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glucose metabolism in the brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432362/succinate-supplementation-improves-metabolic-performance-of-mixed-glial-cell-cultures-with-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#1
Susan Giorgi-Coll, Ana I Amaral, Peter J A Hutchinson, Mark R Kotter, Keri L H Carpenter
Mitochondrial dysfunction, the inability to efficiently utilise metabolic fuels and oxygen, contributes to pathological changes following traumatic spinal cord or traumatic brain injury (TBI). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that succinate supplementation can improve cellular energy state under metabolically stressed conditions in a robust, reductionist in vitro model of mitochondrial dysfunction in which primary mixed glial cultures (astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocytes) were exposed to the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431377/metabolic-regulation-and-the-anti-obesity-perspectives-of-human-brown-fat
#2
REVIEW
Camilla Scheele, Søren Nielsen
Activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans increase glucose and fatty acid clearance as well as resting metabolic rate, whereas a prolonged elevation of BAT activity improves insulin sensitivity. However, substantial reductions in body weight following BAT activation has not yet been shown in humans. This observation raise the possibility for feedback mechanisms in adult humans in terms of a brown fat-brain crosstalk, possibly mediated by batokines, factors produced by and secreted from brown fat...
April 11, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430981/central-nervous-system-glp-1-receptors-regulate-islet-hormone-secretion-and-glucose-homeostasis-in-male-rats
#3
Lene Jessen, Eric P Smith, Yvonne Ulrich-Lai, James P Herman, Randy J Seeley, Darleen Sandoval, David D'Alessio
The glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) system plays an important role in blood glucose regulation, in great part through coordinate control of insulin and glucagon secretion. These effects are generally attributed to GLP-1 produced in peripheral sites, principally the intestine. GLP-1 is also produced in hindbrain neurons that signal through GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1r) expressed in brain regions involved in metabolic regulation. GLP-1 in the central nervous system (CNS) induces satiety, visceral illness, and stress responses...
April 18, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425701/the-effects-of-glutamate-receptor-activation-on-local-oxygen-changes
#4
Lindsay Walton, Nick G Boustead, Susan Carroll, R Mark Wightman
Glutamate is ubiquitous throughout the brain and serves as the primary excitatory neurotransmitter. Neurons require energy to fire, and energetic substrates (i.e., O2, glucose) are renewed via cerebral blood flow (CBF) to maintain metabolic homeostasis. Magnetic resonance brain functionality studies rely on the assumption that CBF and neuronal activity are coupled consistently throughout the brain; however, the origin of neuronal activity does not always coincide with signals indicative of energy consumption (e...
April 20, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425060/positron-emission-tomography-assessment-of-cerebral-glucose-metabolic-rates-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-schizophrenia
#5
Serge A Mitelman, Marie-Cecile Bralet, M Mehmet Haznedar, Eric Hollander, Lina Shihabuddin, Erin A Hazlett, Monte S Buchsbaum
Several models have been proposed to account for observed overlaps in clinical features and genetic predisposition between schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. This study assessed similarities and differences in topological patterns and vectors of glucose metabolism in both disorders in reference to these models. Co-registered (18)fluorodeoxyglucose PET and MRI scans were obtained in 41 schizophrenia, 25 ASD, and 55 healthy control subjects. AFNI was used to map cortical and subcortical regions of interest...
April 19, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422821/how-the-cognitive-reserve-interacts-with-%C3%AE-amyloid-deposition-in-mitigating-fdg-metabolism-an-observational-study
#6
Elena Carapelle, Laura Serra, Sergio Modoni, Michele Falcone, Carlo Caltagirone, Marco Bozzali, Luigi Maria Specchio, Carlo Avolio
This observational study had the aim to assess the interaction between cognitive reserve (CR) and cerebrospinal fluid β-amyloid1-42 (Aβ1-42) in modulating brain [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) metabolism in patients with moderate Alzheimer disease (AD).Twenty-seven patients with probable AD and 25 neurological normal subjects (NNS) entered the study. All participants had an FDG-PET scan, and AD patients also received a lumbar puncture to measure Aβ1-42, 181p-tau, and Tau concentrations...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421113/chronic-hyperinsulinaemic-hypoglycaemia-in-rats-is-accompanied-by-increased-body-weight-hyperleptinaemia-and-decreased-neuronal-glucose-transporter-levels-in-the-brain
#7
Vivi F H Jensen, Anne-Marie Mølck, Melissa Chapman, Lene Alifrangis, Lene Andersen, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Ingrid B Bøgh
The brain is vulnerable to hypoglycaemia due to a continuous need of energy substrates to meet its high metabolic demands. Studies have shown that severe acute insulin-induced hypoglycaemia results in oxidative stress in the rat brain, when neuroglycopenia cannot be evaded despite increased levels of cerebral glucose transporters. Compensatory measures in the brain during chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia are less well understood. The present study investigated how the brain of nondiabetic rats copes with chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia for up to eight weeks...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421037/lipid-processing-in-the-brain-a-key-regulator-of-systemic-metabolism
