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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538217/the-significance-of-glandular-cells-on-conventional-cervicovaginal-smears-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-coastal-india
#1
Pooja K Suresh, Hema Kini, Jessica Minal, Neha Dhavalpure, Sridevi H Basavaiah, Deepa S Adiga, Laveena Maben
INTRODUCTION: Glandular lesions of the female genital tract (FGT) are quite uncommon compared to squamous lesions. Their cytological diagnosis is difficult because of their architectural and cytological complexity, as well as the lack of experience of many cytopathologists in this field. The aim of this study was to determine the significance of Papanicolaou (Pap) smears in the diagnosis of glandular FGT lesions. METHODOLOGY: All Pap smears reported during the period of January 2012 to December 2013 were retrieved...
May 25, 2017: Acta Cytologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533227/detecting-the-presence-and-progression-of-premalignant-lung-lesions-via-airway-gene-expression
#2
Jennifer Beane, Sarah A Mazzilli, Anna M Tassinari, Gang Liu, Xiaohui Zhang, Hanqiao Liu, Anne Dy Buncio, Samjot S Dhillon, Suso J Platero, Marc E Lenburg, Mary E Reid, Stephen Lam, Avrum E Spira
  Lung cancer (LC) is the leading cause of cancer death in the US. The molecular events preceding the onset of disease are poorly understood and no effective tools exist to identify smokers with premalignant lesions (PMLs) that will progress to invasive cancer. Prior work identified molecular alterations in the smoke-exposed airway field of injury associated with LC.  Here we focus on an earlier stage in the disease process leveraging the airway field of injury to study PMLs and its utility in LC chemoprevention...
May 22, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531911/risk-factors-for-gastric-tumorigenesis-in-underlying-gastric-mucosal-atrophy
#3
Ji Hyun Song, Sang Gyun Kim, Eun Hyo Jin, Joo Hyun Lim, Sun Young Yang
Background/Aims: Atrophic gastritis is considered a premalignant lesion. We aimed to evaluate the risk factors for gastric tumorigenesis in underlying mucosal atrophy. Methods: A total of 10,185 subjects who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy between 2003 and 2004 were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. Follow-up endoscopy was performed between 2005 and 2014. Atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia were assessed by endoscopy using the Kimura-Takemoto classification...
May 23, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513913/determination-of-role-of-ceruloplasmin-in-oral-potentially-malignant-disorders-and-oral-malignancy-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Palak H Shah, Rashmi Venkatesh, Chandramani B More
OBJECTIVES: In the process of carcinogenesis, lipid peroxidation and increased oxidative stress leads to changes in certain antioxidants. The present study was aimed to assess and co-relate serum levels of ceruloplasmin in oral premalignancies and oral cancer so as to gauge its possible association with the process of carcinogenesis and to determine its role as tumor marker. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The total of 300 participants, were equally divided in six study groups i...
