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glucose metabolism in the brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102395/sesamol-ameliorates-high-fat-and-high-fructose-induced-cognitive-defects-via-improving-insulin-signaling-disruption-in-the-central-nervous-system
#1
Zhigang Liu, Yali Sun, Qinglian Qiao, Tong Zhao, Wentong Zhang, Bo Ren, Qian Liu, Xuebo Liu
Sesamol, a nutritional component from sesame, possesses antioxidant, lipid lowering and antidepressant activities. Nonetheless, few studies report its effects on high-energy-dense diet-induced cognitive loss. The present research aimed to elucidate the action of sesamol on high-fat and high-fructose (HFFD) "western"-diet-induced central nervous system insulin resistance and learning and memory impairment, and further determined the possible underlying mechanism. 3 month-old C57BL/6J mice were divided into 3 groups with/without sesamol in the drinking water (0...
January 19, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101749/twenty-seven-years-of-cerebral-pyruvate-recycling
#2
Sebastián Cerdán
Cerebral pyruvate recycling is a metabolic pathway deriving carbon skeletons and reducing equivalents from mitochondrial oxaloacetate and malate, to the synthesis of mitochondrial and cytosolic pyruvate, lactate and alanine. The pathway allows both, to provide the tricarboxylic acid cycle with pyruvate molecules produced from alternative substrates to glucose and, to generate reducing equivalents necessary for the operation of NADPH requiring processes. At the cellular level, pyruvate recycling involves the activity of malic enzyme, or the combined activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and pyruvate kinase, as well as of those transporters of the inner mitochondrial membrane exchanging the corresponding intermediates...
January 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099989/effects-of-a-dietary-ketone-ester-on-hippocampal-glycolytic-and-tca-cycle-intermediates-and-amino-acids-in-a-3xtgad-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Robert J Pawlosky, Martin F Kemper, Yoshihero Kashiwaya, M Todd King, Mark P Mattson, Richard L Veech
In patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in a triple transgenic (3xTgAD) mouse model of AD low glucose metabolism in the brain precedes loss of memory and cognitive decline. The metabolism of ketones in the brain by-passes glycolysis and therefore may correct several deficiencies that are associated with glucose hypometabolism. A dietary supplement composed of an ester of D-β-hydroxybutyrate and R-1,3 butane diol referred to as ketone ester (KE) was incorporated into a rodent diet and fed to 3xTgAD mice for 8 months...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099839/trpc5-mediates-acute-leptin-and-serotonin-effects-via-pomc-neurons
#4
Yong Gao, Ting Yao, Zhuo Deng, Jong-Woo Sohn, Jia Sun, Yiru Huang, Xingxing Kong, Kai-Jiang Yu, Rui-Tao Wang, Hong Chen, Hongbo Guo, Jianqun Yan, Kathryn A Cunningham, Yongsheng Chang, Tiemin Liu, Kevin W Williams
The molecular mechanisms underlying acute leptin and serotonin 2C receptor-induced hypophagia remain unclear. Here, we show that neuronal and pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc)-specific loss of transient receptor potential cation 5 (TrpC5) subunits is sufficient to decrease energy expenditure and increase food intake resulting in elevated body weight. Deficiency of Trpc5 subunits in Pomc neurons is also sufficient to block the anorexigenic effects of leptin and serotonin 2C receptor (Ht2Cr) agonists. The loss of acute anorexigenic effects of these receptors is concomitant with a blunted electrophysiological response to both leptin and Ht2Cr agonists in arcuate Pomc neurons...
January 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097205/impact-of-tau-and-amyloid-burden-on-glucose-metabolism-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Gérard N Bischof, Frank Jessen, Klaus Fliessbach, Julian Dronse, Jochen Hammes, Bernd Neumaier, Oezguer Onur, Gereon R Fink, Juraj Kukolja, Alexander Drzezga, Thilo van Eimeren
In a multimodal PET imaging approach, we determined the differential contribution of neurofibrillary tangles (measured with [(18)F]AV-1451) and beta-amyloid burden (measured with [(11)C]PiB) on degree of neurodegeneration (i.e., glucose metabolism measured with [(18)F]FDG-PET) in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Across brain regions, we observed an interactive effect of beta-amyloid burden and tau deposition on glucose metabolism which was most pronounced in the parietal lobe. Elevated beta-amyloid burden was associated with a stronger influence of tau accumulation on glucose metabolism...
