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actin in neuronal tissue

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155180/cell-membrane-dynamics-induction-using-optogenetic-tools
#1
Yoshibumi Ueda, Moritoshi Sato
Structures arising from actin-based cell membrane movements, including ruffles, lamellipodia, and filopodia, play important roles in a broad spectrum of cellular functions, such as cell motility, axon guidance in neurons, wound healing, and micropinocytosis. Previous studies investigating these cell membrane dynamics often relied on pharmacological inhibition, RNA interference, and constitutive active/dominant negative protein expression systems. However, such studies did not allow the modulation of protein activity at specific regions of cells, tissues, and organs in animals with high spatial and temporal precision...
November 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151265/cnn3-regulates-neural-tube-morphogenesis-and-neuronal-stem-cell-properties
#2
Dirk Junghans, Sebastian Herzog
Calponin 3 (Cnn3) is a member of the calponin family of actin binding molecules that is highly expressed in the mammalian brain and has been shown to control dendritic spine morphology, density and plasticity by regulating actin cytoskeletal reorganization and dynamics. However, little is known about the role of Cnn3 during embryonic development. In this study we analyzed mutant animals deficient in Cnn3 to gain a better understanding of its role in brain morphogenesis. Embryos lacking Cnn3 exhibited massive malformation of the developing brain including exoencephaly, closure defects at the rostral neural tube and strong enlargement of brain tissue...
November 19, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145710/testosterone-replacement-in-transgenic-sickle-cell-mice-controls-priapic-activity-and-upregulates-pde5-expression-and-enos-activity-in-the-penis
#3
B Musicki, S Karakus, W Akakpo, F H Silva, J Liu, H Chen, B R Zirkin, A L Burnett
Sickle cell disease (SCD)-associated priapism is characterized by decreased nitric oxide (NO) signaling and downregulated phosphodiesterase (PDE)5 protein expression and activity in the penis. Priapism is also associated with testosterone deficiency, but molecular mechanisms underlying testosterone effects in the penis in SCD are not known. Given the critical role of androgens in erection physiology and NO synthase (NOS)/PDE5 expression, we hypothesized that testosterone replacement to eugonadal testosterone levels reduces priapism by reversing impaired endothelial (e)NOS activity and molecular abnormalities involving PDE5...
November 16, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133625/the-interplay-of-peptide-affinity-and-scaffold-stiffness-on-neuronal-differentiation-of-neural-stem-cells
#4
Jessica M Stukel, Rebecca Kuntz Willits
Cells are sensitive to physical cues in their environment, such as the stiffness of the substrate, peptide density, and peptide affinity. Understanding how neural stem cells (NSCs) sense and respond to these matrix cues has the potential to improve disease outcome, particularly if a regenerative response can be exploited. While the material properties are known to influence other stem cells, little is known about how NSC differentiation is altered by this interplay of mechanical, or bulk properties, with peptide concentration and affinity, or microscale properties...
November 14, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027528/-nasal-glial-heterotopia-clinical-and-morphological-characteristics
#5
V P Bykova, A A Bakhtin, D P Polyakov, A S Yunusov, N A Daikhes
The paper describes a case of nasal glial heterotopia in a 10-month-old girl with a mixed (intranasal and subcutaneous) localization, which is accompanied by the divergence of the nasal bones. Histological examination supplemented by immunohistochemical reactions with antibodies to vimentin, S100 protein, neuron-specific enolase, as well as Ki-67 and smooth muscle actin confirmed the neural nature of the tumor. Fields of mature astrocytic glia including individual cells with neuronal differentiation were found among the fibrous and fibrovascular tissues...
2017: Arkhiv Patologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865028/drebrin-at-junctional-plaques
#6
Wiebke K Ludwig-Peitsch
Adhesion, segregation, and cellular plasticity are regulated by actin filaments anchored at the plaques of adherens junctions, sites of mechanical stabilization, and interfaces of multiple signaling networks. Drebrins were originally identified in neuronal cells, but the isoform drebrin E was also detected at adherens junctions of a wide range of non-neuronal cells, including polarized epithelia, endothelia, and fibroblasts. Here the protein is enriched at actin filament bundles associated with junctional plaques...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865023/drebrins-and-connexins-a-biomedical-perspective
#7
Irina V Majoul, Justus S Ernesti, Eugenia V Butkevich, Rainer Duden
In this chapter we summarize knowledge on the role of drebrin in cell-cell communications. Specifically, we follow drebrin-connexin-43 interactions and drebrin behavior at the cell-cell interface described earlier. Drebrin is a part of the actin cytoskeleton which is a target of numerous bacteria and viruses invading mammalian cells. Drebrin phosphorylation, self-inhibition and transition between filaments, particles, and podosomes underlie cellular mechanisms involved in diseases and cognitive disorders. Cytoskeletal rearrangements influence the state of gap junction contacts which regulate cell signaling and metabolic flow of information across cells in tissues...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865011/general-introduction-to-drebrin
#8
Tomoaki Shirao, Yuko Sekino
Drebrin was first discovered by our group as "developmentally regulated brain protein" from the chicken optic tectum. Drebrin is an actin-binding protein, which is classified into two major isoforms produced by alternative splicing from a single DBN1 gene. The isoform predominantly expressed in the adult brain (drebrin A) is neuron specific, containing a neuron-specific sequence (Ins2) in the middle of the molecule. Drebrin A is highly concentrated in dendritic spines, and its accumulation level is regulated by synaptic activity...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805947/penile-neurovascular-structure-revisited-immunohistochemical-studies-with-three-dimensional-reconstruction
#9
G N Yin, S-H Park, M-J Choi, A Limanjaya, K Ghatak, N N Minh, J Ock, K-M Song, J-K Ryu, J-K Suh
Penile erection is a neurovascular phenomenon that requires well coordinated and functional interaction between penile vascular and nervous systems. In order to provide a useful tool to examine pathologic changes in the erectile tissue, mainly focusing on penile neurovascular dysfunction, we established the technique to determine the differential distribution of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, pericytes, and nerve fibers in the mouse penis using immunohistochemical staining with three-dimensional reconstruction...