#8
REVIEW
Kimberley D Bruce, Andrea Zsombok, Robert H Eckel
Metabolic disorders, particularly aberrations in lipid homeostasis, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertriglyceridemia often manifest together as the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Despite major advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of these disorders, the prevalence of the MetS continues to rise. It is becoming increasingly apparent that intermediary metabolism within the central nervous system is a major contributor to the regulation of systemic metabolism. In particular, lipid metabolism within the brain is tightly regulated to maintain neuronal structure and function and may signal nutrient status to modulate metabolism in key peripheral tissues such as the liver...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420713/acute-versus-chronic-exposure-to-high-fat-diet-leads-to-distinct-regulation-of-pka
#9
Edra London, Maria Nesterova, Constantine A Stratakis
The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is an essential regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism that plays a critical role in energy homeostasis. The impact of diet on PKA signaling has not been defined, although perturbations in individual PKA subunits are associated with changes in adiposity, physical activity, and energy intake in mice and humans. We hypothesized that a high fat diet (HFD) would elicit peripheral and central alterations in the PKA system that would differ depending on length of exposure to HFD; these differences could protect against or promote diet-induced obesity (DIO)...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414186/a-review-on-neuroimaging-based-classification-studies-and-associated-feature-extraction-methods-for-alzheimer-s-disease-and-its-prodromal-stages
#10
REVIEW
Saima Rathore, Mohamad Habes, Muhammad Aksam Iftikhar, Amanda Shacklett, Christos Davatzikos
Neuroimaging has made it possible to measure pathological brain changes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in vivo. Over the past decade, these measures have been increasingly integrated into imaging signatures of AD by means of classification frameworks, offering promising tools for individualized diagnosis and prognosis. We reviewed neuroimaging-based studies for AD classification and mild cognitive impairment, selected after online database searches in Google Scholar and PubMed (January, 1985 to June, 2016)...
April 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408435/neurturin-and-a-glp-1-analogue-act-synergistically-to-alleviate-diabetes-in-zucker-diabetic-fatty-rats
#11
James L Trevaskis, Chester Bittencourt Sacramento, Hani Jouihan, Safina Ali, John Le Lay, Stephanie Oldham, Nicholas Bhagroo, Brandon B Boland, Jennifer Cann, Yuan Chang, Terrence O'Day, Victor Howard, Christina Reers, Maria Sorhede Winzell, David M Smith, Michael Feigh, Pernille Barkholt, Kay Schreiter, Matthias Austen, Uwe Andag, Simon Thompson, Lutz Jermutus, Matthew P Coghlan, Joseph Grimsby, Cord Dohrmann, Christopher J Rhodes, Cristina M Rondinone, Arun Sharma
Neurturin (NRTN), a member of the glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family, was identified from an embryonic chicken pancreatic cDNA library in a screen for secreted factors. Here, we assessed the potential antidiabetic activities of NRTN relative to liraglutide, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Subcutaneous administration of NRTN to 8-week-old male ZDF rats prevented the development of hyperglycemia and improved metabolic parameters similar to liraglutide. NRTN treatment increased pancreatic insulin content and β-cell mass, and prevented deterioration of islet organization...
April 13, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402542/positive-affect-predicts-cerebral-glucose-metabolism-in-late-middle-aged-adults
#12
Christopher Nicholas, Siobhan M Hoscheidt, Lindsay R Clark, Annie M Racine, Sara E Berman, Rebecca L Koscik, N Maritza Dowling, Sanjay Asthana, Bradley T Christian, Mark A Sager, Sterling C Johnson
Positive affect is associated with a number of health benefits; however, few studies have examined the relationship between positive affect and cerebral glucose metabolism, a key energy source for neuronal function and a possible index of brain health. We sought to determine if positive affect was associated with cerebral glucose metabolism in late middle-aged adults (n =134). Participants completed the positive affect subscale of the Center for Epidemiological Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D) at two time points over a two-year period and underwent FDG-PET scanning...
April 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398234/down-regulated-drebrin-aggravates-cognitive-impairments-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Yan Liu, Yanfeng Xu, Ling Zhang, Lan Huang, Pin Yu, Hua Zhu, Wei Deng, Chuan Qin
The developmentally regulated brain protein drebrin (Dbn) is a functional protein involved with long-term memory formation and is widely distributed in brain neurons, especially in the dendritic spines. A noticeable decline of this protein has been found in the hippocampus and cortex of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), yet the relationship between Dbn and AD has not been fully understood. In the present study, we examined how down-regulation of Dbn impacts the progression of AD in experimental animals...
