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Pancreatic islets

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475006/glutamine-up-regulates-pancreatic-sodium-dependent-neutral-aminoacid-transporter-2-and-mitigates-islets-apoptosis-in-diabetic-rats
#1
Zekrayat J H Medras, Norhan M El-Sayed, Sawsan A Zaitone, Eman A Toraih, Manal M Sami, Yasser M Moustafa
BACKGROUND: Glutamine aminoacid regulates insulin exocytosis from pancreatic β-cells. Liraglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue that has fascinated function in inhibiting β-cell apoptosis and preserving pancreatic β-cell mass. The present study investigated the benefit of adding glutamine to a regimen of liraglutide in diabetic rats focusing on their role in increasing insulin production and upregulation of the expression of sodium-dependent neutral aminoacid transporter-2 (SNAT2)...
October 25, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474443/amyloid-formation-reduces-protein-kinase-b-phosphorylation-in-primary-islet-%C3%AE-cells-which-is-improved-by-blocking-il-1%C3%AE-signaling
#2
Yun Zhang, Garth L Warnock, Ziliang Ao, Yoo Jin Park, Nooshin Safikhan, Aziz Ghahary, Lucy Marzban
Amyloid formation in the pancreatic islets due to aggregation of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) contributes to reduced β-cell mass and function in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and islet transplantation. Protein kinase B (PKB) signaling plays a key role in the regulation of β-cell survival, function and proliferation. In this study, we used human and hIAPP-expressing transgenic mouse islets in culture as two ex vivo models of human islet amyloid formation to: 1. Investigate the effects of amyloid formation on PKB phosphorylation in primary islet β-cells; 2...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472102/modeling-human-pancreatic-beta-cell-dedifferentiation
#3
Marc Diedisheim, Masaya Oshima, Olivier Albagli, Charlotte Wennberg Huldt, Ingela Ahlstedt, Maryam Clausen, Suraj Menon, Alexander Aivazidis, Anne-Christine Andreasson, William G Haynes, Piero Marchetti, Lorella Marselli, Mathieu Armanet, Fabrice Chimienti, Raphael Scharfmann
OBJECTIVE: Dedifferentiation could explain reduced functional pancreatic β-cell mass in type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: Here we model human β-cell dedifferentiation using growth factor stimulation in the human β-cell line, EndoC-βH1, and human pancreatic islets. RESULTS: Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) treatment reduced expression of β-cell markers, (INS, MAFB, SLC2A2, SLC30A8, and GCK) and activated ectopic expression of MYC, HES1, SOX9, and NEUROG3...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470174/antidiabetic-and-protective-effects-of-the-aqueous-extract-of-arbutus-unedo-l-in-streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced-diabetic-mice
#4
Hanae Naceiri Mrabti, Karima Sayah, Nidal Jaradat, Faouzi Kichou, Abdelaziz Ed-Dra, Badiaa Belarj, Yahia Cherrah, My El Abbes Faouzi
Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is currently a major health problem and the most common chronic disease worldwide. Traditional medicinal plants remedies remain a potential adjunct therapy to maintain better glycemic control while also imparting few side-effects. Arbutus unedo L. has been traditionally used to manage several diseases including diabetes. This study was undertaken to contribute the validation of the traditional use of Arbutus unedoL. (Ericaceae) in the treatment of diabetes. Methods In-vitro antidiabetic effect of the A...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466430/cholinergic-signaling-mediates-the-effects-of-xenin-25-on-secretion-of-pancreatic-polypeptide-but-not-insulin-or-glucagon-in-humans-with-impaired-glucose-tolerance
#5
Songyan Wang, Lauren Z Oestricker, Michael J Wallendorf, Karin Sterl, Judit Dunai, C Rachel Kilpatrick, Bruce W Patterson, Dominic N Reeds, Burton M Wice
We previously demonstrated that infusion of an intestinal peptide called xenin-25 (Xen) amplifies the effects of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) on insulin secretion rates (ISRs) and plasma glucagon levels in humans. However, these effects of Xen, but not GIP, were blunted in humans with type 2 diabetes. Thus, Xen rather than GIP signaling to islets fails early during development of type 2 diabetes. The current crossover study determines if cholinergic signaling relays the effects of Xen on insulin and glucagon release in humans as in mice...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466028/analysis-of-the-impact-of-common-polymorphisms-of-the-fto-and-mc4r-genes-with-the-risk-of-severe-obesity-in-saudi-arabian-population
#6
Cyril Cyrus, Mona H Ismail, Shahanas Chathoth, Chittibabu Vatte, Majd Hasen, Amein Al Ali
BACKGROUND: Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide resulting in a serious public health problem. In Saudi Arabia, 28.7% of the population is obese due largely to the adoption of western dietary patterns over the last decade. The Fat-mass and obesity associated (FTO) and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) genes are ubiquitously expressed in the brain and pancreatic islets, and are the main link between the central nervous system and energy homeostasis based on food intake and energy expenditure...
