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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432816/rhodnius-prolixus-from-classical-physiology-to-modern-developmental-biology
#1
REVIEW
Rodrigo Nunes-da-Fonseca, Mateus Berni, Vitória Tobias-Dos-Santos, Attilio Pane, Helena Marcolla Araujo
The hemiptera Rhodnius prolixus is a blood-feeding insect and a primary vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of the Chagas disease. Over the past century, Rhodnius has been the subject of intense investigations, which have contributed to unveil important aspects of metabolism and physiology in insects. Recent technological innovations are helping dissect the genetic and molecular underpinnings of Rhodnius embryogenesis and organogenesis, thus fostering the use of this important species in the fields of developmental and evolutionary biology...
April 22, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428784/the-roles-of-mast-cells-in-parasitic-protozoan-infections
#2
REVIEW
Fangli Lu, Shiguang Huang
Protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium spp., Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma spp., and Toxoplasma gondii are major causes of parasitic diseases in both humans and animals. The immune system plays a critical role against protozoa, but their immune mechanism remains poorly understood. This highlights the need to investigate the function of immune cells involved in the process of parasite infections and the responses of host immune system to parasite infections. Mast cells (MCs) are known to be central players in allergy and anaphylaxis, and it has been demonstrated that MCs have crucial roles in host defense against a number of different pathogens, including parasites...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428133/epidemiological-study-of-common-diseases-and-their-risk-factors-in-camels-in-south-punjab-pakistan
#3
Aneela Zameer Durrani, Zubair Bashir, Imran Rasheed, Noor-Ul-Ain Sarwar
Bacteriological study of mastitis along with common blood protozoan diseases were studied in dromedary camels in Cholistan, Dera Ismail Khan and Rahim Yar Khan districts in South Punjab, Pakistan. For this purpose 300 camels were sampled randomly at different common grazing and watering point. For study of blood parasites clinically suspected and apparently healthy camels, 150 each, were sampled. An overall prevalence of 15%and 5% was recorded for trypanosomiasis and Anaplasmosis respectively. Trypanosoma evansi was identified with 280 bp product on polymerase chain reaction test...
April 17, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428042/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-selective-tubulin-inhibitors-as-anti-trypanosomal-agents
#4
Viharika Bobba, Vishal Nanavaty, Nethrie D Idippily, Anran Zhao, Bibo Li, Bin Su
African trypanosomiasis is still a threat to human health due to the severe side-effects of current drugs. We identified selective tubulin inhibitors that showed the promise to the treatment of this disease, which was based on the tubulin protein structural difference between mammalian and trypanosome cells. Further lead optimization was performed in the current study to improve the efficiency of the drug candidates. We used Trypanosoma brucei brucei cells as the parasite model, and human normal kidney cells and mouse macrophage cells as the host model to evaluate the compounds...
April 8, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427957/pcr-based-identification-of-trypanosoma-lewisi-and-trypanosoma-musculi-using-maxicircle-kinetoplast-dna
#5
Xiao-Kun Hong, Xuan Zhang, Octavio Alejandro Fusco, You-Gen Lan, Zhao-Rong Lun, De-Hua Lai
Trypanosoma lewisi, transmitted by rat fleas, is a widespread pathogen specific to rats with records of human infection cases. Its closely related species with global distribution, Trypanosoma musculi, is transmitted between mice by ingestion of infected fleas. These trypanosomes are of similar morphology, making it difficult to distinguish them by microscopy. In this study, we have developed a rapid, sensitive and reliable PCR method for the diagnosis of T. lewisi and T. musculi. The T. lewisi-specific amplicons were not produced by other Trypanosoma, such as T...
