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actin in neuronal tissue

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746010/rho-kinase-rock-collaborates-with-pak-to-regulate-actin-polymerization-and-contraction-in-airway-smooth-muscle
#1
Wenwu Zhang, Bhupal P Bhetwal, Susan J Gunst
KEY POINTS: The mechanisms by which Rho kinase (ROCK) regulates airway smooth muscle contraction were determined in tracheal smooth muscle tissues. ROCK may mediate smooth muscle contraction by inhibiting myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphatase. ROCK can also regulate F-actin dynamics during cell migration, and actin polymerization is critical for airway smooth muscle contraction. Our results show that ROCK does not regulate airway smooth muscle contraction by inhibiting myosin RLC phosphatase or by stimulating myosin RLC phosphorylation...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733813/differential-regional-and-subcellular-localization-patterns-ofafadin-splice-variants-in-the-mouse-central-nervous-system
#2
Daiki Ohama, Takahiko Matsuda, Izumi Oinuma
AF6/afadin is an F-actin scaffold protein that plays essential roles in the organization of cell-cell junctions of polarized epithelia. Afadin comprises two major isoforms produced by alternative splicing-a longer isoform l-afadin, having the F-actin-binding domain, and a shorter isoform s-afadin, harboring the amino acid sequences unique to the isoform but lacking the F-actin-binding domain. We recently identified functional differences between l- and s-afadin isoforms in the regulation of axon branching in primary cultured cortical neurons; the former potentiates and the latter blocks axon branching...
May 4, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695901/the-association-of-neuron-derived-orphan-receptor-1-with-pulmonary-vascular-remodeling-in-copd-patients
#3
Chang-Guo Wang, Chang Li, Wei Lei, Jun-Hong Jiang, Jian-An Huang, Da-Xiong Zeng
Introduction: Chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling is a feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our previous reports indicate that neuron-derived orphan receptor 1 (NOR1) promoted pulmonary smooth muscle cell proliferation in vitro. But it remains unclear whether NOR1 participated into hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling in COPD patients. Patients and methods: For this study, we collected peripheral lung tissues of 26 male COPD patients with or without hypoxemia...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686105/cobll1-modulates-cell-morphology-and-facilitates-androgen-receptor-genomic-binding-in-advanced-prostate-cancer
#4
Ken-Ichi Takayama, Takashi Suzuki, Tetsuya Fujimura, Satoru Takahashi, Satoshi Inoue
Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is essential for prostate cancer progression and acquiring resistance to hormone therapy. However, the molecular pathogenesis through AR activation has not been fully understood. We performed integrative transcriptomic analysis to compare the AR program in a castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) model with that in their parental hormone-sensitive cells. We found that the gene cordon-bleu-like 1 ( COBLL1 ) is highly induced by AR in CRPC model cells. The expression of COBLL1 that possesses an actin-binding domain is up-regulated in clinical prostate cancer tissues and is associated with a poor prognosis for prostate cancer patients...
April 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616725/cell-biological-mechanisms-regulating-chick-neurogenesis
#5
Ioannis Kasioulis, Kate G Storey
Signalling pathways that regulate neural progenitor proliferation and neuronal differentiation have been identified. However, we know much less about how transduction of such signals is regulated within neuroepithelial cells to direct cell fate choice during mitosis and subsequent neuronal differentiation. Here we review recent advances in the experimentally amenable chick embryo, which reveal that this involves association of signalling pathway components with cell biological entities, including mitotic centrosomes and ciliary structures...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613814/grape-seed-procyanidins-extract-attenuates-cisplatin-induced-oxidative-stress-and-testosterone-synthase-inhibition-in-rat-testes
#6
Minmin Tian, Fangfang Liu, Han Liu, Qiong Zhang, Lei Li, Xiangbo Hou, Jianxin Zhao, Sheng Li, Xuhong Chang, Yingbiao Sun
Cisplatin (CIS) is widely applied for its antihematological malignancies properties and as antisolid tumors drugs. However, it could cause testicular damage related with oxidative stress and testosterone synthesis disorder. Studies reported that grape seed procyanidins extract (GSPE) could improve CIS induced-testes lesion via scavenging free radicals in animals, although its mechanisms were unclear. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to explore the antagonistic mechanisms of GSPE on CIS-induced testes lesion...