August 14, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803787/expression-analyses-of-phactr1-phosphatase-and-actin-regulator-1-during-mouse-brain-development
#10
Hidenori Ito, Makoto Mizuno, Kei Noguchi, Rika Morishita, Ikuko Iwamoto, Akira Hara, Koh-Ichi Nagata
Phactr1 (Phosphatase and actin regulator 1) is abundantly expressed in the central nervous system and considered to regulate various neuronal processes through the regulation of protein phosphorylation and actin cytoskeletal organization. In this study, we prepared a specific antibody against Phactr1, anti-Phactr1, and carried out biochemical and morphological analyses of Phactr1 with mouse brain tissues. Western blotting analyses revealed that Phactr1 was expressed in a tissue-dependent profile in the young adult mouse and in a developmental stage-dependent manner in the mouse brain...
August 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743168/calorie-restriction-reverses-age-related-alteration-of-cavernous-neurovascular-structure-in-the-rat
#11
A Limanjaya, K-M Song, M-J Choi, K Ghatak, N N Minh, D H Kang, J Ock, G N Yin, H Y Chung, J-K Ryu, J-K Suh
Calorie restriction (CR) refers to a reduction of calorie intake without compromising essential nutrients to avoid malnutrition. CR has been established as a non-genetic method of altering longevity and attenuating biological changes associated with aging. Aging is also an important risk factor for erectile dysfunction. The aim of this study was to examine whether CR diet can reverse the age-related alterations of erectile tissue in the aged rat. Four groups of rats were used: young rats (7 months) + ad libitum, aged rats (22 months) + ad libitum, young rats + CR diet, and aged rats + CR diet...
September 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681095/nail-patella-syndrome
#12
REVIEW
Ralph Witzgall
The pathognomonic symptoms of patients with nail-patella syndrome are their small or absent patellae and dysplastic or absent finger- and toenails. Many of the patients suffer from renal symptoms which also affect their prognosis. In 1998, mutations in the gene encoding the transcription factor LMX1B were identified as underlying this autosomal-dominant disease. The LMX1B gene is expressed in a variety of tissues, and the symptoms are reflected nicely by its expression pattern. LMX1B is essential for dorso-ventral pattern formation in the limbs, for differentiation of the anterior portions of the eyes, for development of certain neuron populations in the central nervous system, and for the differentiation and maintenance of podocytes...
August 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634272/the-secreted-msp-domain-of-c-elegans-vapb-homolog-vpr-1-patterns-the-adult-striated-muscle-mitochondrial-reticulum-via-smn-1
#13
Jessica Schultz, Se-Jin Lee, Tim Cole, Hieu D Hoang, Jack Vibbert, Pauline A Cottee, Michael A Miller, Sung Min Han
The major sperm protein domain (MSPd) has an extracellular signaling function implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Secreted MSPds derived from the C. elegans VAPB homolog VPR-1 promote mitochondrial localization to actin-rich I-bands in body wall muscle. Here we show that the nervous system and germ line are key MSPd secretion tissues. MSPd signals are transduced through the CLR-1 Lar-like tyrosine phosphatase receptor. We show that CLR-1 is expressed throughout the muscle plasma membrane, where it is accessible to MSPd within the pseudocoelomic fluid...
June 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624895/semaphorin4d-plexinb1-signaling-attenuates-photoreceptor-outer-segment-phagocytosis-by-reducing-rac1-activity-of-rpe-cells
#14
Ayelen Bulloj, Arvydas Maminishkis, Masayuki Mizui, Silvia C Finnemann
Semaphorins form a family of secreted and membrane-bound molecules that were identified originally as axonal guidance factors during neuronal development. Given their wide distribution in many including mature tissues, semaphorin 4D (sema4D) and its main functional receptor plexin B1 (plxnB1) are expected to fulfill additional functions that remain to be uncovered. A main characteristic of the plexin receptor family is its ability to reorganize the cytoskeleton. PlxnB1 specifically may directly interact with Rho family GTPases to regulate F-actin driven pathways in cells in culture...