December 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096339/loss-of-astrocyte-cholesterol-synthesis-disrupts-neuronal-function-and-alters-whole-body-metabolism
#6
Heather A Ferris, Rachel J Perry, Gabriela V Moreira, Gerald I Shulman, Jay D Horton, C Ronald Kahn
Cholesterol is important for normal brain function. The brain synthesizes its own cholesterol, presumably in astrocytes. We have previously shown that diabetes results in decreased brain cholesterol synthesis by a reduction in sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2)-regulated transcription. Here we show that coculture of control astrocytes with neurons enhances neurite outgrowth, and this is reduced with SREBP2 knockdown astrocytes. In vivo, mice with knockout of SREBP2 in astrocytes have impaired brain development and behavioral and motor defects...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092823/ph-lactate-and-hypoxia-reciprocity-in-regulating-high-affinity-monocarboxylate-transporter-expression-in-glioblastoma
#7
James P Caruso, Brandon J Koch, Philip D Benson, Elsa Varughese, Michael D Monterey, Amy E Lee, Ajal M Dave, Sam Kiousis, Andrew E Sloan, Saroj P Mathupala
Highly malignant brain tumors harbor the aberrant propensity for aerobic glycolysis, the excessive conversion of glucose to lactic acid even in the presence of ample tissue oxygen. Lactic acid is rapidly effluxed to the tumor microenvironment via a group of plasma-membrane transporters denoted monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) to prevent "self-poisoning." One isoform, MCT2, has the highest affinity for lactate and thus should have the ability to respond to microenvironment conditions such as hypoxia, lactate, and pH to help maintain high glycolytic flux in the tumor...
January 13, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090149/multiplexed-and-fully-automated-detection-of-metabolic-biomarkers-using-microdialysis-probe
#8
Champak Das, Guochun Wang, Qian Sun, Bradley Ledden
We report here, the design and development of an automated near real-time continuous detection system for lactate, glutamate, pyruvate and glucose using microdialysis probe. The system developed can automatically push perfusate through microdialysis probe (20, 100 and 1000 kDa MWCO cutoff probe) at low to medium flow rate of 0.5-2 μL/min with almost 100% fluid recovery. The microdialysate collected from the probe is analyzed automatically for these four metabolite biomarkers. It operates in a continuous mode with measurements of all four biomarkers once every 20 min...
January 2017: Sensors and Actuators. B, Chemical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074323/changes-in-cerebral-metabolism-during-ketogenic-diet-in-patients-with-primary-brain-tumors-1-h-mrs-study
#9
Moran Artzi, Gilad Liberman, Nachum Vaisman, Felix Bokstein, Faina Vitinshtein, Orna Aizenstein, Dafna Ben Bashat
Normal brain cells depend on glucose metabolism, yet they have the flexibility to switch to the usage of ketone bodies during caloric restriction. In contrast, tumor cells lack genomic and metabolic flexibility and are largely dependent on glucose. Ketogenic-diet (KD) was suggested as a therapeutic option for malignant brain cancer. This study aimed to detect metabolic brain changes in patients with malignant brain gliomas on KD using proton magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). Fifty MR scans were performed longitudinally in nine patients: four patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GB) treated with KD in addition to bevacizumab; one patient with gliomatosis-cerebri treated with KD only; and four patients with recurrent GB who did not receive KD...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071964/hypercapnia-is-essential-to-reduce-the-cerebral-oxidative-metabolism-during-extreme-apnea-in-humans
#10
Anthony R Bain, Philip N Ainslie, Otto F Barak, Ryan L Hoiland, Ivan Drvis, Tanja Mijacika, Damian M Bailey, Antoinette Santoro, Daniel K DeMasi, Zeljko Dujic, David B MacLeod
The cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) is reduced during apnea that yields profound hypoxia and hypercapnia. In this study, to dissociate the impact of hypoxia and hypercapnia on the reduction in CMRO2, 11 breath-hold competitors completed three apneas under: (a) normal conditions (NM), yielding severe hypercapnia and hypoxemia, (b) with prior hyperventilation (HV), yielding severe hypoxemia only, and (c) with prior 100% oxygen breathing (HX), yielding the greatest level of hypercapnia, but in the absence of hypoxemia...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070499/metabolic-relationship-between-diabetes-and-alzheimer-s-disease-affected-by-cyclo-his-pro-plus-zinc-treatment
