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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168449/barcoding-in-trypanosomes
#1
Rachel Hutchinson, Jamie R Stevens
Trypanosomes (genus Trypanosoma) are parasites of humans, and wild and domestic mammals, in which they cause several economically and socially important diseases, including sleeping sickness in Africa and Chagas disease in the Americas. Despite the development of numerous molecular diagnostics and increasing awareness of the importance of these neglected parasites, there is currently no universal genetic barcoding marker available for trypanosomes. In this review we provide an overview of the methods used for trypanosome detection and identification, discuss the potential application of different barcoding techniques and examine the requirements of the 'ideal' trypanosome genetic barcode...
November 23, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168382/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-lysine-acetylation-in-trypanosomes
#2
Nilmar Silvio Moretti, Igor Cestari, Atashi Anupama, Ken Stuart, Sergio Schenkman
Protein acetylation is a post-translational modification regulating diverse cellular processes. By using proteomic approaches we identified N-terminal and ε-lysine acetylated proteins in Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei, which are protozoan parasites that cause significant human and animal diseases. We detected 288 lysine acetylation sites in 210 proteins of procyclic form, an insect stage of T. brucei, and 380 acetylation sites in 285 proteins in the form of the parasite that replicates in mammalian bloodstream...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167800/cross-species-complementation-of-bacterial-and-eukaryotic-type-cardiolipin-synthases
#3
Petra Gottier, Mauro Serricchio, Rita Vitale, Angela Corcelli, Peter Bütikofer
The glycerophospholipid cardiolipin is a unique constituent of bacterial and mitochondrial membranes. It is involved in forming and stabilizing high molecular mass membrane protein complexes and in maintaining membrane architecture. Absence of cardiolipin leads to reduced efficiency of the electron transport chain, decreased membrane potential, and, ultimately, impaired respiratory metabolism. For the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei cardiolipin synthesis is essential for survival, indicating that the enzymes involved in cardiolipin production represent potential drug targets...
November 3, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167542/telomerase-activity-is-required-for-the-telomere-g-overhang-structure-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#4
Ranjodh Sandhu, Bibo Li
Trypanosoma brucei causes fatal human African trypanosomiasis and evades the host immune response by regularly switching its major surface antigen, VSG, which is expressed exclusively from subtelomeric loci. Telomere length and telomere proteins play important roles in regulating VSG silencing and switching. T. brucei telomerase plays a key role in maintaining telomere length, and T. brucei telomeres terminate in a single-stranded 3' G-rich overhang. Understanding the detailed structure of the telomere G-overhang and its maintenance will contribute greatly to better understanding telomere maintenance mechanisms...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166975/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-efficacy-of-diamidines-against-trypanosoma-equiperdum-strains
#5
Kirsten Gillingwater
Trypanosoma equiperdum is a protozoan parasite responsible for causing Dourine, a debilitating neglected veterinary disease, found worldwide affecting equids. It is the only pathogenic trypanosome species that does not require an invertebrate vector for transmission, thus being passed from animal to animal via coitus. At present, there is no officially recognized form of chemotherapeutic treatment and therefore all confirmed (or suspected) cases of infected animals must be slaughtered immediately. For many global communities and farming populations, which rely heavily on their animals for their livelihood, such stringent regulations can seriously enhance the socio-economic problems attributing to poverty...
November 23, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166772/antimicrobial-and-antiparasitic-activities-of-three-algae-from-the-northwest-coast-of-algeria
#6
Aissaoui Ghania, Belyagoubi-Benhammou Nabila, Belyagoubi Larbi, Mouray Elisabeth, Grellier Philippe, Benmahdjoub Mariem, Kerzabi-Kanoun Khadidja, Benguedda-Rahal Wacila, Atik-Bekkara Fawzia
The objective of this study was to investigate the biological activities of Algerian algae, Sargassum vulgare, Cladostephus hirsutus and Rissoella verruculosa. Antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts and their fractions was assessed using the disc diffusion assay, the minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimum bactericidal concentration. Antiparasitic activity was studied in vitro against the blood stream forms of Trypanosoma brucei brucei and the intraerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum...
