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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923593/histopathological-alterations-in-mice-under-sub-acute-treatment-with-hintonia-latiflora-methanolic-stem-bark-extract
#1
Nancy G Flores-Jiménez, Marcela Rojas-Lemus, Teresa I Fortoul, Armando Zepeda-Rodríguez, Perla Y López-Camacho, Jhony Anacleto-Santos, Filiberto Malagón Gutiérrez, Gustavo Basurto-Islas, Norma Rivera-Fernández
The indiscriminate use of herbal products is increasingly growing worldwide; nonetheless consumers are not warned about the potential health risks that these products may cause. Hintonia latiflora (Hl) is a tree native to the American continent belonging to the Rubiaceae family and its stem bark is empirically used mainly to treat diabetes and malaria; supplements containing Hl are sold in America and Europe without medical prescription, thus scientific information regarding its toxicity as a consequence of a regular consumption is needed...
June 20, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921789/fatty-acid-stimulated-insulin-secretion-vs-lipotoxicity
#2
REVIEW
Petr Ježek, Martin Jabůrek, Blanka Holendová, Lydie Plecitá-Hlavatá
Fatty acid (FA)-stimulated insulin secretion (FASIS) is reviewed here in contrast to type 2 diabetes etiology, resulting from FA overload, oxidative stress, intermediate hyperinsulinemia, and inflammation, all converging into insulin resistance. Focusing on pancreatic islet β-cells, we compare the physiological FA roles with the pathological ones. Considering FAs not as mere amplifiers of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), but as parallel insulin granule exocytosis inductors, partly independent of the KATP channel closure, we describe the FA initiating roles in the prediabetic state that is induced by retardations in the glycerol-3-phosphate (glucose)-promoted glycerol/FA cycle and by the impaired GPR40/FFA1 (free FA1) receptor pathway, specifically in its amplification by the redox-activated mitochondrial phospholipase, iPLA2γ...
June 19, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920277/postnatal-exocrine-pancreas-growth-by-cellular-hypertrophy-correlates-with-a-shorter-lifespan-in-mammals
#3
Shira Anzi, Miri Stolovich-Rain, Agnes Klochendler, Ori Fridlich, Aharon Helman, Avital Paz-Sonnenfeld, Nili Avni-Magen, Elizabeth Kaufman, Miriam B Ginzberg, Daniel Snider, Saikat Ray, Michael Brecht, Melissa M Holmes, Karen Meir, Aaron Avivi, Imad Shams, Asaf Berkowitz, A M James Shapiro, Benjamin Glaser, Shmuel Ben-Sasson, Ran Kafri, Yuval Dor
Developmental processes in different mammals are thought to share fundamental cellular mechanisms. We report a dramatic increase in cell size during postnatal pancreas development in rodents, accounting for much of the increase in organ size after birth. Hypertrophy of pancreatic acinar cells involves both higher ploidy and increased biosynthesis per genome copy; is maximal adjacent to islets, suggesting endocrine to exocrine communication; and is partly driven by weaning-related processes. In contrast to the situation in rodents, pancreas cell size in humans remains stable postnatally, indicating organ growth by pure hyperplasia...
June 18, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916530/mir%C3%A2-6835%C3%A2-3p-regulates-the-function-of-pancreatic-islet-cells-by-modulating-the-expression-of-adipor1
#4
Huimin Wang, Lei Jiang, Zhenfu Li, Wei Wang, Chuanji Hao
Effective drugs and strategies for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (2‑DM) are urgently required. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying microRNA (miR)‑6835‑3p regulation of adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) expression and the miR‑6835‑3p/AdipoR1 signaling pathway in pancreatic islet cells. In addition, the potential anti‑diabetes effect of miR‑6835‑3p on insulin secretion was investigated. Luciferase activity analysis was performed to evaluate how miR‑6835‑3p targets the 3'‑untranslated region of AdipoR1...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916364/a-new-mode-of-pancreatic-islet-innervation-revealed-by-live-imaging-in-zebrafish
#5
Yu Hsuan Carol Yang, Koichi Kawakami, Didier Yr Stainier
Pancreatic islets are innervated by autonomic and sensory nerves that influence their function. Analyzing the innervation process should provide insight into the nerve-endocrine interactions and their roles in development and disease. Here, using in vivo time-lapse imaging and genetic analyses in zebrafish, we determined the events leading to islet innervation. Comparable neural density in the absence of vasculature indicates that it is dispensable for early pancreatic innervation. Neural crest cells are in close contact with endocrine cells early in development...
