Scientific Reports
Marco Musilli, Maria Teresa Ciotti, Massimo Pieri, Assunta Martino, Sonia Borrelli, Vincenzo Dinallo, Giovanni Diana
Recent evidence suggests an early involvement of dopaminergic (DA) processes and terminals in Parkinson's disease (PD). The arborization of neurons depends on the actin cytoskeleton, which in turn is regulated by small GTPases of the Rho family, encompassing Rho, Rac and Cdc42 subfamilies. Indeed, some reports point to a role for Rac and Cdc42 signaling in the pathophysiology of inherited parkinsonisms. We thus investigated the potential therapeutic effect of the modulation of cerebral Rho GTPases in PD. Cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1), a 114 kDa protein toxin produced by Escherichia coli, permanently activates RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42 in intact cells...
October 2016: Neuropharmacology
Yujian Chen, Yong Liu, Jiayu Guo, Tao Tang, Jian Gao, Tao Huang, Bin Wang, Shaojun Liu
Actin filament-associated protein-120kD (AFAP-120) is an alternatively spliced isoform of actin filament-associated protein-110kD (AFAP-110) and contains an additional neuronal insert (NINS) fragment in addition to identical domains to the AFAP-110. Unlike AFAP-110 widely expressed in tissues, AFAP-120 is specifically expressed in the nervous system and plays a role in organizing dynamic actin structures during neuronal differentiation. However, anti-AFAP-120 antibody is still commercially unavailable, and this may hinder the function research for AFAP-120...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kyu-Young Oh, Kyung-Rim Kang, Hye-Jung Yoon, Jae-Il Lee, Sam-Pyo Hong, Seong-Doo Hong
BACKGROUND: Granular cell tumor (GCT) is a benign soft tissue tumor of neural origin and is characterized by eosinophilic granular cells showing positivity for neuronal markers. Herein, we report the first case of primary intraosseous GCT arising in the maxilla of an adolescent girl. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 16-year-old female patient presented with palatal swelling. Radiographic findings revealed a well-defined radiolucent lesion centrally located in the right maxilla...
August 2016: Head & Neck
Cinzia Ambrosi, Cynthia Ren, Gaelle Spagnol, Gabriel Cavin, Angela Cone, Elena E Grintsevich, Gina E Sosinsky, Paul L Sorgen
Gap junctions are membrane specialization domains identified in most tissue types where cells abut each other. The connexin channels found in these membrane domains are conduits for direct cell-to-cell transfer of ions and molecules. Connexin43 (Cx43) is the most ubiquitous connexin, with critical roles in heart, skin, and brain. Several studies described the interaction between Cx43 and the cytoskeleton involving the actin binding proteins Zonula occludens (ZO-1) and drebrin, as well as with tubulin. However, a direct interaction has not been identified between drebrin and Cx43...
2016: PloS One
Risa Kashima, Sougata Roy, Manuel Ascano, Veronica Martinez-Cerdeno, Jeanelle Ariza-Torres, Sunghwan Kim, Justin Louie, Yao Lu, Patricio Leyton, Kenneth D Bloch, Thomas B Kornberg, Paul J Hagerman, Randi Hagerman, Giorgio Lagna, Akiko Hata
Epigenetic silencing of fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) causes fragile X syndrome (FXS), a common inherited form of intellectual disability and autism. FXS correlates with abnormal synapse and dendritic spine development, but the molecular link between the absence of the FMR1 product FMRP, an RNA binding protein, and the neuropathology is unclear. We found that the messenger RNA encoding bone morphogenetic protein type II receptor (BMPR2) is a target of FMRP. Depletion of FMRP increased BMPR2 abundance, especially that of the full-length isoform that bound and activated LIM domain kinase 1 (LIMK1), a component of the noncanonical BMP signal transduction pathway that stimulates actin reorganization to promote neurite outgrowth and synapse formation...
2016: Science Signaling
Shing-Chen Lin, Guo-Hau Gou, Ching-Wu Hsia, Cheng-Wen Ho, Kun-Lun Huang, Yung-Fu Wu, Shih-Yu Lee, Yi-Hui Chen
Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) are a population of multipotent stem cells that are distributed broadly in many tissues and organs and are capable of differentiating into a variety of cell types that are dispersed throughout three germ layers. We are interested in studying the effects of simulated microgravity on the survival and self-renewal of NCSCs. NCSCs extracted from the hair follicle bulge region of the rat whisker pad were cultured in vitro, respectively, in a 2D adherent environment and a 3D suspension environment using the rotatory cell culture system (RCCS) to simulate microgravity...
