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S L Gray, R G Harrison
The British Isles benefits from dense meteorological observation networks, enabling insights into the still-unresolved effects of solar eclipse events on the near-surface wind field. The near-surface effects of the solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 are derived through comparison of output from the Met Office's operational weather forecast model (which is ignorant of the eclipse) with data from two meteorological networks: the Met Office's land surface station (MIDAS) network and a roadside measurement network operated by Vaisala...
September 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Carrie W Hoppes, Aubrey D Sperier, Colleen F Hopkins, Bridgette D Griffiths, Molly F Principe, Barri L Schnall, Johanna C Bell, Shane L Koppenhaver
BACKGROUND: Body armor is credited with increased survival rates in soldiers but the additional axial load may negatively impact the biomechanics of the spine resulting in low back pain. Multiple studies have found that lumbar stabilization programs are superior to generalized programs for patients with chronic low back pain. It is not known if such programs produce objective changes in trunk muscle function with wear of body armor. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: An eight-week core stability exercise program would result in a larger improvement in physical endurance and abdominal muscle thickness than a control intervention...
August 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Klaus Wirth, Hagen Hartmann, Christoph Mickel, Elena Szilvas, Michael Keiner, Andre Sander
Over the last two decades, exercise of the core muscles has gained major interest in professional sports. Research has focused on injury prevention and increasing athletic performance. We analyzed the guidelines for so-called functional strength training for back pain prevention and found that programs were similar to those for back pain rehabilitation; even the arguments were identical. Surprisingly, most exercise specifications have neither been tested for their effectiveness nor compared with the load specifications normally used for strength training...
July 30, 2016: Sports Medicine
David Barbado, Luis C Barbado, Jose L L Elvira, Jaap H van Dieën, Francisco J Vera-Garcia
Trunk/core stability is considered a key component of training programs, because it could contribute to prevention of low-back and lower-limb injuries and to sports performance. Based on the specificity principle, sports-related trunk stability tests would be required in elite sports performance. However, there may be some generic qualities underlying trunk stability that can be assessed with nonspecific protocols, which are broadly used in sport and rehabilitation. To assess whether specific tests are needed in a high-performance context, we analyzed the influence of specialization in sports with large but qualitatively different balance control demands (judo and kayaking) on trunk stability and compared high-performance athletes with recreational athletes without a specific training history...
September 2016: Gait & Posture
Osama Ragaa Abdelraouf, Amr Almaz Abdel-Aziem
BACKGROUND: Physical activity and sports can be associated with low back pain. However, little is known about the relationship between core stability and nonspecific low back pain (LBP) among athletes. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between core endurance and back dysfunction in collegiate male athletes with and without nonspecific LBP. METHODS: Fifty-five male collegiate athletes from a variety of sports were recruited for this study...
June 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
MohammadBagher Shamsi, Javad Sarrafzadeh, Aliashraf Jamshidi, Vida Zarabi, Mohammad Reza Pourahmadi
BACKGROUND: There is a controversy regarding whether core stability exercise (CSE) is more effective than general exercise (GE) for chronic LBP. To compare different exercises regarding their effect on improving back strength and stability, performance of abdominal muscles is a useful index. Ultrasound imaging for measuring muscle thickness could be used to assess muscle performance. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare CSE and GE in chronic LBP using ultrasound imaging for measurement of thickness of the deep stabilizing and main global trunk muscles in non-specific chronic LBP...
May 2016: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
Jinzhuang Xiao, Jinli Sun, Junmin Gao, Hongrui Wang, Xincai Yang
Objectives. Prone bridge, unilateral bridge, supine bridge, and bird-dog are classic rehabilitation exercises, which have been advocated as effective ways to improve core stability among healthy individuals and patients with low back pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of seven selected muscles during rehabilitation exercises through the signal of surface electromyographic. Approaches. We measured the surface electromyographic signals of four lower limb muscles, two abdominal muscles, and one back muscle during rehabilitation exercises of 30 healthy students and then analyzed its activity level using the median frequency method...