June 19, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914854/pancreatic-deletion-of-the-interleukin-1-receptor-disrupts-whole-body-glucose-homeostasis-and-promotes-islet-%C3%AE-cell-de-differentiation
#6
Susan J Burke, Heidi M Batdorf, David H Burk, Thomas M Martin, Tamra Mendoza, Krisztian Stadler, Wateen Alami, Michael D Karlstad, Matthew J Robson, Randy D Blakely, Randall L Mynatt, J Jason Collier
OBJECTIVE: Pancreatic tissue, and islets in particular, are enriched in expression of the interleukin-1 receptor type I (IL-1R). Because of this enrichment, islet β-cells are exquisitely sensitive to the IL-1R ligands IL-1α and IL-1β, suggesting that signaling through this pathway regulates health and function of islet β-cells. METHODS: Herein, we report a targeted deletion of IL-1R in pancreatic tissue (IL-1RPdx1-/- ) in C57BL/6J mice and in db/db mice on the C57 genetic background...
June 6, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913098/radiofrequency-radiation-emitted-from-wi-fi-2-4-ghz-causes-impaired-insulin-secretion-and-increased-oxidative-stress-in-rat-pancreatic-islets
#7
Ali Masoumi, Narges Karbalaei, S M J Mortazavi, Mohammad Shabani
PURPOSE: There is a great concern regarding the possible adverse effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). This study investigated the effects of EMR induced by Wi-Fi (2.45GHz) on insulin secretion and antioxidant redox systems in the rat pancreas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats in the weight range of 230 to 260 g were divided into control, sham, Wi-Fi exposed groups. After long term exposure (4 h/day for 45 days) to Wi-Fi electromagnetic radiation, plasma levels of glucose and insulin during intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test were measured...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912854/spexin-modulates-functions-of-rat-endocrine-pancreatic-cells
#8
Maciej Sassek, Pawel A Kolodziejski, Mathias Z Strowski, Leszek Nogowski, Krzysztof W Nowak, Pawel Mackowiak
OBJECTIVES: Spexin is a peptide whose action is poorly understood but which is expressed in many tissues. This encouraged us to investigate the potential role of spexin in the regulation of pancreatic secretion. METHODS: Cells/islets were incubated with different concentrations of glucose and spexin to measure insulin secretion. MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays and BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine) tests were performed to assess the viability and proliferation of pancreatic islets after spexin treatment...
June 16, 2018: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912760/the-role-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-igf-axis-in-early-diagnosis-of-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-pdac
#9
Barbara Wlodarczyk, Anita Gasiorowska, Ewa Malecka-Panas
New-onset diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the first symptoms of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The frequency of endocrine disorders is estimated between 40% and 80% in patients with pancreatic cancer. DM is a risk factor for cancer development but it may also be a consequence of the tumor growth. Data confirming the existence of a relationship between long standing type 2 DM and an increased risk of PDAC comes from numerous clinical studies. Insulin resistance phenomenon and hyperinsulinemia may result in the increased proliferation of pancreatic islets which in turn may cause a predisposition to cancer development...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910119/secretagogin-protects-pdx1-from-proteasomal-degradation-to-control-a-transcriptional-program-required-for-%C3%AE-cell-specification
#10
Katarzyna Malenczyk, Edit Szodorai, Robert Schnell, Gert Lubec, Gábor Szabó, Tomas Hökfelt, Tibor Harkany
OBJECTIVE: Specification of endocrine cell lineages in the developing pancreas relies on extrinsic signals from non-pancreatic tissues, which initiate a cell-autonomous sequence of transcription factor activation and repression switches. The steps in this pathway share reliance on activity-dependent Ca2+ signals. However, the mechanisms by which phasic Ca2+ surges become converted into a dynamic, cell-state-specific and physiologically meaningful code made up by transcription factors constellations remain essentially unknown...