April 3, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544200/cytoskeleton-dynamics-in-axon-regeneration
#7
REVIEW
Oriane Blanquie, Frank Bradke
Recent years have seen cytoskeleton dynamics emerging as a key player in axon regeneration. The cytoskeleton, in particular microtubules and actin, ensures the growth of neuronal processes and maintains the singular, highly polarized shape of neurons. Following injury, adult central axons are tipped by a dystrophic structure, the retraction bulb, which prevents their regeneration. Abnormal cytoskeleton dynamics are responsible for the formation of this growth-incompetent structure but pharmacologically modulating cytoskeleton dynamics of injured axons can transform this structure into a growth-competent growth cone...
March 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536310/audiogenic-epilepsy-and-structural-features-of-superior-colliculus-in-km-rats
#8
A V Revishchin, G M Solus, I I Poletaeva, G V Pavlova
Using immunoblotting, we showed that in rats of audiogenic epilepsy (AE) prone strain (Krushinsky- Molodkina, KM) the superior colliculus tissue (SC) contains significantly less quantity of glial neurotrophic factor (GDNF), beta-tubulin and actin in comparison to the same brain region in "0" rats, nonprone to AE. This fact led to the suggestion that the histological structure of the SC in KM rats could differ significantly from that of the "0" strain. Using neuromorphologу technique, we demonstrated that the total number of SC cells, as well as the number of neurons were significantly less in KM rats than in the "0" strain rats...
January 2018: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491165/tunneling-nanotubes-as-a-novel-route-of-cell-to-cell-spread-of-herpesviruses
#9
Mirosława Panasiuk, Michał Rychłowski, Natalia Derewońko, Krystyna Bieńkowska-Szewczyk
Various types of intercellular connections that are essential for communication between cells are often utilized by pathogens. Recently, a new type of cellular connection, consisting of long, thin, actin-rich membrane extensions named tunneling nanotubes (TNTs), has been shown to play an important role in cell-to-cell spread of HIV and influenza virus. In the present report, we show that TNTs are frequently formed by cells infected by an alphaherpesvirus, bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1). Viral proteins, such as envelope glycoprotein E (gE), capsid protein VP26, and tegument protein Us3, as well as cellular organelles (mitochondria) were detected by immunofluorescence and live-cell imaging of nanotubes formed by bovine primary fibroblasts and oropharynx cells (KOP cells)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471128/spatiotemporal-magnetic-fields-enhance-cytosolic-ca-2-levels-and-induce-actin-polymerization-via-activation-of-voltage-gated-sodium-channels-in-skeletal-muscle-cells
#10
Mónica Rubio Ayala, Tatiana Syrovets, Susanne Hafner, Vitalii Zablotskii, Alexandr Dejneka, Thomas Simmet
Cellular function is modulated by the electric membrane potential controlling intracellular physiology and signal propagation from a motor neuron to a muscle fiber resulting in muscle contraction. Unlike electric fields, magnetic fields are not attenuated by biological materials and penetrate deep into the tissue. We used complex spatiotemporal magnetic fields (17-70 mT) to control intracellular signaling in skeletal muscle cells. By changing different parameters of the alternating magnetic field (amplitude, inversion time, rotation frequency), we induced transient depolarization of cellular membranes leading to i) Na+ influx through voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC), ii) cytosolic calcium increase, and iii) VGSC- and ryanodine receptor-dependent increase of actin polymerization...
