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Kátia L Mansur, Luiza C M O Ponciano, Aline R S F DE Castro
When considering the numerous events that have prohibited the development of scientific projects or caused destruction of outcrops, it is clear that there is rapidly increasing necessity to define a Brazilian Code of Conduct for geological fieldwork. In general, this destruction is attributed to lack of knowledge as to the relevance of geological sites. The aim of this Code of Conduct is to guide geologists to adopt good practices during geoscience activities. Proposed guidelines are based on Codes of Conduct from other countries, mainly Scotland and England, on situations described in papers and on the personal experience of the authors...
May 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Andrea Parra, Tamuru Okada, Peter H Lin
Background Carotidynia is characterized by focal pain and tenderness of the carotid artery without associated hemodynamic or structural abnormalities. Carotid artery pathology has also been known to occur in high altitude due to aberrant baroreceptor response in the carotid bulb. Case Presentation We herein report two cases of high altitude-related idiopathic carotidynia. The first patient was a geologist who performed oil reserve survey in the Alaska Mountain, while the second patient was hiking in a mountain trail in Peru...
January 1, 2017: Vascular
Atanu Sarkar, Derek Hc Wilton, Erica Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND: Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. In Canada, the health authorities have no access to comprehensive profile of the communities built over uranium-rich micro-geological settings. The present indoor radon monitoring guideline is unable to provide an accurate identification of health hazards due to discounting several parameters of housing characteristics. OBJECTIVE: To explore indoor radon levels in a micro-geological setting known for high uranium in bedrock and to develop a theoretical model for a revised radon testing protocol...
April 2017: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Lisa Mol, M Gomez-Heras, C Brassey, O Green, T Blenkinsop
Projectile damage to building stone is a widespread phenomenon. Sites damaged 100 years ago during the First World War still see daily use, while in a more contemporary setting numerous reports show the damage to buildings in Babylon, Mosul and Palmyra. While research has been carried out on the long-term effects of conflict such as fire damage, little is known about the protracted damage sustained through the impact of bullets, shrapnel and other metal projectiles outside of the field of engineering focused on ceramics and metals...
February 2017: Royal Society Open Science
William F Martin, Madeline C Weiss, Sinje Neukirchen, Shijulal Nelson-Sathi, Filipa L Sousa
Genomes record their own history. But if we want to look all the way back to life's beginnings some 4 billion years ago, the record of microbial evolution that is preserved in prokaryotic genomes is not easy to read. Microbiology has a lot in common with geology in that regard. Geologists know that plate tectonics and erosion have erased much of the geological record, with ancient rocks being truly rare. The same is true of microbes. Lateral gene transfer (LGT) and sequence divergence have erased much of the evolutionary record that was once written in genomes, and it is not obvious which genes among sequenced genomes are genuinely ancient...
November 25, 2016: Microbial Cell
Aysha Masood Khan, Nor Kartini Abu Bakar, Ahmad Farid Abu Bakar, Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf
Rare earths (RE), chemically uniform group of elements due to similar physicochemical behavior, are termed as lanthanides. Natural occurrence depends on the geological circumstances and has been of long interest for geologist as tools for further scientific research into the region of ores, rocks, and oceanic water. The review paper mainly focuses to provide scientific literature about rare earth elements (REEs) with potential environmental and health effects in understanding the research. This is the initial review of RE speciation and bioavailability with current initiative toward development needs and research perceptive...
October 10, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Paul F Smith, Ross M Renner, Stephen J Haslett
BACKGROUND: Compositional data sum to a constant value, for example, 100%. In neuroscience, such data are common, for example, when estimating the percentage of time spent for a behavioural response in a limited choice situation or a neurochemical within brain tissue. Compositional data have a distinct structure which complicates analysis and makes inappropriate standard statistical analyses such as general linear model analyses and principal components or factor analysis (whether Q-mode or R-mode), as a result of the correlation of the components, the dependence of the pairwise covariance on which other components are included in the analysis, and the bounded nature of the data...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Jinyi Li, Jin Zhang, Xixi Zhao, Mei Jiang, Yaping Li, Zhixin Zhu, Qianwen Feng, Lijia Wang, Guihua Sun, Jianfeng Liu, Tiannan Yang
The driving mechanism that is responsible for the uplift of intracontinental mountains has puzzled geologists for decades. This study addresses this issue by using receiver function images across the Chinese Tianshan Mountains and available data from both deep seismic profiles and surface structural deformation. The near-surface structural deformation shows that the Tianshan crust experienced strong shortening during the Cenozoic. The receiver function image across the Tianshan Mountains reveals that the lithosphere of the Junggar Basin to the north became uncoupled along the Moho, and the mantle below the Moho subducted southwards beneath the northern part of the Tianshan Mountains, thereby thickening the overlying crust...
2016: Scientific Reports
Michael Nahm
Swiss geologist Albert Heim is well known for his pioneering contributions to several aspects of geology, and for his role in establishing the breeding of different kinds of Swiss mountain dogs. In the field of near-death research, it is also recognized that he performed a pioneering study into near-death states of falling mountaineers. It seems hardly known, however, that Heim also influenced suggestion therapy significantly-in particular, the treatment of warts by suggestion. This article provides an overview of Heim's contribution in the latter field of study...