February 21, 2018: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464840/distribution-and-density-of-melatonin-receptors-in-human-main-pancreatic-islet-cell-types
#7
Juliane Zibolka, Ivonne Bazwinsky-Wutschke, Eckhard Mühlbauer, Elmar Peschke
Recent investigations of our group established that melatonin modulates hormone secretion of pancreatic islets via melatonin receptor types MT1 and MT2. Expression of MT1 and MT2 has been shown in mouse, rat and human pancreatic islets as well as in the β-, α- and δ-cell lines INS-1, αTC1.9 and QGP-1. In view of these earlier investigations, the present study was performed to analyze in detail the distribution and density of melatonin receptors on the main islet cell types in human pancreatic tissue obtained from non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic patients...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463575/closing-in-on-the-mechanisms-of-pulsatile-insulin-secretion
#8
Richard Bertram, Leslie S Satin, Arthur S Sherman
Insulin secretion from pancreatic islet β-cells occurs in a pulsatile fashion, with a typical period of ∼5 min. The basis of this pulsatility in mouse islets has been investigated for more than four decades, and the various theories have been described as either qualitative or mathematical models. In many cases the models differ in their mechanisms for rhythmogenesis, as well as other less important details. In this Perspective, we describe two main classes of models: those in which oscillations in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration drive oscillations in metabolism, and those in which intrinsic metabolic oscillations drive oscillations in Ca2+ concentration and electrical activity...
March 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460919/a-role-for-total-pancreatectomy-and-islet-autotransplant-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-pancreatitis
#9
Melena D Bellin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459675/c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-1-defective-cd4-cd25-foxp3-cells-prolong-islet-allograft-survival-in-diabetic-mice
#10
Deepak Tripathi, Satyanarayana S Cheekatla, Padmaja Paidipally, Rajesh Kumar Radhakrishnan, Elwyn Welch, Ramya Sivangala Thandi, Amy R Tvinnereim, Ramakrishna Vankayalapati
CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ cells (Tregs) inhibit inflammatory immune responses to allografts. Here, we found that co-transplantation of allogeneic pancreatic islets with Tregs that are defective in c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) signaling prolongs islet allograft survival in the liver parenchyma of chemically induced diabetic mice (CDM). Adoptively transferred JNK1-/- but not wild-type (WT) Tregs survive longer in the liver parenchyma of CDM. JNK1-/- Tregs are resistant to apoptosis and express anti-apoptotic molecules...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456124/a-multicenter-study-of-total-pancreatectomy-with-islet-autotransplantation-tpiat-post-prospective-observational-study-of-tpiat
#11
Melena D Bellin, Maisam Abu-El-Haija, Katherine Morgan, David Adams, Gregory J Beilman, Srinath Chinnakotla, Darwin L Conwell, Ty B Dunn, Martin L Freeman, Timothy Gardner, Varvara A Kirchner, Luis F Lara, Leslie Long-Simpson, Jaimie D Nathan, Bashoo Naziruddin, John A Nyman, Timothy L Pruett, Sarah J Schwarzenberg, Vikesh K Singh, Kerrington Smith, Jennifer L Steel, Martin Wijkstrom, Piotr Witkowski, James S Hodges
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT) is considered for managing chronic pancreatitis in selected patients when medical and endoscopic interventions have not provided adequate relief from debilitating pain. Although more centers are performing TPIAT, we lack large, multi-center studies to guide decisions about selecting candidates for and timing of TPIAT. METHODS: Multiple centers across the United States (9 to date) performing TPIAT are prospectively enrolling patients undergoing TPIAT for chronic pancreatitis into the Prospective Observational Study of TPIAT (POST), a NIDDK funded study with a goal of accruing 450 TPIAT recipients...
February 6, 2018: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454490/subchronic-exposure-to-acrylamide-leads-to-pancreatic-islet-remodeling-determined-by-alpha-cell-expansion-and-beta-cell-mass-reduction-in-adult-rats
#12
Milena Stošić, Milica Matavulj, Jelena Marković
Acrylamide (AA) is a toxic substance, used to synthesize polymers for industrial and laboratory processes. Also, AA is a food contaminant formed during the high temperature preparation of carbohydrate-rich food. The main subject of this study was to examine effects of subchronic AA treatment on the islets of Langerhans of adult rats. Adult male Wistar rats were orally treated with 25 or 50 mg/kg bw of AA for 3 weeks. Qualitative and quantitative immunohistochemical evaluation of glucagon and insulin expression and stereological analyses of pancreatic alpha and beta cells were performed...
February 14, 2018: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452233/role-of-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cells-differentiated-into-insulin-producing-cells-in-the-treatment-of-type-i-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Mona G Amer, Azza S Embaby, Rehab A Karam, Marwa G Amer
Generation of new β cells is an important approach in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 DM). Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) might be one of the best sources for cell replacement therapy for diabetes. Therefore, this work aimed to test the possible role of transplanted insulin-producing cells (IPCs) differentiated from ADSCs in treatment of streptozotocin (STZ) induced type I DM in rats. Type 1 DM was induced by single intra peritoneal injection with STZ (50 mg/kg BW). Half of the diabetic rats were left without treatment and the other half were injected with differentiated IPCs directly into the pancreas...