April 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426655/glycosome-biogenesis-in-trypanosomes-and-the-de-novo-dilemma
#6
REVIEW
Sarah Bauer, Meredith T Morris
Trypanosomatid parasites, including Trypanosoma and Leishmania, are the causative agents of lethal diseases threatening millions of people around the world. These organisms compartmentalize glycolysis in essential, specialized peroxisomes called glycosomes. Peroxisome proliferation can occur through growth and division of existing organelles and de novo biogenesis from the endoplasmic reticulum. The level that each pathway contributes is debated. Current evidence supports the concerted contribution of both mechanisms in an equilibrium that can vary depending on environmental conditions and metabolic requirements of the cell...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424496/the-chemical-characterization-of-nigerian-propolis-samples-and-their-activity-against-trypanosoma-brucei
#7
Ruwida Omar, John O Igoli, Tong Zhang, Alexander I Gray, Godwin U Ebiloma, Carol J Clements, James Fearnley, RuAngeli Edrada Ebel, Tim Paget, Harry P de Koning, David G Watson
Profiling of extracts from twelve propolis samples collected from eight regions in Nigeria was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with evaporative light scattering (ELSD), ultraviolet detection (UV) and mass spectrometry (MS), gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the processed LC-MS data demonstrated the varying chemical composition of the samples. Most of the samples were active against Trypanosoma b...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421410/antiparasitic-sesquiterpenes-from-the-cameroonian-spice-scleria-striatinux-and-preliminary-in-vitro-and-in-silico-dmpk-assessment
#8
Kennedy D Nyongbela, Fidele Ntie-Kang, Thomas R Hoye, Simon M N Efange
The antiparasitic activity and preliminary in vitro and in silico drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic (DMPK) assessment of six isomeric sesquiterpenes (1-6), isolated from the Cameroonian spice Scleria striatinux De Wild (Cyperaceae) is reported. The study was prompted by the observation that two of the compounds (1 and 2) exhibited varying levels of antiparasitic activity on Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania donovani. The in silico method employed a total of 46 descriptors, calculated using Schrödinger QikProp software...
April 18, 2017: Natural Products and Bioprospecting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421044/comparative-genomics-of-glossina-palpalis-gambiensis-and-g-morsitans-morsitans-to-reveal-gene-orthologs-involved-in-infection-by-trypanosoma-brucei-gambiense
#9
Illiassou Hamidou Soumana, Bernadette Tchicaya, Stéphanie Rialle, Hugues Parrinello, Anne Geiger
Blood-feeding Glossina palpalis gambiense (Gpg) fly transmits the single-celled eukaryotic parasite Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (Tbg), the second Glossina fly African trypanosome pair being Glossina morsitans/T.brucei rhodesiense. Whatever the T. brucei subspecies, whereas the onset of their developmental program in the zoo-anthropophilic blood feeding flies does unfold in the fly midgut, its completion is taking place in the fly salivary gland where does emerge a low size metacyclic trypomastigote population displaying features that account for its establishment in mammals-human individuals included...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419477/the-effectiveness-of-riboflavin-and-ultraviolet-light-pathogen-reduction-technology-in-eliminating-trypanosoma-cruzi-from-leukoreduced-whole-blood
#10
Teresa Jimenez-Marco, Beatriz Cancino-Faure, Enrique Girona-Llobera, M Magdalena Alcover, Cristina Riera, Roser Fisa
BACKGROUND: The parasitic Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, which is mainly transmitted by insect vectors. Other infection routes, both in endemic and in nonendemic areas, include organ and marrow transplantation, congenital transmission, and blood transfusion. Asymptomatic chronic chagasic individuals may have a low and transient parasitemia in peripheral blood and, consequently, they can unknowingly transmit the disease via blood transfusion. Riboflavin and ultraviolet (UV) light pathogen reduction is a method to reduce pathogen transfusion transmission risk based on damage to the pathogen nucleic acids...
April 16, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414727/trypanosoma-brucei-tbif1-inhibits-the-essential-f1-atpase-in-the-infectious-form-of-the-parasite
#11
Brian Panicucci, Ondřej Gahura, Alena Zíková
The mitochondrial (mt) FoF1-ATP synthase of the digenetic parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, generates ATP during the insect procyclic form (PF), but becomes a perpetual consumer of ATP in the mammalian bloodstream form (BF), which lacks a canonical respiratory chain. This unconventional dependence on FoF1-ATPase is required to maintain the essential mt membrane potential (Δψm). Normally, ATP hydrolysis by this rotary molecular motor is restricted to when eukaryotic cells experience sporadic hypoxic conditions, during which this compulsory function quickly depletes the cellular ATP pool...