June 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576707/development-of-transcripts-regulating-dendritic-spines-in-layer-3-pyramidal-cells-of-the-monkey-prefrontal-cortex-implications-for-the-pathogenesis-of-schizophrenia
#15
Samuel J Dienel, Holly H Bazmi, David A Lewis
Certain cognitive deficits in schizophrenia appear to emerge from altered postnatal development of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Dendritic spines on DLPFC layer 3 pyramidal cells are essential for certain cognitive functions, change in density over development, and are reduced in number in schizophrenia. Altered expression of molecular regulators of actin filament assembly and stability, which are essential for spine formation and maintenance, is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of spine deficits in the disease...
September 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487338/poststroke-sonic-hedgehog-agonist-treatment-improves-functional-recovery-by-enhancing-neurogenesis-and-angiogenesis
#16
Yongming Jin, Austin Barnett, Yifan Zhang, Xin Yu, Yu Luo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Because of the limitation in treatment window of the r-tPA (recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator), the development of delayed treatment for stroke is needed. In this study, we examined the efficacy of delayed poststroke treatment (post 3-8 days) of the sonic hedgehog pathway agonist on functional recovery and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: We evaluated functional recovery at 1 month after stroke using locomotion analysis and Barnes maze test for cognitive function...
June 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387217/defective-gpsm2-g%C3%AE-i3-signalling-disrupts-stereocilia-development-and-growth-cone-actin-dynamics-in-chudley-mccullough-syndrome
#17
Stephanie A Mauriac, Yeri E Hien, Jonathan E Bird, Steve Dos-Santos Carvalho, Ronan Peyroutou, Sze Chim Lee, Maite M Moreau, Jean-Michel Blanc, Aysegul Geyser, Chantal Medina, Olivier Thoumine, Sandra Beer-Hammer, Thomas B Friedman, Lukas Rüttiger, Andrew Forge, Bernd Nürnberg, Nathalie Sans, Mireille Montcouquiol
Mutations in GPSM2 cause Chudley-McCullough syndrome (CMCS), an autosomal recessive neurological disorder characterized by early-onset sensorineural deafness and brain anomalies. Here, we show that mutation of the mouse orthologue of GPSM2 affects actin-rich stereocilia elongation in auditory and vestibular hair cells, causing deafness and balance defects. The G-protein subunit Gαi3, a well-documented partner of Gpsm2, participates in the elongation process, and its absence also causes hearing deficits. We show that Gpsm2 defines an ∼200 nm nanodomain at the tips of stereocilia and this localization requires the presence of Gαi3, myosin 15 and whirlin...
April 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373358/neurofilaments-and-neurofilament-proteins-in-health-and-disease
#18
REVIEW
Aidong Yuan, Mala V Rao, Veeranna, Ralph A Nixon
SUMMARYNeurofilaments (NFs) are unique among tissue-specific classes of intermediate filaments (IFs) in being heteropolymers composed of four subunits (NF-L [neurofilament light]; NF-M [neurofilament middle]; NF-H [neurofilament heavy]; and α-internexin or peripherin), each having different domain structures and functions. Here, we review how NFs provide structural support for the highly asymmetric geometries of neurons and, especially, for the marked radial expansion of myelinated axons crucial for effective nerve conduction velocity...
April 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224388/ocular-safety-of-intravitreal-clindamycin-hydrochloride-released-by-plga-implants
#19
Gabriella M Fernandes-Cunha, Silvia Ligório Fialho, Gisele Rodrigues da Silva, Armando Silva-Cunha, Min Zhao, Francine Behar-Cohen
BACKGROUND: Drug ocular toxicity is a field that requires attention. Clindamycin has been injected intravitreally to treat ocular toxoplasmosis, the most common cause of eye posterior segment infection worldwide. However, little is known about the toxicity of clindamycin to ocular tissues. We have previously showed non intraocular toxicity in rabbit eyes of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) implants containing clindamycin hydrochloride (CLH) using only clinical macroscotopic observation...
May 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199839/the-survival-of-motor-neuron-protein-acts-as-a-molecular-chaperone-for-mrnp-assembly
#20
Paul G Donlin-Asp, Claudia Fallini, Jazmin Campos, Ching-Chieh Chou, Megan E Merritt, Han C Phan, Gary J Bassell, Wilfried Rossoll
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a motor neuron disease caused by reduced levels of the survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein. SMN is part of a multiprotein complex that facilitates the assembly of spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs). SMN has also been found to associate with mRNA-binding proteins, but the nature of this association was unknown. Here, we have employed a combination of biochemical and advanced imaging methods to demonstrate that SMN promotes the molecular interaction between IMP1 protein and the 3' UTR zipcode region of β-actin mRNA, leading to assembly of messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) complexes that associate with the cytoskeleton to facilitate trafficking...
February 14, 2017: Cell Reports
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