November 22, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164071/galectin-3-a-friend-but-not-a-foe-during-trypanosoma-cruzi-experimental-infection
#7
Aline A da Silva, Thaise L Teixeira, Samuel C Teixeira, Fabrício C Machado, Marlus A Dos Santos, Tatiana C Tomiosso, Paula C B Tavares, Rebecca T E Silva Brígido, Flávia Alves Martins, Nadjania S de Lira Silva, Cassiano C Rodrigues, Maria C Roque-Barreira, Renato A Mortara, Daiana S Lopes, Veridiana de Melo Rodrigues Ávila, Claudio V da Silva
Trypanosoma cruzi interacts with host cells, including cardiomyocytes, and induces the production of cytokines, chemokines, metalloproteinases, and glycan-binding proteins. Among the glycan-binding proteins is Galectin-3 (Gal-3), which is upregulated after T. cruzi infection. Gal-3 is a member of the lectin family with affinity for β-galactose containing molecules; it can be found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm and can be either membrane-associated or secreted. This lectin is involved in several immunoregulatory and parasite infection process...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163920/harnessing-fungal-nonribosomal-cyclodepsipeptide-synthetases-for-mechanistic-insights-and-tailored-engineering
#8
Charlotte Steiniger, Sylvester Hoffmann, Andi Mainz, Marcel Kaiser, Kerstin Voigt, Vera Meyer, Roderich D Süssmuth
Nonribosomal peptide synthetases represent potential platforms for the design and engineering of structurally complex peptides. While previous focus has been centred mainly on bacterial systems, fungal synthetases assembling drugs like the antifungal echinocandins, the antibacterial cephalosporins or the anthelmintic cyclodepsipeptide (CDP) PF1022 await in-depth exploitation. As various mechanistic features of fungal CDP biosynthesis are only partly understood, effective engineering of NRPSs has been severely hampered...
November 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162358/heart-transplantation-for-chagas-cardiomyopathy
#9
Ana Rita Ramalho, David Prieto, Fátima Franco, Manuel J Antunes
Chagas disease is an endemic disease in Latin America that is increasingly found in non-endemic areas all over the world due to the flow of migrants from Central and South America. We present the case of a Brazilian immigrant in Portugal who underwent orthotopic heart transplantation for end-stage Chagas cardiomyopathy. Immunosuppressive therapy included prednisone, mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus. Twelve months after the procedure she is asymptomatic, with good graft function, and with no evidence of complications such as graft rejection, opportunistic infections, neoplasms or reactivation of Trypanosoma cruzi infection...
November 18, 2017: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162347/trypanosoma-cruzi-tryparedoxin-ii-interacts-with-different-peroxiredoxins-under-physiological-and-oxidative-stress-conditions
#10
L Dias, E F Peloso, A F P Leme, C M Carnielli, C N Pereira, C C Werneck, S Guerrero, F R Gadelha
Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, has to cope with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species during its life cycle in order to ensure its survival and infection. The parasite detoxifies these species through a series of pathways centered on trypanothione that depend on glutathione or low molecular mass dithiol proteins such as tryparedoxins. These proteins transfer reducing equivalents to peroxidases, including mitochondrial and cytosolic peroxiredoxins, TcMPx and TcCPx, respectively. In T...