2016: Rehabilitation Research and Practice
T Del Rosso, N A Rey, T Rosado, S Landi, D G Larrude, E C Romani, F L Freire Junior, S M Quinteiro, M Cremona, R Q Aucelio, G Margheri, O Pandoli
Colloidal suspensions of oxocarbon-encapsulated gold nanoparticles have been synthesized in a one-step procedure by pulsed-laser ablation (PLA) at 532 nm of a solid gold target placed in aqueous solution containing CO2 absorbers, but without any stabilizing agent. Multi-wavelength surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy allows the identification of adsorbed amorphous carbon and graphite, Au-carbonyl, Au coordinated CO2-derived bicarbonates/carbonates and hydroxyl groups around the AuNPs core. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis and high resolution transmission electron microscopy highlight the organic shell structure around the crystalline metal core...
June 24, 2016: Nanotechnology
John Badger, Prerna Grover, Haibin Shi, Shoghag B Panjarian, John R Engen, Thomas E Smithgall, Lee Makowski
Protein tyrosine kinases of the Abl family have diverse roles in normal cellular regulation and drive several forms of leukemia as oncogenic fusion proteins. In the crystal structure of the inactive c-Abl kinase core, the SH2 and SH3 domains dock onto the back of the kinase domain, resulting in a compact, assembled state. This inactive conformation is stabilized by the interaction of the myristoylated N-cap with a pocket in the C-lobe of the kinase domain. Mutations that perturb these intramolecular interactions result in kinase activation...
June 14, 2016: Biochemistry
Barton E Anderson, Kellie C Huxel Bliven
Research has demonstrated a relationship between poor core stability and back pain, with noted decreases in core muscle activity and spinal stabilization in those suffering from both acute and chronic conditions. This relationship has also led to studies examining differences in breathing patterns between persons with and without low back pain. Several authors have reported altered breathing patterns in persons with chronic, non-specific low back pain, including differences in lung capacity and diaphragm mechanics...
May 2, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Kane J Middleton, Peter M Mills, Bruce C Elliott, Jacqueline A Alderson
The aim of this study was to compare the associations between lower limb biomechanics and ball release speed in 15 high-performance (HP) and 15 amateur fast bowlers. Kinematic and kinetic variables of the lower limbs collected in the laboratory environment with a 3D Vicon motion analysis system were compared between groups, as well as their associations with ball release speed. HP bowlers had a significantly higher run-up velocity at back foot impact but this difference became non-significant at ball release...
September 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Jasmin S Hanke, Thomas Krabatsch, Sebastian V Rojas, Ezin Deniz, Issam Ismail, Andreas Martens, Malakh Shrestha, Axel Haverich, Ivan Netuka, Jan D Schmitto
The therapy of terminal heart failure with left ventricular assist devices has become a standard in cardiac surgery. Yet the surgical implantation technique is not standardized and differs from center to center. Complications associated with left ventricular assist device (LVAD) inflow cannula placement are thrombosis, suction events, and flow disturbances. Within this in vitro study we aimed to investigate if the fixation technique of the sewing ring has an impact on the position of the inflow cannula. For this in vitro study the HeartMate III LVAD (Thoratec Corporation, Pleasanton, CA, USA) was used...
April 18, 2016: Artificial Organs
Aatit Paungmali, Leonard Joseph Henry, Patraporn Sitilertpisan, Ubon Pirunsan, Sureeporn Uthaikhup
[Purpose] This study investigated the effects of lumbopelvic stabilization training on tissue blood flow changes in the lumbopelvic region and lumbopelvic stability compared to placebo treatment and controlled intervention among patients with chronic non-specific low back pain. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 25 participants (7 males, 18 females; mean age, 33.3 ± 14.4 years) participated in this within-subject, repeated-measures, double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison trial. The participants randomly underwent three types of interventions that included lumbopelvic stabilization training, placebo treatment, and controlled intervention with 48 hours between sessions...
