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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730310/analysis-and-identification-of-elongated-mineral-particles-in-road-coated-aggregates
#1
Erell Leocat, Christophe Rielland, Aurélien Urvoy, Patrice Letessier
The issue of Elongated Mineral Particles (EMP) in building materials has been revealed during roadworks in 2013 in France. In fact, road coating aggregates are made of specific rock gravels that can contain Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA), which is mainly actinolite. The legislation refers to six regulatory asbestos, that consist in asbestiform habitus of the six minerals. The current technical standard is not adapted for analyzing natural material, as it cannot distinguish the asbestiform fibers and the cleavage fragments fibers...
May 3, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458942/realism-on-the-rocks-novel-success-and-james-hutton-s-theory-of-the-earth
#2
Thomas Rossetter
In this paper, I introduce a new historical case study into the scientific realism debate. During the late-eighteenth century, the Scottish natural philosopher James Hutton made two important successful novel predictions. The first concerned granitic veins intruding from granite masses into strata. The second concerned what geologists now term "angular unconformities": older sections of strata overlain by younger sections, the two resting at different angles, the former typically more inclined than the latter...
February 2018: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456243/hopanoid-lipids-from-membranes-to-plant-bacteria-interactions
#3
REVIEW
Brittany J Belin, Nicolas Busset, Eric Giraud, Antonio Molinaro, Alba Silipo, Dianne K Newman
Lipid research represents a frontier for microbiology, as showcased by hopanoid lipids. Hopanoids, which resemble sterols and are found in the membranes of diverse bacteria, have left an extensive molecular fossil record. They were first discovered by petroleum geologists. Today, hopanoid-producing bacteria remain abundant in various ecosystems, such as the rhizosphere. Recently, great progress has been made in our understanding of hopanoid biosynthesis, facilitated in part by technical advances in lipid identification and quantification...
May 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249722/seismic-politics-risk-and-reconstruction-after-the-1960-earthquake-in-agadir-morocco
#4
Daniel Williford
On 29 February 1960, an earthquake struck the city of Agadir, Morocco, killing between ten and fifteen thousand Moroccans and Europeans and damaging the majority of the city's structures. Drawing on data from seismographs, witness accounts, and direct observations of destruction, international teams of experts working in the aftermath of the disaster rewrote Agadir as a seismically vulnerable space. In the process, they depoliticized destruction and assigned responsibility for the devastation of the city's poorest neighborhoods to "natural" forces and ineffective "traditional" building practices...
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191882/boston-university-geologist-fights-for-his-job
#5
Meredith Wadman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123508/ecology-of-alpine-macrofungi-combining-historical-with-recent-data
#6
Ivano Brunner, Beat Frey, Martin Hartmann, Stephan Zimmermann, Frank Graf, Laura M Suz, Tuula Niskanen, Martin I Bidartondo, Beatrice Senn-Irlet
Historical datasets of living communities are important because they can be used to document creeping shifts in species compositions. Such a historical data set exists for alpine fungi. From 1941 to 1953, the Swiss geologist Jules Favre visited yearly the region of the Swiss National Park and recorded the occurring fruiting bodies of fungi >1 mm (so-called "macrofungi") in the alpine zone. Favre can be regarded as one of the pioneers of alpine fungal ecology not least because he noted location, elevation, geology, and associated plants during his numerous excursions...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048259/tracings-of-the-north-of-europe-robert-chambers-in-search-of-the-ice-age
#7
Geir Hestmark
Scottish publisher and naturalist Robert Chambers pursued an amateur interest in geology through much of his life. His early measurements of raised beaches in Scotland earned him membership in the Geological Society of London in 1844, a recognition much appreciated by the anonymous author of the 'scandalous' Vestiges published the same year. Although familiar with emerging ice age theories, Chambers remained with most British geologists a sceptic through the 1840s, even after a trip to the glaciers of the Alps in 1848, which nevertheless prepared him for the turning point, which came in 1849 during an extensive field trip in Norway and Sweden...
October 2017: Annals of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042093/manifest-ambiguity-intermediate-forms-variation-and-mammal-paleontology-in-argentina-1830-1880
#8
Irina Podgorny
This paper presents the impact of diverse aspects of Darwin's works on the practices of mammal paleontology in different moments of nineteenth-century Argentina. Starting with Darwin through the publications of Florentino Ameghino, it shows the extraordinary complexity of systematic paleontology that characterized the second half of the nineteenth century. Neither "natural selection" nor "struggle for life" seemed to have shaped the practices of vertebrate paleontology in Argentina. Darwin's earlier work as a voyageur and geologist together with later concerns about intermediate forms and variation allow for an assessment of the impact of Darwin's work on the practice of paleontology in Argentina...