August 1, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
Inna A Belyantseva
The transfection of vertebrate inner ear hair cells has proven to be challenging. Therefore, many laboratories attempt to use and improve different transfection methods. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages. A particular researcher's skills in addition to available equipment and the type of experiment (in vivo or in vitro) likely determine the transfection method of choice. Biolistic delivery of exogenous DNA, mRNA, or siRNA, also known as Helios(®) Gene Gun-mediated transfection, uses the mechanical energy of compressed helium gas to bombard tissue with micron- or submicron-sized DNA or RNA-coated gold particles, which can penetrate and transfect cells in vitro or in vivo...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Pankaj Dubey, Prakash Joti, Krishanu Ray
Odorant receptors (OR) heterodimerizes with the OR co-receptor (Orco), forming specific odorant-gated cation channels, which are key to odor reception at the olfactory sensory neurons (OSN). Mammalian ORs are expressed in many other tissues, including testis. However, their biological implications are yet to be fully ascertained. In the mosquito, Orco is localized along the sperm tail and is indicated to maintain fidelity. Here, we show that orco expresses in Drosophila testis. The levels are higher in the somatic cyst cells...
June 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Jan Laco, Radovan Mottl, Walter Höbling, Stephan Ihrler, Petr Grossmann, Alena Skalova, Ales Ryska
Ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumor (ECT) is a rare benign tumor of uncertain lineage, which almost exclusively affects the anterior tongue. Herein, we report 2 cases of ECT occurring in 58- and 56-year-old males on the right and on the left side of the dorsum of the anterior tongue, measuring 18 mm and 10 mm, respectively. Despite positive resection margin in one case, none of the tumors recurred during follow-up of 6 and 5 years. Microscopically, both tumors had lobular architecture with a mixture of solid, microcystic, and chondromyxoid areas...
October 2016: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
Giovanna Alfano, Amna Z Shah, Glen Jeffery, Shomi S Bhattacharya
VAX2 is a transcription factor specifically expressed in the ventral region of the prospective neural retina in vertebrates and is required for ventral eye specification. Despite its extensive analysis in vertebrates, the biological role of VAX2 in the human is presently unclear. This study was undertaken to investigate VAX2 in humans aiming to gain new knowledge into its involvement in retinal function. Here, we report VAX2 gene expression and protein localization in cultured cells and adult retina. RT-PCR experiments indicated that VAX2 is enriched in neuronal tissues...
July 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Yasuna Higashiguchi, Kazuhiro Katsuta, Takunori Minegishi, Shigenobu Yonemura, Akihiro Urasaki, Naoyuki Inagaki
Shootin1 is a brain-specific cytoplasmic protein involved in neuronal polarity formation and axon outgrowth. It accumulates at the leading edge of axonal growth cones, where it mediates the mechanical coupling between F-actin retrograde flow and cell adhesions as a clutch molecule, thereby producing force for axon outgrowth. In this study, we report a novel splicing isoform of shootin1 which is expressed not only in the brain but also in peripheral tissues. We have renamed the brain-specific shootin1 as shootin1a and termed the novel isoform as shootin1b...
October 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Jiang He, Ruobo Zhou, Zhuhao Wu, Monica A Carrasco, Peri T Kurshan, Jonathan E Farley, David J Simon, Guiping Wang, Boran Han, Junjie Hao, Evan Heller, Marc R Freeman, Kang Shen, Tom Maniatis, Marc Tessier-Lavigne, Xiaowei Zhuang
Actin, spectrin, and associated molecules form a periodic, submembrane cytoskeleton in the axons of neurons. For a better understanding of this membrane-associated periodic skeleton (MPS), it is important to address how prevalent this structure is in different neuronal types, different subcellular compartments, and across different animal species. Here, we investigated the organization of spectrin in a variety of neuronal- and glial-cell types. We observed the presence of MPS in all of the tested neuronal types cultured from mouse central and peripheral nervous systems, including excitatory and inhibitory neurons from several brain regions, as well as sensory and motor neurons...
May 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Alexandra Krol, Steven J Henle, Lisa V Goodrich
Neurons exhibit asymmetric morphologies throughout development - from migration to the elaboration of axons and dendrites - that are correctly oriented for the flow of information. For instance, retinal amacrine cells migrate towards the inner plexiform layer (IPL) and then retract their trailing processes, thereby acquiring a unipolar morphology with a single dendritic arbor restricted to the IPL. Here, we provide evidence that the Fat-like cadherin Fat3 acts during multiple stages of amacrine cell development in mice to orient overall changes in cell shape towards the IPL...
June 15, 2016: Development
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