April 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414672/a-strong-and-fortuitous-case-of-dyspnea
#12
R Hammer, M Sciaudone
CASE: A 48 year-old man with no past medical history was sent to our emergency department (ED); from a primary care clinic for hypertensive urgency of 200/130. The man reported an intermittent non-productive cough of approximately one year's duration and worsening dyspnea on exertion and orthopnea over the last month with lower extremity swelling. Of note, he emigrated from Honduras twenty years ago. Blood pressure normalized with administration of Lasix in the ED. Physical exam revealed rales in lung bases bilaterally, jugular venous distension, lower extremity pitting edema with serpiginous patches of erythema and excoriation, and a cardiac gallop...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413725/trypanosoma-cruzi-reservoir-triatomine-vector-co-occurrence-networks-reveal-meta-community-effects-by-synanthropic-mammals-on-geographic-dispersal
#13
Carlos N Ibarra-Cerdeña, Leopoldo Valiente-Banuet, Víctor Sánchez-Cordero, Christopher R Stephens, Janine M Ramsey
Contemporary patterns of land use and global climate change are modifying regional pools of parasite host species. The impact of host community changes on human disease risk, however, is difficult to assess due to a lack of information about zoonotic parasite host assemblages. We have used a recently developed method to infer parasite-host interactions for Chagas Disease (CD) from vector-host co-occurrence networks. Vector-host networks were constructed to analyze topological characteristics of the network and ecological traits of species' nodes, which could provide information regarding parasite regional dispersal in Mexico...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411096/-seroprevalence-and-vertical-transmission-of-chagas-disease-in-a-cohort-of-latin-american-pregnant-women-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-madrid
#14
Laura Francisco-González, Teresa Gastañaga-Holguera, Beatriz Jiménez Montero, Zarife Daoud Pérez, Marta Illán Ramos, Paloma Merino Amador, Miguel Ángel Herráiz Martínez, José Tomás Ramos Amador
BACKGROUND: Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), is endemic in Latin-America and is emerging in Spain due to immigration. The vertical transmission rate is around 5%. A routine prenatal screening with serology of all pregnant women from endemic areas is recommended to identify infected newborns, allowing early treatment and cure. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of positive Chagas serology in a cohort of pregnant women from Latin-America and its vertical transmission...
April 12, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408215/prevalence-genetic-diversity-and-potential-clinical-impact-of-blood-borne-and-enteric-protozoan-parasites-in-native-mammals-from-northern-australia
#15
Amanda Barbosa, Andrea Reiss, Bethany Jackson, Kristin Warren, Andrea Paparini, Graeme Gillespie, Danielle Stokeld, Peter Irwin, Una Ryan
A molecular survey was conducted to provide baseline information on the prevalence, genetic diversity and potential clinical impacts of blood-borne and enteric protozoans in native wild mammals from the Northern Territory (NT). A total of 209 blood and 167 faecal samples were collected from four target species; the northern brown bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus), common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), northern quoll (Dasyurus hallucatus) and brush-tailed rabbit-rat (Conilurus penicillatus). Blood samples were screened by PCR at the 18S rRNA gene for trypanosomes, piroplasms and haemogregarines, with faecal samples tested for Cryptosporidium spp...