May 17, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511519/a-giant-cutaneous-horn-projecting-from-verrucous-carcinoma-of-buccal-mucosa-a-rare-case-report
#5
Priyankar Singh, Dipesh Nathani, Shashi Ranjan, Rashmi Issar
Cutaneous horn is conical shape of compact keratin that resembles a miniature animal horn. Though morphologically similar to horns in animals they are histologically very different from them. It is a circumscribed, conical, hyperkeratotic dense protrusion with epithelial cornification above the skin surface in response to a wide range of underlying benign and malignant pathological changes. Though benign, a cutaneous horn holds the potential to be premalignant or malignant. In India till now six cases has been reported with cutaneous horn at various unusual sites...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510269/kallikrein-related-peptidase-4-induces-cancer-associated-fibroblast-features-in-prostate-derived-stromal-cells
#6
T Kryza, L M Silva, N Bock, R A Fuhrman-Luck, C R Stephens, J Gao, H Samaratunga, M G Lawrence, J D Hooper, Y Dong, G P Risbridger, J A Clements
The reciprocal communication between cancer cells and their microenvironment is critical in cancer progression. Although involvement of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) in cancer progression is long established, the molecular mechanisms leading to differentiation of CAFs from normal fibroblasts are poorly understood. Here, we report that kallikrein-related peptidase-4 (KLK4) promotes CAF differentiation. KLK4 is highly expressed in prostate epithelial cells of premalignant (prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia) and malignant lesions compared to normal prostate epithelia, especially at the peri-stromal interface...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508872/actin-stress-fiber-organization-promotes-cell-stiffening-and-proliferation-of-pre-invasive-breast-cancer-cells
#7
Sandra Tavares, André Filipe Vieira, Anna Verena Taubenberger, Margarida Araújo, Nuno Pimpao Martins, Catarina Brás-Pereira, António Polónia, Maik Herbig, Clara Barreto, Oliver Otto, Joana Cardoso, José B Pereira-Leal, Jochen Guck, Joana Paredes, Florence Janody
Studies of the role of actin in tumour progression have highlighted its key contribution in cell softening associated with cell invasion. Here, using a human breast cell line with conditional Src induction, we demonstrate that cells undergo a stiffening state prior to acquiring malignant features. This state is characterized by the transient accumulation of stress fibres and upregulation of Ena/VASP-like (EVL). EVL, in turn, organizes stress fibres leading to transient cell stiffening, ERK-dependent cell proliferation, as well as enhancement of Src activation and progression towards a fully transformed state...
May 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494577/sessile-serrated-adenomas-how-to-detect-characterize-and-resect
#8
REVIEW
Michael X Ma, Michael J Bourke
Serrated polyps are important contributors to the burden of colorectal cancers (CRC). These lesions were once considered to have no malignant potential, but currently up to 30% of all CRC are recognized to arise from the serrated neoplasia pathway. The primary premalignant lesions are sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps), although traditional serrated adenomas are relatively uncommon. Compared to conventional adenomas, SSA/Ps are morphologically subtle with indistinct borders, may be difficult to detect endoscopically, are more prevalent than previously thought, are associated with synchronous and metachronous advanced neoplasia, and have a higher risk of incomplete resection...
May 11, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494215/potential-ultrastructure-predicting-factors-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-hcv-infected-patients
#9
Soheir S Mansy, Eman El-Ahwany, Soheir Mahmoud, Sara Hassan, Mohammed I Seleem, Amr Abdelaal, Ahmed H Helmy, Mona K Zoheiry, Ahmed S AbdelFattah, Moataz H Hassanein
Hepatitis C virus represents one of the rising causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although the early diagnosis of HCC is vital for successful curative treatment, the majority of lesions are diagnosed in an irredeemable phase. This work deals with a comparative ultrastructural study of experimentally gradually induced HCC, surgically resected HCC, and potential premalignant lesions from HCV-infected patients, with the prospect to detect cellular criteria denoting premalignant transformation. Among the main detected pathological changes which are postulated to precede frank HCC: failure of normal hepatocyte regeneration with star shape clonal fragmentation, frequent elucidation of hepatic progenitor cells and Hering canals, hepatocytes of different electron density loaded with small sized rounded monotonous mitochondria, increase junctional complexes bordering bile canaliculi and in between hepatocyte membranes, abundant cellular proteinaceous material with hypertrophied or vesiculated rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), sequestrated nucleus with proteinaceous granular material or hypertrophied RER, formation of lipolysosomes, large autophagosomes, and micro-vesicular fat deposition...