June 5, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909240/tissue-specific-expression-and-circulating-concentrations-of-nesfatin-1-in-domestic-animals
#11
K A Morton, L Hargreaves, S Mortazavi, L P Weber, A M Blanco, S Unniappan
Nesfatin-1 is a naturally occurring 82-amino acid protein encoded in the precursor nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2) and has been implicated in multiple physiological functions, including food intake and blood glucose regulation. This study aimed to characterize nesfatin-1 in domestic species, especially cats (Felis catus), dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), and pigs (Sus scrofa). Our in silico analysis demonstrated that the NUCB2/nesfatin-1 amino acid sequence, especially the bioactive core region of the peptide, is very highly conserved (more than 90% identity) in domestic animals...
May 9, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909196/bioelectronic-organ-based-sensor-for-microfluidic-real-time-analysis-of-the-demand-in-insulin
#12
R Perrier, A Pirog, M Jaffredo, J Gaitan, B Catargi, S Renaud, M Raoux, J Lang
On-line and real-time analysis of micro-organ activity permits to use the endogenous analytical power of cellular signal transduction algorithms as biosensors. We have developed here such a sensor using only a few pancreatic endocrine islets and the avoidance of transgenes or chemical probes reduces bias and procures general usage. Nutrient and hormone-induced changes in islet ion fluxes through channels provide the first integrative read-out of micro-organ activity. Using extracellular electrodes we captured this read-out non-invasively as slow potentials which reflect glucose concentration-dependent (3-15 mM) micro-organ activation and coupling...
June 8, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907148/a-case-of-metaplastic-atrophic-gastritis-in-immune-dysregulation-polyendocrinopathy-enteropathy-x-linked-ipex-syndrome
#13
Youyou Luo, Jie Chen, Youhong Fang, Jingan Lou, Jindan Yu
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune metaplastic atrophic gastritis is a chronic progressive inflammatory condition. The clinical spectrum includes pernicious anemia, atrophic gastritis, antibodies to parietal cell antigens and intrinsic factor, achlorhydria, hypergastrinemia and carcinoma. It is rare in paediatric cohorts. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a boy with metaplastic atrophic gastritis in whom immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked(IPEX) syndrome was confirmed by FOXP3 gene mutation...
June 15, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906335/alpha-the-versatile-guardians-of-the-islets
#14
Dan Kawamori
Glucagon secreted by pancreatic α-cells plays pivotal roles in the systemic energy homeostasis mainly by regulating systemic glucose mobilization together with another important metabolic hormone, insulin. Recent application of the incretin-based therapies to clinical diabetes refocused on the central roles of glucagon in the development of diabetic hyperglycemia. This revival of glucagon also enhanced the progress of basic research in α-cell biology, as targeting glucagon is now expected to be the next therapeutic approach in diabetes treatment...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905825/targeting-the-incretin-glucagon-system-with-triagonists-to-treat-diabetes
#15
Megan E Capozzi, Richard D DiMarchi, Matthias H Tschöp, Brian Finan, Jonathan E Campbell
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists have been efficacious for the treatment of type 2 diabetes due to their ability to reduce weight and attenuate hyperglycemia. However, the activity of GLP-1R-directed strategies is sub-maximal, and the only potent, sustainable treatment for metabolic dysfunction is bariatric surgery, necessitating the development of novel therapeutics. GLP-1 is structurally related to glucagon and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), allowing for the development of intermixed, unimolecular peptides with activity at each of their respective receptors...