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397993/the-novel-anticonvulsant-neuropeptide-and-galanin-analogue-nax-5055-does-not-alter-energy-and-amino-acid-metabolism-in-cultured-brain-cells
#14
Blanca I Aldana, Helle S Waagepetersen, Arne Schousboe, H Steve White, Grzegorz Bulaj, Anne B Walls
A large body of evidence suggests that the neuropeptide galanin plays an important role in seizure control. In line with this, it was demonstrated that the galanin analogue, NAX-5055, exerts a potent anticonvulsant activity in animal seizure models. We recently found that the NAX-5055-mediated anticonvulsant action involves modulation of both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. Since homeostasis of neurotransmitters and cerebral energy metabolism are intimately linked, it was investigated whether the effects of NAX-5055 on neurotransmission involve changes in energy metabolism and in particular glucose- and amino acid metabolism...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397986/clinical-and-metabolic-correlates-of-cerebral-calcifications-in-sturge-weber-syndrome
#15
Vinod K Pilli, Michael E Behen, Jiani Hu, Yang Xuan, James Janisse, Harry T Chugani, Csaba Juhász
AIM: To evaluate clinical and metabolic correlates of cerebral calcifications in children with Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS). METHOD: Fifteen children (11 females, four males; age range 7mo-9y, mean 4y 1mo) with unilateral SWS underwent baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI), glucose metabolism positron emission tomography (PET), and neurocognitive assessment (mean follow-up 1y 8mo). Calcified brain volumes measured on SWI were correlated with areas of abnormal glucose metabolism, seizure variables, and cognitive function (IQ)...
April 11, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396959/glucose-transportation-in-the-brain-and-its-impairment-in-huntington-disease-one-more-shade-of-the-energetic-metabolism-failure
#16
REVIEW
Veronica Morea, Eris Bidollari, Gianni Colotti, Annarita Fiorillo, Jessica Rosati, Lidia De Filippis, Ferdinando Squitieri, Andrea Ilari
Huntington's disease (HD) or Huntington's chorea is the most common inherited, dominantly transmitted, neurodegenerative disorder. It is caused by increased CAG repeats number in the gene coding for huntingtin (Htt) and characterized by motor, behaviour and psychiatric symptoms, ultimately leading to death. HD patients also exhibit alterations in glucose and energetic metabolism, which result in pronounced weight loss despite sustained calorie intake. Glucose metabolism decreases in the striatum of all the subjects with mutated Htt, but affects symptom presentation only when it drops below a specific threshold...
April 10, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396685/associations-of-two-obesity-related-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-with-adiponectin-in-chinese-children
#17
Lijun Wu, Liwang Gao, Xiaoyuan Zhao, Meixian Zhang, Jianxin Wu, Jie Mi
Purpose. Genome-wide association studies have found two obesity-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs17782313 near the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene and rs6265 near the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, but the associations of both SNPs with other obesity-related traits are not fully described, especially in children. The aim of the present study is to investigate the associations between the SNPs and adiponectin that has a regulatory role in glucose and lipid metabolism. Methods...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396257/b-vitamin-and-choline-supplementation-increases-neuroplasticity-and-recovery-after-stroke
#18
Nafisa M Jadavji, Joshua T Emmerson, Amanda J MacFarlane, William G Willmore, Patrice D Smith
Folates are B-vitamins that play an important role in brain function. Dietary and genetic deficiencies in folate metabolism result in elevated levels of homocysteine which have been linked to increased risk of developing a stroke. Reducing levels of homocysteine before or after a stroke through B-vitamin supplementation has been a focus of many clinical studies, however, the results remain inconsistent. Animal model systems provide a powerful mechanism to study and understand functional impact and mechanisms through which supplementation affects stroke recovery...
April 7, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395933/electroacupuncture-improves-neurobehavioral-function-and-brain-injury-in-rat-model-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#19
Yan Zhu, Li Deng, Huajun Tang, Xiaoqing Gao, Youhua Wang, Kan Guo, Jiming Kong, Chaoxian Yang
Acupuncture has been widely used as a treatment for stroke in China for a long time. Recently, studies have demonstrated that electroacupuncture (EA) can accelerate intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced angiogenesis in rats. In the present study, we investigated the effect of EA on neurobehavioral function and brain injury in ICH rats. ICH was induced by stereotactic injection of collagenase type I and heparin into the right caudate putamen. Adult ICH rats were randomly divided into the following three groups: model control group (MC), EA at non-acupoint points group (non-acupoint EA) and EA at Baihui and Dazhui acupoints group (EA)...
April 7, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393895/sex-differences-in-regional-brain-glucose-metabolism-following-opioid-withdrawal-and-replacement
#20
Giovanni C Santoro, Joseph Carrion, Krishna Patel, Crystal Vilchez, Jennifer Veith, Jonathan D Brodie, Stephen L Dewey
Methadone and buprenorphine are currently the most common pharmacological treatments for opioid dependence. Interestingly, the clinical response to these drugs appears to be sex-specific. That is, females exhibit superior therapeutic efficacy, defined as extended periods of abstinence and longer time to relapse, compared to males. However, the underlying metabolic effects of opioid withdrawal and replacement have not been examined. Therefore, using (18)FDG and microPET, we measured differences in regional brain glucose metabolism in males and females following morphine withdrawal and subsequent methadone or buprenorphine replacement...
April 10, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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