#11
REVIEW
Moon K Song, David S Bischoff, Albert M Song, Koichi Uyemura, Dean T Yamaguchi
BACKGROUND: Association of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) has been well established. Cyclo(His-Pro) plus zinc (Cyclo-Z) treatment ameliorated diabetes in rats and similar improvements have been seen in human patients. Treatment of amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice with Cyclo-Z exhibited memory improvements and significantly reduced Aβ-40 and Aβ-42 protein levels in the brain tissues of the mice. SCOPE OF REVIEW: Metabolic relationship between AD and T2D will be described with particular attention to insulin sensitivity and Aβ degradation in brain and plasma tissues...
June 2017: BBA Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069811/tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad3-pathway-targets-pp2a-ampk-foxo1-to-regulate-hepatic-gluconeogenesis
#12
Hariom Yadav, Samir Devalaraja, Stephanie Chung, Sushil G Rane
Maintenance of glucose homeostasis is essential for normal physiology. Deviation from normal glucose levels, in either direction, increases susceptibility to serious medical complications such as hypoglycemia or diabetes. Maintenance of glucose homeostasis is achieved via functional interactions amongst various organs, liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, brain and the endocrine pancreas. The liver is the primary site for endogenous glucose production, especially during states of prolonged fasting. However, enhanced gluconeogenesis is also a signature feature of type 2 diabetes (T2D)...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068639/effects-of-argan-oil-on-the-mitochondrial-function-antioxidant-system-and-the-activity-of-nadph-generating-enzymes-in-acrylamide-treated-rat-brain
#13
Birsen Aydın
Argan oil (AO) is rich in minor compounds such as polyphenols and tocopherols which are powerful antioxidants. Acrylamide (ACR) has been classified as a neurotoxic agent in animals and humans. Mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunction is one of the most probable molecular mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases. Female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to ACR (50mg/kg i.p. three times a week), AO (6ml/kg,o.p, per day) or together for 30days. The activities of cytosolic enzymes such as xanthine oxidase (XO), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), mitochondrial oxidative stress, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) enzymes, mitochondrial metabolic function, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were assessed in rat brain...
January 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065757/fats-for-thoughts-an-update-on-brain-fatty-acid-metabolism
#14
Adele Romano, Justyna Barbara Koczwara, Cristina Anna Gallelli, Daniele Vergara, Maria Vittoria Micioni Di Bonaventura, Silvana Gaetani, Anna Maria Giudetti
Brain fatty acid (FA) metabolism deserves a close attention not only for its energetic aspects but also because FAs and their metabolites/derivatives are able to influence many neural functions, contributing to brain pathologies or representing potential targets for pharmacological and/or nutritional interventions. Glucose is the preferred energy substrate for the brain, whereas the role of FAs is more marginal. In conditions of decreased glucose supply ketone bodies, mainly formed by FA oxidation, are the alternative main energy source...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062720/multimodal-characterization-of-older-apoe2-carriers-reveals-selective-reduction-of-amyloid-load
#15
Michel J Grothe, Sylvia Villeneuve, Martin Dyrba, David Bartrés-Faz, Miranka Wirth
OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively assess neurobiological effects of the protective APOE2 allele in the aged brain using a cross-sectional multimodal neuroimaging approach. METHODS: Multimodal neuroimaging data were obtained from a total of 572 older individuals without dementia (cognitively normal and mild cognitive impairment) enrolled in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and included assessments of regional amyloid load with AV45-PET, glucose metabolism with fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, and gray matter volume with structural MRI...