May 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493535/the-mongolian-gerbil-meriones-unguiculatus-as-a-model-for-inflammationpromoted-prostate-carcinogenesis
#10
Amado A Quintar, Bianca F Gonçalves, Sebastião R Taboga, Cristina A Maldonado
One of the recognized issues in prostate cancer research is the lack of animal models allowing the research of pathological, biochemical, and genetic factors in immunocompetent animals. Our research group has successfully employed the gerbil in several studisfor prostate diseases. In the present work, we aimed to analyze the effect of chronic bacterial inflammation on MNU-induced prostate carcinogenesis in gerbils Histopathological assessment of the prostatic complex revealed that treatment combinations with MNU plus testosterone or bacterial infection resulted in a promotion of prostate cancer, with bacterial inflammation being more effective in increasing premalignant and malignant tissular alterations than testosterone in the prostate...
May 11, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487883/genetic-and-epigenetic-profiling-of-a-solitary-peutz-jeghers-colon-polyp
#11
Heinz Linhart, Felix Bormann, Barbara Hutter, Benedikt Brors, Frank Lyko
Colon polyps represent precursor lesions of colon cancers and their malignant potential varies according to histological subtype. A rare subtype of colon polyps is the Peutz-Jeghers (PJ) polyp. PJ polyps mostly occur in the context of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, which is characterized by the development of multiple polyps in the intestinal tract and hyperpigmentation of oral mucosa and lips. Peutz-Jeghers is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by pathogenic variants of the serine threonine kinase STK11. PJ polyps very rarely occur outside of the syndrome and are then referred to as solitary PJ polyps...
May 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479681/immunolocalization-of-osteopontin-in-dysplasias-and-squamous-cell-carcinomas-arising-from-oral-epithelium
#12
Thara Aravind, Mahija Janardhanan, S Rakesh, Vindhya Savithri, U G Unnikrishnan
BACKGROUND: Early detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains one of the most efficient ways to ensure patient survival and improved quality of life. Although specific biomarkers related to OSCC have been investigated, a useful biomarker that assesses the transition potential of potentially malignant lesion to OSCC remains to be found. Osteopontin (OPN) has been recognized as an important factor in tumorigenesis and their expression in OSCC have been investigated earlier...
January 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477348/the-potential-role-of-in-vivo-optical-coherence-tomography-for-evaluating-oral-soft-tissue-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Enrica Gentile, Claudio Maio, Antonio Romano, Luigi Laino, Alberta Lucchese
BACKGROUND: The introduction of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in dentistry enabled the integration of already existing clinical and laboratory investigations in the study the oral cavity. This systematic review, presents an overview of the literature, to evaluate the usefulness of in vivo OCT for diagnosing oral soft tissues lesions, to compare the OCT results with traditional histology, and to identify limitations in prior studies so as to improve OCT applications. METHODS: We performed a review of the literature using different search engines (PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library) employing MeSH terms such as "optical coherence tomography" and "OCT" in conjunction with other terms...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472571/optimising-cryosurgery-technique
#14
William C Cranwell, Rodney Sinclair
BACKGROUND: Cryosurgery is an effective, simple and inexpensive treatment used extensively in general practice and dermatology. It is used most commonly for actinic keratoses and warts; however, a large number of benign, premalignant and malignant skin diseases can also be treated. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to help readers improve their cryosurgery technique. DISCUSSION: Application of the cryogenic agent (most commonly liquid nitrogen) to the skin induces rapid freezing followed by slow thawing...
2017: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471122/could-25-oh-vitamin-d-deficiency-be-a-reason-for-hpv-infection-persistence-in-cervical-premalignant-lesions
#15
Emre Özgü, Nafiye Yılmaz, Eralp Başer, Tayfun Güngör, Salim Erkaya, Halil İbrahim Yakut
Vitamin D is an essential precursor to the steroid hormone calcitriol which mainly regulates calcium homeostasis. Moreover anti- proliferative, pro- apoptotic, anti- angiogenic effects of Vitamin D support the ideas of preventive role in various cancer. This study aimed to determine if there is a relationship between HPVDNA infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and Vitamin D deficiency. As a result of the study the difference of 25-OH Vitamin D3 levels between HPVDNA positive group and the control group were statistically significant (p=0,009)...