November 18, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161488/identifying-trypanosoma-cruzi-discreet-typing-units-in-triatomines-collected-in-different-natural-regions-of-per%C3%A3%C2%BA
#11
Carlos P Padilla, Uriel Alvarado, Gladis Ventura, Deysi Luna-Caipo, Marcial Suárez, José R Tuñoque, Nancy Ruelas-Llerena, Luis A Fachín, Alina Huiza, Lizandro Gonzáles, Julio César Carranza, Gustavo Adolfo Vallejo, Gustavo Adolfo Vallejo, Abraham G Cáceres, Abraham G Cáceres
INTRODUCTION: Trypanosoma cruzi has been divided by international consensus into six discrete typing units (DTU): TcI, TcII, TcIII, TcIV, TcV y TcVI. The factors determining the dynamics of T. cruzi genotypes vector transmission of Chagas' disease in the different geographical regions of Perú are still unknown. OBJECTIVE: To detect and type T. cruzi DTUs from the faeces of seven species of triatomines (Panstrongylus chinai, P. geniculatus, P. herreri, Rhodnius robustus, R...
March 29, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161480/-biological-parameters-of-meccus-phyllosomus-phyllosomus-burmeister-1835-triatoma-recurva-st%C3%A3-l-1868-hemiptera-reduviidae-and-their-laboratory-hybrids
#12
Lizbeth Díaz, Karen Covarrubias, Ángel Licón, Mixtli Astorga, Yaneth Moreno, José Alejandro Martínez
INTRODUCTION: Hybrids from species and subspecies of Mexican triatomines have shown outstanding biological and behavioral characteristics as compared with their parental groups. This could lead to an increasing risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi to human and animal reservoir hosts. OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare biological parameters related to the life cycle of Triatoma recurva, Meccus phyllosomus phyllosomus and their laboratory hybrids and estimate their risk as transmitters of T...
March 29, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160509/sympatry-influence-in-the-interaction-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-with-triatomine
#13
Elaine Schultz Dworak, Silvana Marques de Araújo, Mônica Lúcia Gomes, Miyoko Massago, Érika Cristina Ferreira, Max Jean de Ornelas Toledo
INTRODUCTION: Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, is widely distributed in nature, circulating between triatomine bugs and sylvatic mammals, and has large genetic diversity. Both the vector species and the genetic lineages of T. cruzi present a varied geographical distribution. This study aimed to verify the influence of sympatry in the interaction of T. cruzi with triatomines. Methods: The behavior of the strains PR2256 (T. cruzi II) and AM14 (T. cruzi IV) was studied in Triatoma sordida (TS) and Rhodnius robustus (RR)...
September 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158000/functional-genomic-fabrics-are-remodeled-in-a-mouse-model-of-chagasic-cardiomyopathy-and-restored-following-cell-therapy
#14
Dumitru A Iacobas, Sanda Iacobas, Herbert B Tanowitz, Antonio Campos de Carvalho, David C Spray
We previously found that, in a mouse model of Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC), 18% of the 9390 quantified unigenes were significantly regulated by Trypanosoma cruzi infection. However, treatment with bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs) resulted in 84% transcriptomic recovery. We have applied new algorithms to reanalyze these datasets with respect to specific pathways [CCC, cardiac muscle contraction (CMC) and chemokine signaling (CCS)]. In addition to the levels of expression of individual genes we also calculated gene expression variability and coordination of expression of each gene with all others...
November 17, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155830/molecular-characterization-of-tsetse-s-proboscis-and-its-response-to-trypanosoma-congolense-infection
#15
Erick O Awuoche, Brian L Weiss, Aurélien Vigneron, Paul O Mireji, Emre Aksoy, Benson Nyambega, Geoffrey M Attardo, Yineng Wu, Michelle O'Neill, Grace Murilla, Serap Aksoy
Tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) transmit parasitic African trypanosomes (Trypanosoma spp.), including Trypanosoma congolense, which causes animal African trypanosomiasis (AAT). AAT detrimentally affects agricultural activities in sub-Saharan Africa and has negative impacts on the livelihood and nutrient availability for the affected communities. After tsetse ingests an infectious blood meal, T. congolense sequentially colonizes the fly's gut and proboscis (PB) organs before being transmitted to new mammalian hosts during subsequent feedings...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155083/tbvps15-is-required-for-vesicular-transport-and-cytokinesis-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#16
Alejandra C Schoijet, Kildare Miranda, Tamara Sternlieb, Nadia M Barrera, Wendell Girard-Dias, Wanderley de Souza, Guillermo D Alonso
The class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) Vps34 is an important regulator of key cellular functions, including cell growth, survival, intracellular trafficking, autophagy and nutrient sensing. In yeast, Vps34 is associated with the putative serine/threonine protein kinase Vps15, however, its role in signaling has not been deeply evaluated. Here, we have identified the Vps15 orthologue in Trypanosoma brucei, named TbVps15. Knockdown of TbVps15 expression by interference RNA resulted in inhibition of cell growth and blockage of cytokinesis...