July 2016: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
Sasha Babicki, David Arndt, Ana Marcu, Yongjie Liang, Jason R Grant, Adam Maciejewski, David S Wishart
Heatmapper is a freely available web server that allows users to interactively visualize their data in the form of heat maps through an easy-to-use graphical interface. Unlike existing non-commercial heat map packages, which either lack graphical interfaces or are specialized for only one or two kinds of heat maps, Heatmapper is a versatile tool that allows users to easily create a wide variety of heat maps for many different data types and applications. More specifically, Heatmapper allows users to generate, cluster and visualize: (i) expression-based heat maps from transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic experiments; (ii) pairwise distance maps; (iii) correlation maps; (iv) image overlay heat maps; (v) latitude and longitude heat maps and (vi) geopolitical (choropleth) heat maps...
July 8, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Yuanyuan Zha, Tian-Chyi J Yeh, Walter A Illman, Tatsuya Tanaka, Patrick Bruines, Hironori Onoe, Hiromitsu Saegusa, Deqiang Mao, Shinji Takeuchi, Jet-Chau Wen
While hydraulic tomography (HT) is a mature aquifer characterization technology, its applications to characterize hydrogeology of kilometer-scale fault and fracture zones are rare. This paper sequentially analyzes datasets from two new pumping tests as well as those from two previous pumping tests analyzed by Illman et al. (2009) at a fractured granite site in Mizunami, Japan. Results of this analysis show that datasets from two previous pumping tests at one side of a fault zone as used in the previous study led to inaccurate mapping of fracture and fault zones...
November 2016: Ground Water
Nancy E Davidson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Jenny Bulstrode
For geologists and antiquaries of the late 1850s debates over ancient stone tools were frustrated by a lack of accepted criteria. The artefacts were hard to interpret. It was not self-evident how to judge whether they were ancient or modern, natural or man-made; or indeed whether stone tools could pre-date the use of metal tools at all. Antiquary and papermaker John Evans provided a system that offered to resolve these issues. His criteria and his use of re-enactment, making his own stone implements, gained acceptance among flint experts across fluid disciplinary boundaries and enabled authoritative interpretations of the underdetermined objects...
March 2016: British Journal for the History of Science
Karolyn Shindler
Charles Davies Sherborn was geologist, indexer and bibliographer extraordinaire. He was fascinated by science from an early age and like so many Victorians, the young Sherborn was a passionate natural history collector and was obsessed with expanding his collection of land and freshwater shells. He later described himself as being a 'thorough magpie' and having 'a card-index mind', and these two traits coalesced in his monumental Index Animalium, the compilation of which occupied 43 years of his life. One of the first visitors through the doors of the Natural History Museum in South Kensington when it opened in 1881, Sherborn began work there seven years later as one of the small band of unofficial scientific workers, paid by the number of fossils he prepared...
2016: ZooKeys
Matthew Adamson
This study explores the origins and consequences of a unique, secret, French-American collaboration to prospect for uranium in 1950s Morocco. This collaboration permitted mediation between the United States and France. The appearance of France in an American-supported project for raw nuclear materials signalled American willingness to accept a new nuclear global order in which the French assumed a new, higher position as regional nuclear ally as opposed to suspicious rival. This collaboration also permitted France and the United States to agree tacitly to the same geopolitical status for the French Moroccan Protectorate, a status under dispute both in Morocco and outside it...
March 2016: British Journal for the History of Science
Q Wessels, A M Taylor
Sir Richard Owen, a Lancastrian, was a prominent biologist, comparative anatomist, geologist, palaeontologist and known for coining the term dinosaur. His expertise in anatomical dissection proved to be one of his biggest assets and aided his career progression at the Royal College of Surgeons and the Zoological Society. Owen's apprenticeship in Lancaster helped him to gain expertise in anatomy and anatomical dissection. The authors aim to provide some novel contextual background to his childhood in Lancaster, his affection for his hometown and his contribution to Lancaster's sanitary reform...
October 28, 2015: Journal of Medical Biography
Piotr Köhler
Polish expedition to Spitsbergen in 1934 was already the second Polish polar expedition to the Arctic. It was scientific-mountaineering in character. 7 persons took part in it: Witold Biernawski (1898-1957)--film-maker and radiotelegraph operator, Stefan Bernadzikiewicz (1907-1939)--expedition leader, Henryk Mogilnicki (1906-1999)--photographer and radiotelegraph operator, Stefan Zbigniew Różycki (1906-1988)--geologist, Stanisław Siedlecki (1912-2002)--meteorological observer, Sylweriusz Bohdan Zagrajski (1892-1940)--triangulator, Antoni Rogal-Zawadzki (1896-1974)--topographer and photogrammetrist...
2015: Kwartalnik Historii Nauki i Techniki: Kwartal'nyĭ Zhurnal Istorii Nauki i Tekhniki -
Xun-Wen Chen, James Tsz-Fung Wong, Charles Wang-Wai Ng, Ming-Hung Wong
Due to the increasing concerns on global warming, scarce land for agriculture, and contamination impacts on human health, biochar application is being considered as one of the possible measures for carbon sequestration, promoting higher crop yield and contamination remediation. Significant amount of researches focusing on these three aspects have been conducted during recent years. Biochar as a soil amendment is effective in promoting plant performance and sustainability, by enhancing nutrient bioavailability, contaminants immobilization, and microbial activities...
April 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
María Luján Ganuza, Gabriela Ferracutti, María Florencia Gargiulo, Silvia Mabel Castro, Ernesto Bjerg, Eduard Gröller, Krešimir Matković
Geologists usually deal with rocks that are up to several thousand million years old. They try to reconstruct the tectonic settings where these rocks were formed and the history of events that affected them through the geological time. The spinel group minerals provide useful information regarding the geological environment in which the host rocks were formed. They constitute excellent indicators of geological environments (tectonic settings) and are of invaluable help in the search for mineral deposits of economic interest...
December 2014: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
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