April 4, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406967/differential-transcriptome-analysis-supports-rhodnius-montenegrensis-and-rhodnius-robustus-hemiptera-reduviidae-triatominae-as-distinct-species
#16
Danila Blanco de Carvalho, Carlos Congrains, Samira Chahad-Ehlers, Heloisa Pinotti, Reinaldo Alves de Brito, João Aristeu da Rosa
Chagas disease is one of the main parasitic diseases found in Latin America and it is estimated that between six and seven million people are infected worldwide. Its etiologic agent, the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is transmitted by triatomines, some of which from the genus Rhodnius. Twenty species are currently recognized in this genus, including some closely related species with low levels of morphological differentiation, such as Rhodnius montenegrensis and Rhodnius robustus. In order to investigate genetic differences between these two species, we generated large-scale RNA-sequencing data (consisting of four RNA-seq libraries) from the heads and salivary glands of males of R...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406895/the-superfamily-keeps-growing-identification-in-trypanosomatids-of-ribj-the-first-riboflavin-transporter-family-in-protists
#17
Darío E Balcazar, María Cristina Vanrell, Patricia S Romano, Claudio A Pereira, Fernando A Goldbaum, Hernán R Bonomi, Carolina Carrillo
BACKGROUND: Trypanosomatid parasites represent a major health issue affecting hundreds of million people worldwide, with clinical treatments that are partially effective and/or very toxic. They are responsible for serious human and plant diseases including Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease), Trypanosoma brucei (Sleeping sickness), Leishmania spp. (Leishmaniasis), and Phytomonas spp. (phytoparasites). Both, animals and trypanosomatids lack the biosynthetic riboflavin (vitamin B2) pathway, the vital precursor of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactors...
April 13, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403897/trypanosoma-vivax-is-the-second-leading-cause-of-camel-trypanosomosis-in-sudan-after-trypanosoma-evansi
#18
Ehab Mossaad, Bashir Salim, Keisuke Suganuma, Peter Musinguzi, Mohammed A Hassan, E A Elamin, G E Mohammed, Amel O Bakhiet, Xuenan Xuan, Rawan A Satti, Noboru Inoue
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted in response to recurring reports from eastern Sudan of camel trypanosomosis that can no longer be treated by currently available trypanocidal drugs. One hundred and eighty-nine blood samples were obtained from camels in different herds and local markets in the western part of Sudan, and a cross-sectional study was carried out between December 2015 and February 2016 to identify the causative agents and possible circulating genotypes. RESULTS: The prevalence of trypanosomes detected using the conventional parasitological techniques of Giemsa-stained blood smears, wet blood smears and the microhematocrit centrifugation technique (MHCT) was 7% (13/189), 11% (21/189) and 19% (36/189), respectively...
April 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399301/wing-polymorphism-and-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection-in-wild-peridomestic-and-domestic-collections-of-mepraia-spinolai-hemiptera-reduviidae-from-chile
#19
Daniel Frías-Lasserre, Christian R González, Carolina Reyes Valenzuela, Danila Blanco de Carvalho, Jader Oliveira, Mauricio Canals, Joao Aristeu da Rosa
Mepraia spinolai (Porter) is a vector of Trypanosoma cruzi that causes Chagas disease. Females are always wingless, but males may be winged or wingless. We determined by PCR the infection percentage with T. cruzi of M. spinolai adults and nymphs in domestic, peridomestic, and wild collections, in different regions of Chile. In all regions, winged males were more abundant than females and wingless males. Winged males collected inside houses were less parasitized than were those from peridomestic and wild environments...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399226/biology-of-triatoma-sherlocki-hemiptera-reduviidae-under-laboratory-conditions-biological-cycle-and-resistance-to-starvation
#20
Vanessa Lima-Neiva, Teresa C M Gonçalves, Leonardo S Bastos, Marcia Gumiel, Nathália C Correia, Catia C Silva, Carlos E Almeida, Jane Costa
Triatoma sherlocki Papa, Jurberg, Carcavallo, Cerqueira & Barata was described in 2002, based on specimens caught in the wild in the municipality of Gentio do Ouro, Bahia, Brazil. In 2009, nymphs and adults were detected inside homes and sylvatic specimens were positive for Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas). No information on the bionomics of T. sherlocki exists, although such data are considered essential to estimate its vector and colonization potential in domestic environments. Herein, the biological cycle of T...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
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