May 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470990/lis1-dysfunction-leads-to-traction-force-reduction-and-cytoskeletal-disorganization-during-cell-migration
#11
Guo-Wei Jheng, Sung Sik Hur, Chia-Ming Chang, Chun-Chieh Wu, Jia-Shing Cheng, Hsiao-Hui Lee, Bon-Chu Chung, Yang-Kao Wang, Keng-Hui Lin, Juan C Del Álamo, Shu Chien, Jin-Wu Tsai
Cell migration is a critical process during development, tissue repair, and cancer metastasis. It requires complex processes of cell adhesion, cytoskeletal dynamics, and force generation. Lis1 plays an important role in the migration of neurons, fibroblasts and other cell types, and is essential for normal development of the cerebral cortex. Mutations in human LIS1 gene cause classical lissencephaly (smooth brain), resulting from defects in neuronal migration. However, how Lis1 may affect force generation in migrating cells is still not fully understood...
March 11, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463007/new-insights-into-the-role-of-neuron-specific-enolase-in-neuro-inflammation-neurodegeneration-and-neuroprotection
#12
REVIEW
Azizul Haque, Rachel Polcyn, Denise Matzelle, Naren L Banik
Neurodegeneration is a complex process that leads to irreversible neuronal damage and death in spinal cord injury (SCI) and various neurodegenerative diseases, which are serious, debilitating conditions. Despite exhaustive research, the cause of neuronal damage in these degenerative disorders is not completely understood. Elevation of cell surface α-enolase activates various inflammatory pathways, including the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and some growth factors that are detrimental to neuronal cells...
February 18, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428488/a-thymosin-repeated-protein1-reduces-white-spot-syndrome-virus-replication-in-red-claw-crayfish-cherax-quadricarinatus
#13
Dong-Li Li, Xue-Jiao Chang, Xiao-Lu Xie, Shu-Cheng Zheng, Qiu-Xia Zhang, Shu-Ao Jia, Ke-Jian Wang, Hai-Peng Liu
The β-thymosins are a group of structurally related, highly conserved intracellular small peptides in vertebrates with various biological functions, including cytoskeletal remodeling, neuronal development, cell migration, cell survival, tissue repair and inhibition of inflammation. In contrast to vertebrates, the function of β-thymosin is not fully understood in crustaceans. Previously, we found that a thymosin-repeated protein1 (CqTRP1) gene was up-regulated after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge in hematopoietic tissue (Hpt) cells from the red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus...
July 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404402/an-essential-postdevelopmental-role-for-lis1-in-mice
#14
Timothy J Hines, Xu Gao, Subhshri Sahu, Meghann M Lange, Jill R Turner, Jeffery L Twiss, Deanna S Smith
LIS1 mutations cause lissencephaly (LIS), a severe developmental brain malformation. Much less is known about its role in the mature nervous system. LIS1 regulates the microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein 1 (dynein), and as LIS1 and dynein are both expressed in the adult nervous system, Lis1 could potentially regulate dynein-dependent processes such as axonal transport. We therefore knocked out Lis1 in adult mice using tamoxifen-induced, Cre-ER-mediated recombination. When an actin promoter was used to drive Cre-ER expression (Act-Cre-ER), heterozygous Lis1 knockout (KO) caused no obvious change in viability or behavior, despite evidence of widespread recombination by a Cre reporter three weeks after tamoxifen exposure...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246925/a%C3%AE-mediates-f-actin-disassembly-in-dendritic-spines-leading-to-cognitive-deficits-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Reddy Peera Kommaddi, Debajyoti Das, Smitha Karunakaran, Siddharth Nanguneri, Deepti Bapat, Ajit Ray, Eisha Shaw, David A Bennett, Deepak Nair, Vijayalakshmi Ravindranath
Dendritic spine loss is recognized as an early feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Dendritic spine structure is defined by filamentous actin (F-actin) and we observed depolymerization of synaptosomal F-actin accompanied by increased globular-actin (G-actin) at as early as 1 month of age in a mouse model of AD (APPswe/PS1ΔE9, male mice). This led to recall deficit after contextual fear conditioning (cFC) at 2 months of age in APPswe/PS1ΔE9 male mice, which could be reversed by the actin-polymerizing agent jasplakinolide...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243108/identification-of-a-novel-high-yielding-source-of-multipotent-adult-human-neural-crest-derived-stem-cells
#16
Matthias Schürmann, Viktoria Brotzmann, Marlena Bütow, Johannes Greiner, Anna Höving, Christian Kaltschmidt, Barbara Kaltschmidt, Holger Sudhoff
Due to their extraordinarily broad differentiation potential and persistence during adulthood, adult neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) are highly promising candidates for clinical applications, particularly when facing the challenging treatment of neurodegenerative diseases or complex craniofacial injuries. Successful application of human NCSCs in regenerative medicine and pharmaceutical research mainly relies on the availability of sufficient amounts of tissue for cell isolation procedures. Facing this challenge, we here describe for the first time a novel population of NCSCs within the middle turbinate of the human nasal cavity...