February 13, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450573/author-correction-beta-cell-connectivity-in-pancreatic-islets-a-type-2-diabetes-target
#14
Guy A Rutter, David J Hodson
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. Legends of Figures 1 and 2 were interchanged. The correct versions are given below.
February 15, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445142/heterogeneity-and-cell-fate-flux-in-single-human-pancreatic-islet-cells
#15
Natasha H J Ng, Adrian K K Teo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444430/%C3%AE-cell-specific-deletion-of-the-il-1-receptor-antagonist-impairs-%C3%AE-cell-proliferation-and-insulin-secretion
#16
Marianne Böni-Schnetzler, Stéphanie P Häuselmann, Elise Dalmas, Daniel T Meier, Constanze Thienel, Shuyang Traub, Friederike Schulze, Laura Steiger, Erez Dror, Praxedis Martin, Pedro L Herrera, Cem Gabay, Marc Y Donath
Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is elevated in the circulation during obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) but is decreased in islets from patients with T2D. The protective role of local IL-1Ra was investigated in pancreatic islet β cell (βIL-1Ra)-specific versus myeloid-cell (myeloIL-1Ra)-specific IL-1Ra knockout (KO) mice. Deletion of IL-1Ra in β cells, but not in myeloid cells, resulted in diminished islet IL-1Ra expression. Myeloid cells were not the main source of circulating IL-1Ra in obesity...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444223/glp-1-receptor-expression-within-the-human-heart
#17
Laurie L Baggio, Bernardo Yusta, Erin E Mulvihill, Xiemin Cao, Catherine J Streutker, Jagdish Butany, Thomas P Cappola, Kenneth B Margulies, Daniel J Drucker
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists, used to treat type 2 diabetes and obesity, reduce rates of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death. The GLP-1R has been localized to the human sinoatrial node; however, its expression in ventricular tissue remains uncertain. Here we studied GLP-1R expression in the human heart using GLP-1R-directed antisera, quantitative PCR, reverse transcription PCR to detect full length mRNA transcripts, and in situ hybridization. GLP1R mRNA transcripts, encompassing the entire open reading frame, were detected in all four cardiac chambers from 15 hearts at levels approximating those detected in human pancreas...
February 12, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436377/elevated-medium-chain-acylcarnitines-are-associated-with-gestational-diabetes-and-early-progression-to-type-2-diabetes-and-induce-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-dysfunction
#18
Battsetseg Batchuluun, Dana Al Rijjal, Kacey J Prentice, Judith A Eversley, Elena Burdett, Haneesha Mohan, Alpana Bhattacharjee, Erica P Gunderson, Ying Liu, Michael B Wheeler
Specific circulating metabolites have emerged as important risk factors for the development of diabetes. The acylcarnitines (acylCs) are a family of metabolites known to be elevated in type-2 diabetes (T2D) and linked to peripheral insulin resistance. However, the impact of AcylCs on pancreatic β-cell function is not well understood. Here, we profiled circulating acylCs in two diabetes cohorts: 1) women with gestational diabetes (GDM) and 2) women with recent GDM who later developed impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), new-onset T2D or returned to normoglycemia within a two-year follow-up period...
February 7, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435000/glucagonoma-and-the-glucagonoma-syndrome
#19
Xujun Song, Suli Zheng, Gang Yang, Guangbing Xiong, Zhe Cao, Mengyu Feng, Taiping Zhang, Yupei Zhao
Glucagonoma is an extremely rare pancreatic α-islet cell tumor and is often accompanied by certain clinical symptoms including necrotizing migratory erythema (NME), diabetes, weight loss and anemia. The objectives of the current review were to discern the clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of glucagonoma by evaluating 623 reported cases. A 1998 study reviewed 407 cases and 216 cases were reported in studies published after 1998. The current review consisted of 268 males and 339 females, with an average age of 52...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434323/cd44-variant-inhibits-insulin-secretion-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-by-attenuating-lat1-mediated-amino-acid-uptake
#20
Nana Kobayashi, Shogo Okazaki, Oltea Sampetrean, Junichiro Irie, Hiroshi Itoh, Hideyuki Saya
CD44 variant (CD44v) contributes to cancer stemness by stabilizing the xCT subunit of system xc(-) and thereby promoting its glutamate-cystine antiporter activity. CD44 has also been implicated in autoimmune insulitis and inflammation in diabetic islets, but whether CD44v regulates insulin secretion has remained unclear. Here we show that CD44v inhibits insulin secretion by attenuating amino acid transport mediated by the L-type amino acid transporter LAT1. CD44v expression level was inversely related to insulin content in islets of normal and diabetic model mice...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
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