November 16, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154947/16s-rrna-gene-amplicon-sequencing-reveals-dominance-of-actinobacteria-in-rhodnius-pallescens-compared-to-triatoma-maculata-midgut-microbiota-in-natural-populations-of-vector-insects-from-colombia
#17
Luisa M Montoya-Porras, Triana-Chavez Omar, F Alzate Juan, X Claudia Moreno Herrera, Gloria E Cadavid-Restrepo
Chagas disease affects more than 6 million people in Latin America, it is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted mainly by bloodsucking insects of the Triatominae subfamily. Studies on microbial communities that inhabit the insect gut are important to understanding their role in the parasite transmission and development. The present work aims to evaluate the gut bacterial composition of natural populations of triatomine species from Vichada and Magdalena, administrative states called departments in Colombia, using high-throughput sequencing technologies...
November 15, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148062/flagellar-incorporation-of-proteins-follows-at-least-two-different-routes-in-trypanosomes
#18
Laetitia Vincensini, Thierry Blisnick, Eloïse Bertiaux, Sebastian Hutchinson, Christina Georgikou, Cher-Pheng Ooi, Philippe Bastin
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Eukaryotic cilia and flagella are sophisticated organelles composed of several hundreds of proteins that need to be incorporated at the right time and the right place during assembly. RESULTS: Two methods were used to investigate this process in the model protist Trypanosoma brucei: inducible expression of epitope-tagged labelled proteins and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) of fluorescent fusion proteins. This revealed that skeletal components of the radial spokes (RSP3), the central pair (PF16) and the outer dynein arms (DNAI1) are incorporated at the distal end of the growing flagellum...
November 16, 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147831/plants-of-brazilian-restingas-with-tripanocide-activity-against-trypanosoma-cruzi-strains
#19
Robson Xavier Faria, André Luis Almeida Souza, Barbara Lima, Luis Armando Candido Tietbohl, Caio Pinho Fernandes, Raquel Rodrigues Amaral, Bettina Monika Ruppelt, Marcelo Guerra Santos, Leandro Rocha
Chagas disease is caused by the Trypanosoma cruzi affecting millions of people, and widespread throughout Latin America. This disease exhibits a problematic chemotherapy. Benznidazole, which is the drug currently used as standard treatment, lamentably evokes several adverse reactions. Among other options, natural products have been tested to discover a novel therapeutic drug for this disease. A lot of plants from the Brazilian flora did not contain studies about their biological effects. Restinga de Jurubatiba from Brazil is a sandbank ecosystem poorly studied in relation to plant biological activity...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147578/modelling-historical-changes-in-the-force-of-infection-of-chagas-disease-to-inform-control-and-elimination-programmes-application-in-colombia
#20
Zulma M Cucunubá, Pierre Nouvellet, Lesong Conteh, Mauricio Javier Vera, Victor Manuel Angulo, Juan Carlos Dib, Gabriel Jaime Parra-Henao, María Gloria Basáñez
Background: WHO's 2020 milestones for Chagas disease include having all endemic Latin American countries certified with no intradomiciliary Trypanosoma cruzi transmission, and infected patients under care. Evaluating the variation in historical exposure to infection is crucial for assessing progress and for understanding the priorities to achieve these milestones. Methods: Focusing on Colombia, all the available age-structured serological surveys (undertaken between 1995 and 2014) were searched and compiled...
2017: BMJ Global Health
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