July 2016: Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471120/evaluation-of-efficacy-of-1-crystal-violet-nuclear-fast-red-stain-compared-to-haematoxyline-eosin-stain-for-assessing-mitotic-figures-in-oral-premalignant-and-malignant-lesions
#16
Gauri Motiwale, Shradha Jaiswal, Ashok Vikey, Tejas Motiwale, Bhupesh Bagulkar, Atul Bhat, Prakhar Kapoor
Various chromosomal arrangements in cells undergoing division are referred to as Mitotic figure (MF). The abnormal excess of mitotic figures is commonly seen in oral epithelial dysplasia (ED) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In present study, we compared the number of mitotic figures in normal oral mucosa, epithelial dysplasia & OSCC sections with haematoxyline & eosine (H&E) and 1%Crystal Violet & Nuclear Fast Red (CV&NFR) stain, also the efficacy of the CV&NFR stain as compared to H & E stain. We investigated the correlation between the number of mitotic figures & grades of OSCC...
July 2016: Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463669/pancreatic-cystic-lesions-diagnostic-management-and-indications-for-operation-part-i
#17
Ferdinand Bauer
We notice an increasing frequency in the detection and evaluation of pancreatic cystic lesions (PCLs) over the last three decades. They show awide spectrum of imaging and clinical features. The diagnosis and discrimination of these lesions are very important because of the risk for concurrent or later development of malignancy. The main reason is the increased awareness of these lesions and the extensive use of cross-sectional imaging, an always improving technique (1). Commonly, PCLs are diagnosed incidentally during investigation for often unrelated and nonspecific abdominal complaints using state-of-the art abdominal imaging (CT, MRT)...
March 2017: Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461830/histopathological-immunohistochemical-and-therapeutical-assessment-of-premalignant-endometrial-lesions-in-a-hospital-based-series-of-cases
#18
Georgescu Tiberiu Augustin, Cirstoiu Monica, Costache Mariana, Lazaroiu Anca, Dumitru Adrian, Sajin Maria
INTRODUCTION: Endometrial hyperplasia represents a diversified set of disorders which has challenged pathologists for decades. Due to its high likelihood of progression to carcinoma, endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN) demands prompt and specialized intervention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This 15-month (September 2014 - November 2015) retrospective analysis involved 258 cases of female patients with atypical and non-atypical endometrial hyperplasia investigated and treated at the University Emergency Hospital in Bucharest, Romania...
June 2016: Mædica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460480/htert-promotes-gastric-intestinal-metaplasia-by-upregulating-cdx2-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#19
Bai-Jun Chen, Shuo Zeng, Rui Xie, Chang-Jiang Hu, Su-Ming Wang, Yu-Yun Wu, Yu-Feng Xiao, Shi-Ming Yang
BACKGROUND: hTERT has been reported involved in the proliferation and metastasis of gastric cancer, but the role of hTERT in gastric intestinal metaplasia, a premalignant lesion of the gastric mucosa was unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of hTERT in GIM and the effect of hTERT on CDX2 expression in gastric cells. RESULTS: Experiments showed that expression of hTERT was significantly higher in GIM than in normal gastric mucosa. Moreover, hTERT increased the KLF4 level via NF-κB during GIM...
April 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455874/quantitative-identification-of-senescent-cells-in-aging-and-disease
#20
Anat Biran, Lior Zada, Paula Abou Karam, Ezra Vadai, Lior Roitman, Yossi Ovadya, Ziv Porat, Valery Krizhanovsky
Senescent cells are present in premalignant lesions and sites of tissue damage and accumulate in tissues with age. In vivo identification, quantification and characterization of senescent cells are challenging tasks that limit our understanding of the role of senescent cells in diseases and aging. Here, we present a new way to precisely quantify and identify senescent cells in tissues on a single-cell basis. The method combines a senescence-associated beta-galactosidase assay with staining of molecular markers for cellular senescence and of cellular identity...
April 28, 2017: Aging Cell
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