December 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913910/rapid-and-high-resolution-stable-isotopic-measurement-of-biogenic-accretionary-carbonate-using-an-online-co-2-laser-ablation-system-standardization-of-the-analytical-protocol
#9
Arpita Sreemany, Melinda Kumar Bera, Anindya Sarkar
RATIONALE: The elaborate sampling and analytical protocol associated with conventional dual-inlet isotope ratio mass spectrometry has long hindered high-resolution climate studies from biogenic accretionary carbonates. Laser-based on-line systems, in comparison, produce rapid data, but suffer from unresolvable matrix effects. It is, therefore, necessary to resolve these matrix effects to take advantage of the automated laser-based method. METHODS: Two marine bivalve shells (one aragonite and one calcite) and one fish otolith (aragonite) were first analysed using a CO2 laser ablation system attached to a continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer under different experimental conditions (different laser power, sample untreated vs vacuum roasted)...
December 30, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538818/contributions-to-a-brazilian-code-of-conduct-for-fieldwork-in-geology-an-approach-based-on-geoconservation-and-geoethics
#10
Kátia L Mansur, Luiza C M O Ponciano, Aline R S F DE Castro
When considering the numerous events that have prohibited the development of scientific projects or caused destruction of outcrops, it is clear that there is rapidly increasing necessity to define a Brazilian Code of Conduct for geological fieldwork. In general, this destruction is attributed to lack of knowledge as to the relevance of geological sites. The aim of this Code of Conduct is to guide geologists to adopt good practices during geoscience activities. Proposed guidelines are based on Codes of Conduct from other countries, mainly Scotland and England, on situations described in papers and on the personal experience of the authors...
May 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530483/carotidynia-in-high-altitude-travelers
#11
Andrea Parra, Tamuru Okada, Peter H Lin
Background Carotidynia is characterized by focal pain and tenderness of the carotid artery without associated hemodynamic or structural abnormalities. Carotid artery pathology has also been known to occur in high altitude due to aberrant baroreceptor response in the carotid bulb. Case Presentation We herein report two cases of high altitude-related idiopathic carotidynia. The first patient was a geologist who performed oil reserve survey in the Alaska Mountain, while the second patient was hiking in a mountain trail in Peru...
December 2017: Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432368/indoor-radon-in-micro-geological-setting-of-an-indigenous-community-in-canada-a-pilot-study-for-hazard-identification
#12
Atanu Sarkar, Derek Hc Wilton, Erica Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND: Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. In Canada, the health authorities have no access to comprehensive profile of the communities built over uranium-rich micro-geological settings. The present indoor radon monitoring guideline is unable to provide an accurate identification of health hazards due to discounting several parameters of housing characteristics. OBJECTIVE: To explore indoor radon levels in a micro-geological setting known for high uranium in bedrock and to develop a theoretical model for a revised radon testing protocol...
April 2017: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386411/the-benefit-of-a-tough-skin-bullet-holes-weathering-and-the-preservation-of-heritage
#13
Lisa Mol, M Gomez-Heras, C Brassey, O Green, T Blenkinsop
Projectile damage to building stone is a widespread phenomenon. Sites damaged 100 years ago during the First World War still see daily use, while in a more contemporary setting numerous reports show the damage to buildings in Babylon, Mosul and Palmyra. While research has been carried out on the long-term effects of conflict such as fire damage, little is known about the protracted damage sustained through the impact of bullets, shrapnel and other metal projectiles outside of the field of engineering focused on ceramics and metals...
February 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357330/physiology-phylogeny-and-luca
#14
William F Martin, Madeline C Weiss, Sinje Neukirchen, Shijulal Nelson-Sathi, Filipa L Sousa
Genomes record their own history. But if we want to look all the way back to life's beginnings some 4 billion years ago, the record of microbial evolution that is preserved in prokaryotic genomes is not easy to read. Microbiology has a lot in common with geology in that regard. Geologists know that plate tectonics and erosion have erased much of the geological record, with ancient rocks being truly rare. The same is true of microbes. Lateral gene transfer (LGT) and sequence divergence have erased much of the evolutionary record that was once written in genomes, and it is not obvious which genes among sequenced genomes are genuinely ancient...