December 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155180/cell-membrane-dynamics-induction-using-optogenetic-tools
#17
Yoshibumi Ueda, Moritoshi Sato
Structures arising from actin-based cell membrane movements, including ruffles, lamellipodia, and filopodia, play important roles in a broad spectrum of cellular functions, such as cell motility, axon guidance in neurons, wound healing, and micropinocytosis. Previous studies investigating these cell membrane dynamics often relied on pharmacological inhibition, RNA interference, and constitutive active/dominant negative protein expression systems. However, such studies did not allow the modulation of protein activity at specific regions of cells, tissues, and organs in animals with high spatial and temporal precision...
November 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151265/cnn3-regulates-neural-tube-morphogenesis-and-neuronal-stem-cell-properties
#18
Dirk Junghans, Sebastian Herzog
Calponin 3 (Cnn3) is a member of the Cnn family of actin-binding molecules that is highly expressed in the mammalian brain and has been shown to control dendritic spine morphology, density, and plasticity by regulating actin cytoskeletal reorganization and dynamics. However, little is known about the role of Cnn3 during embryonic development. In this study, we analyzed mutant animals deficient in Cnn3 to gain a better understanding of its role in brain morphogenesis. Embryos lacking Cnn3 exhibited massive malformation of the developing brain including exoencephaly, closure defects at the rostral neural tube, and strong enlargement of brain tissue...
January 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145710/testosterone-replacement-in-transgenic-sickle-cell-mice-controls-priapic-activity-and-upregulates-pde5-expression-and-enos-activity-in-the-penis
#19
B Musicki, S Karakus, W Akakpo, F H Silva, J Liu, H Chen, B R Zirkin, A L Burnett
Sickle cell disease (SCD)-associated priapism is characterized by decreased nitric oxide (NO) signaling and downregulated phosphodiesterase (PDE)5 protein expression and activity in the penis. Priapism is also associated with testosterone deficiency, but molecular mechanisms underlying testosterone effects in the penis in SCD are not known. Given the critical role of androgens in erection physiology and NO synthase (NOS)/PDE5 expression, we hypothesized that testosterone replacement to eugonadal testosterone levels reduces priapism by reversing impaired endothelial (e)NOS activity and molecular abnormalities involving PDE5...
January 2018: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133625/the-interplay-of-peptide-affinity-and-scaffold-stiffness-on-neuronal-differentiation-of-neural-stem-cells
#20
Jessica M Stukel, Rebecca Kuntz Willits
Cells are sensitive to physical cues in their environment, such as the stiffness of the substrate, peptide density, and peptide affinity. Understanding how neural stem cells (NSCs) sense and respond to these matrix cues has the potential to improve disease outcome, particularly if a regenerative response can be exploited. While the material properties are known to influence other stem cells, little is known about how NSC differentiation is altered by this interplay of mechanical, or bulk properties, with peptide concentration and affinity, or microscale properties...
February 2, 2018: Biomedical Materials
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