January 6, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062257/liraglutide-prevents-cognitive-decline-in-a-rat-model-of-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-independently-from-its-peripheral-metabolic-effects
#16
Caterina Palleria, Antonio Leo, Francesco Andreozzi, Rita Citraro, Michelangelo Iannone, Rosangela Spiga, Giorgio Sesti, Andrew Constanti, Giovambattista De Sarro, Franco Arturi, Emilio Russo
Diabetes has been identified as a risk factor for cognitive dysfunctions. Glucagone like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists have neuroprotective effects in preclinical animal models. We evaluated the effects of GLP-1 receptor agonist, liraglutide (LIR), on cognitive decline associated with diabetes. Furthermore, we studied LIR effects against hippocampal neurodegeneration induced by streptozotocin (STZ), a well-validated animal model of diabetes and neurodegeneration associated with cognitive decline. Diabetes and/or cognitive decline were induced in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal or intracerebroventricular injection of STZ and then rats were treated with LIR (300μg/kg daily subcutaneously) for 6 weeks...
January 3, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059425/metabolic-profiling-of-a-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-discovery-cohort-reveals-disturbances-in-fatty-acid-and-lipid-metabolism
#17
Arnaud Germain, David Ruppert, Susan M Levine, Maureen R Hanson
Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) remains a continuum spectrum disease without biomarkers or simple objective tests, and therefore relies on a diagnosis from a set of symptoms to link the assortment of brain and body disorders to ME/CFS. Although recent studies show various affected pathways, the underlying basis of ME/CFS has yet to be established. In this pilot study, we compare plasma metabolic signatures in a discovery cohort, 17 patients and 15 matched controls, and explore potential metabolic perturbations as the aftermath of the complex interactions between genes, transcripts and proteins...
January 6, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058996/intranasal-insulin-treatment-of-an-experimental-model-of-moderate-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Fiona Brabazon, Colin M Wilson, Shalini Jaiswal, John Reed, William H Frey, Kimberly R Byrnes
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in learning and memory dysfunction. Cognitive deficits result from cellular and metabolic dysfunction after injury, including decreased cerebral glucose uptake and inflammation. This study assessed the ability of intranasal insulin to increase cerebral glucose uptake after injury, reduce lesion volume, improve memory and learning function and reduce inflammation. Adult male rats received a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury followed by intranasal insulin or saline treatment daily for 14 days...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056856/potential-unfavorable-impacts-of-bdnf-val66met-polymorphisms-on-metabolic-risks-in-average-population-in-a-longevous-area
#19
Jun-Hua Peng, Cheng-Wu Liu, Shang-Ling Pan, Hua-Yu Wu, Qing-Hua Liang, Rui-Jing Gan, Ling Huang, Yi Ding, Zhang-Ya Bian, Hao Huang, Ze-Ping Lv, Xiao-Ling Zhou, Rui-Xing Yin
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in cognitive performance and the modulation of several metabolic parameters in some disease models, but its potential roles in successful aging remain unclear. We herein sought to define the putative correlation between BDNF Val66Met and several metabolic risk factors including BMI, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and lipid levels in a long-lived population inhabiting Hongshui River Basin in Guangxi...
January 5, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055028/the-role-of-gut-brain-axis-in-regulating-glucose-metabolism-after-acute-pancreatitis
#20
Sayali A Pendharkar, Varsha M Asrani, Rinki Murphy, Richard Cutfield, John A Windsor, Maxim S Petrov
OBJECTIVES: Diabetes has become an epidemic in developed and developing countries alike, with an increased demand for new efficacious treatments. A large body of pre-clinical evidence suggests that the gut-brain axis may be exploited as a potential therapeutic target for defective glucose homeostasis. This clinical study aimed to investigate a comprehensive panel of glucoregulatory peptides, released by both the gut and brain, in individuals after acute pancreatitis. METHODS: Fasting levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glicentin, oxyntomodulin, peptide YY, ghrelin, cholecystokinin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and secretin were studied...
January 5, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
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