January 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Shujie Tang, Xiuling Qian, Yingjie Zhang, Yuanmei Liu
BACKGROUND: The therapeutic effect of Tuina combined with core stability exercises on low back pain resulted from lumbar degenerative instability is unclear. This article aims to evaluate whether core stability exercises can improve the effect of Tuina in this regard. METHODS: This trial was designed as a randomized controlled trial and carried out in Qingzhou hospital of Traditional Chinese medicine between June 2011 and June 2013. Eighty-eight patients with low-grade lumbar degenerative instability were included and divided randomly into experimental and control groups, 44 in each...
April 2016: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Wontae Gong
BACKGROUND: Based on previous studies indicating that core stabilization exercises accompanied by abdominal drawing-in maneuvers increase the thickness of the transversus abdominis muscle. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the measurements of abdominal muscle thicknesses during running in place in a limited area with the abdominal drawing-in maneuver. METHODS: The study classified the subjects into two experimental groups: the training group (M = 2, F = 13), and the control group (M = 2, F = 13)...
March 4, 2016: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
Hilary M Clayton
The central body axis or core is a key component in controlling body posture and providing a stable platform for limb movements and generation of locomotor forces. Persistent dysfunction of the deep stabilizing muscles seems to be common in horses indicating a need for core training exercises to restore normal function. Core training should be performed throughout the horse's athletic career to maintain a healthy back and used therapeutically when back pain is identified. This article reviews the structure and function of the equine thoracolumbar spine with special reference to function, dysfunction, conditioning, and rehabilitation of the core musculature...
April 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
Tessa Lillis Poirier Elliott, Kyra Stanise Marshall, David Allen Lake, Nancy Henderson Wofford, George James Davies
STUDY DESIGN: Experimental randomized crossover. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine whether sitting on a ball for 90 min/d instead of a chair has an effect on low back pain (LBP), low back disability, and/or core muscle endurance. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: LBP may result from prolonged sitting. It has been proposed that replacing chairs with stability balls can diminish LBP in those who sit for prolonged periods. Research on the topic is sparse and inconclusive...
September 15, 2016: Spine
Christopher L Camp, Matthew S Conti, Terrance Sgroi, Frank P Cammisa, Joshua S Dines
In recent years, increased attention has been paid to injuries occurring in Major League Baseball (MLB) players. Although most of the current orthopedic literature regarding baseball injuries pertains to the shoulder and elbow, lumbar spine injuries are another common reason for time out of play. Back and core injuries may represent as many as 12% of all injuries that result in time out of play from MLB. This high rate of injury is likely related to the critical role that the spine plays in every major baseball-related movement...
March 2016: American Journal of Orthopedics
Courtney M Butowicz, D David Ebaugh, Brian Noehren, Sheri P Silfies
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests poor core stability is a risk factor for low back and lower extremity injuries in athletes. Recently the trunk stability test (TST) and unilateral hip bridge endurance test (UHBE) were developed to clinically assess core stability. Although these and other clinical tests of core stability exist, how well they assess core stability when compared to biomechanical measures of isolated core stability has not been thoroughly evaluated. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: The purposes of this study were to 1) determine concurrent validity of two novel clinical core stability assessments (TST and UHBE), and 2) assess relationships between these assessments and the trunk endurance and Y-Balance tests...
February 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Mahesh K Gangishetty, Robert W J Scott, Timothy L Kelly
Triangular silver nanoparticles are promising materials for light harvesting applications because of their strong plasmon bands; these absorption bands are highly tunable, and can be varied over the entire visible range based on the particle size. A general concern with these materials is that they are unstable at elevated temperatures. When thermally annealed, they suffer from changes to the particle morphology, which in turn affects their optical properties. Because of this stability issue, these materials cannot be used in applications requiring elevated temperatures...
June 14, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
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