November 25, 2016: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722986/chemical-speciation-and-bioavailability-of-rare-earth-elements-rees-in-the-ecosystem-a-review
#15
Aysha Masood Khan, Nor Kartini Abu Bakar, Ahmad Farid Abu Bakar, Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf
Rare earths (RE), chemically uniform group of elements due to similar physicochemical behavior, are termed as lanthanides. Natural occurrence depends on the geological circumstances and has been of long interest for geologist as tools for further scientific research into the region of ores, rocks, and oceanic water. The review paper mainly focuses to provide scientific literature about rare earth elements (REEs) with potential environmental and health effects in understanding the research. This is the initial review of RE speciation and bioavailability with current initiative toward development needs and research perceptive...
October 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450923/compositional-data-in-neuroscience-if-you-ve-got-it-log-it
#16
REVIEW
Paul F Smith, Ross M Renner, Stephen J Haslett
BACKGROUND: Compositional data sum to a constant value, for example, 100%. In neuroscience, such data are common, for example, when estimating the percentage of time spent for a behavioural response in a limited choice situation or a neurochemical within brain tissue. Compositional data have a distinct structure which complicates analysis and makes inappropriate standard statistical analyses such as general linear model analyses and principal components or factor analysis (whether Q-mode or R-mode), as a result of the correlation of the components, the dependence of the pairwise covariance on which other components are included in the analysis, and the bounded nature of the data...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27353861/mantle-subduction-and-uplift-of-intracontinental-mountains-a-case-study-from-the-chinese-tianshan-mountains-within-eurasia
#17
Jinyi Li, Jin Zhang, Xixi Zhao, Mei Jiang, Yaping Li, Zhixin Zhu, Qianwen Feng, Lijia Wang, Guihua Sun, Jianfeng Liu, Tiannan Yang
The driving mechanism that is responsible for the uplift of intracontinental mountains has puzzled geologists for decades. This study addresses this issue by using receiver function images across the Chinese Tianshan Mountains and available data from both deep seismic profiles and surface structural deformation. The near-surface structural deformation shows that the Tianshan crust experienced strong shortening during the Cenozoic. The receiver function image across the Tianshan Mountains reveals that the lithosphere of the Junggar Basin to the north became uncoupled along the Moho, and the mantle below the Moho subducted southwards beneath the northern part of the Tianshan Mountains, thereby thickening the overlying crust...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27209240/albert-heim-1849-1937-the-multifaceted-geologist-who-influenced-research-into-near-death-experiences-and-suggestion-therapy
#18
Michael Nahm
Swiss geologist Albert Heim is well known for his pioneering contributions to several aspects of geology, and for his role in establishing the breeding of different kinds of Swiss mountain dogs. In the field of near-death research, it is also recognized that he performed a pioneering study into near-death states of falling mountaineers. It seems hardly known, however, that Heim also influenced suggestion therapy significantly-in particular, the treatment of warts by suggestion. This article provides an overview of Heim's contribution in the latter field of study...
July 2016: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27190236/heatmapper-web-enabled-heat-mapping-for-all
#19
Sasha Babicki, David Arndt, Ana Marcu, Yongjie Liang, Jason R Grant, Adam Maciejewski, David S Wishart
Heatmapper is a freely available web server that allows users to interactively visualize their data in the form of heat maps through an easy-to-use graphical interface. Unlike existing non-commercial heat map packages, which either lack graphical interfaces or are specialized for only one or two kinds of heat maps, Heatmapper is a versatile tool that allows users to easily create a wide variety of heat maps for many different data types and applications. More specifically, Heatmapper allows users to generate, cluster and visualize: (i) expression-based heat maps from transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic experiments; (ii) pairwise distance maps; (iii) correlation maps; (iv) image overlay heat maps; (v) latitude and longitude heat maps and (vi) geopolitical (choropleth) heat maps...
July 8, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27097271/an-application-of-hydraulic-tomography-to-a-large-scale-fractured-granite-site-mizunami-japan
#20
Yuanyuan Zha, Tian-Chyi J Yeh, Walter A Illman, Tatsuya Tanaka, Patrick Bruines, Hironori Onoe, Hiromitsu Saegusa, Deqiang Mao, Shinji Takeuchi, Jet-Chau Wen
While hydraulic tomography (HT) is a mature aquifer characterization technology, its applications to characterize hydrogeology of kilometer-scale fault and fracture zones are rare. This paper sequentially analyzes datasets from two new pumping tests as well as those from two previous pumping tests analyzed by Illman et al. (2009) at a fractured granite site in Mizunami, Japan. Results of this analysis show that datasets from two previous pumping tests at one side of a fault zone as used in the previous study led to inaccurate mapping of fracture and fault zones...
November 2016: Ground Water
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