June 13, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904686/data-on-investigation-of-hypoglycemic-anti-cholesteremic-in-vivo-antioxidant-and-pancreatic-beta-cell-protective-effect-of-putranjiva-roxburghii-wall-bark-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#16
Kedar Kalyani Abhimanyu, Chaudhari Sanjay Ravindra, Rao Srinivasa Avanapu
The data existing in this article are associated to the antidiabetic activity of ethyl acetate extract of Putranjiva roxburghii Wall barks (EAPR) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats at a dose of 250 & 500 mg/kg by oral route for 21 days. The phytochemical screening of the extract was carried out by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (50 mg/kg; i.p), EAPR (250 & 500 mg/kg; b.wt) and standard Insulin (6 IU/animal; subcutaneous; o.i.d) were administered to the diabetic rats...
June 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903238/-effects-of-high-sucrose-high-fat-diet-feeding-time-on-establishment-of-a-mouse-model-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#17
Jiacui Ren, Ye Ding, Lu Yin, Rui Qin, Yuanhong She, Jin Xu, Zhixu Wang
OBJECTIVE: The present study focuses on the effects of different highsucrose/high-fat diet feeding time on body weight, glucose and lipid metabolism parameters and pathological changes of pancreas and liver in pregnant mice. METHODS: Female C57 BL/6 J mice were divided into three groups randomly: normal control group( C) and two different high-sucrose/high-fat diet feeding time groups( H1 and H2). Body weight, food and energy intakes and blood glucose were measured at multiple time points before and during pregnancy...
January 2018: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902804/congenital-hyperinsulinism-in-infants-with-turner-syndrome-possible-association-with-monosomy-x-and-kdm6a-haploinsufficiency
#18
Christopher E Gibson, Kara E Boodhansingh, Changhong Li, Laura Conlin, Pan Chen, Susan A Becker, Tricia Bhatti, Vaneeta Bamba, N Scott Adzick, Diva D De Leon, Arupa Ganguly, Charles A Stanley
BACKGROUND: Previous case reports have suggested a possible association of congenital hyperinsulinism with Turner syndrome. OBJECTIVE: We examined the clinical and molecular features in girls with both congenital hyperinsulinism and Turner syndrome seen at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) between 1974 and 2017. METHODS: Records of girls with hyperinsulinism and Turner syndrome were reviewed. Insulin secretion was studied in pancreatic islets and in mouse islets treated with an inhibitor of KDM6A, an X chromosome gene associated with hyperinsulinism in Kabuki syndrome...
June 14, 2018: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901515/total-pancreatectomy-and-islet-autotransplantion-for-chronic-and-recurrent-acute-pancreatitis
#19
Kendall R McEachron, Melena D Bellin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed the current state of total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT) for chronic pancreatitis and recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP). RECENT FINDINGS: An increasing number of centers in the United States and internationally are performing TPIAT. In selected cases, TPIAT may be performed partially or entirely laparoscopically. Islet isolation is usually performed at the same center as the total pancreatectomy surgery, but new data suggest that diabetes outcomes may be nearly as good when a remote center is used for islet isolation...
June 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898400/cpt1a-dependent-long-chain-fatty-acid-oxidation-contributes-to-maintaining-glucagon-secretion-from-pancreatic-islets
#20
Linford J B Briant, Michael S Dodd, Margarita V Chibalina, Nils J G Rorsman, Paul R V Johnson, Peter Carmeliet, Patrik Rorsman, Jakob G Knudsen
Glucagon, the principal hyperglycemic hormone, is secreted from pancreatic islet α cells as part of the counter-regulatory response to hypoglycemia. Hence, secretory output from α cells is under high demand in conditions of low glucose supply. Many tissues oxidize fat as an alternate energy substrate. Here, we show that glucagon secretion in low glucose conditions is maintained by fatty acid metabolism in both mouse and human islets, and that inhibiting this metabolic pathway profoundly decreases glucagon output by depolarizing α cell membrane potential and decreasing action potential amplitude...
June 12, 2018: Cell Reports
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