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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218831/new-possibilities-for-magnetic-control-of-chemical-and-biochemical-reactions
#1
Anatoly Buchachenko, Ronald G Lawler
Chemistry is controlled by Coulomb energy; magnetic energy is lower by many orders of magnitude and may be confidently ignored in the energy balance of chemical reactions. The situation becomes less clear, however, when reaction rates are considered. In this case, magnetic perturbations of nearly degenerate energy surface crossings may produce observable, and sometimes even dramatic, effects on reactions rates, product yields, and spectroscopic transitions. A case in point that has been studied for nearly five decades is electron spin-selective chemistry via the intermediacy of radical pairs...
February 20, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216052/interaction-among-herg-channel-blockers-is-a-potential-mechanism-of-death-in-caffeine-overdose
#2
Jifeng Zheng, Wei Zhao, Kai Xu, Qingmao Chen, Yingying Chen, Yueliang Shen, Liping Xiao, Liqin Jiang, Yuan Chen
Caffeine overdose death is due to cardiac arrest, but its mechanism has not been explored in detail. In this study, our data showed that caffeine significantly prolonged the heart rate-corrected QT interval (QTc) of rabbits in vivo (P<0.05; n=7). Caffeine was also found to be a hERG channel blocker with an IC50 of 5.04mM (n=5). Although these two findings likely link caffeine overdose death with hERG channel blockade, the amount of caffeine consumption needed to reach the IC50 is very high. Further study demonstrated that addition another hERG blocker could lower the consumption of caffeine significantly, no matter whether two hERG blockers share the same binding sites...
February 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207539/role-of-coronary-angiography-for-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-survivors-according-to-postreturn-of-spontaneous-circulation-on-an-electrocardiogram
#3
Tae Rim Lee, Sung Yeon Hwang, Won Chul Cha, Tae Gun Shin, Min Seob Sim, Ik Joon Jo, Keun Jeong Song, Joong Eui Rhee, Yeon Kwon Jeong
Survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) have high mortality and morbidity. An acute coronary event is the most common cause of sudden cardiac death. For this reason, coronary angiography is an important diagnostic and treatment strategy for patients with postcardiac arrest. This study aimed to identify the correlation between postreturn of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) on an electrocardiogram (ECG) and results of coronary angiography of OHCA survivors.We collected data from our OHCA registry from January 2010 to November 2014...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196967/coxsackie-myocarditis-and-hepatitis-with-reactivated-epstein-bar-virus-ebv-a-case-report
#4
Varunsiri Atti, Nathan M Anderson, Mathew B Day
BACKGROUND Myocarditis, defined as inflammation of myocardial tissue of the heart, is an uncommon cardiac presentation and is due to a variety of causes. It affects 1% of the US population, 50% of which is caused by coxsackie B virus. Cardiac tissue is the prime target, and destruction of myocardium results in cardiac failure with fluid overload. CASE REPORT Our patient was a 57-year-old woman with fever, headache, neck pain, and generalized malaise. Her white blood cell count was 13×10³ cells/mm³. Interestingly, lumbar puncture ruled out meningitis...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185923/factors-associated-with-the-outcome-of-out-of-hospital-cardiopulmonary-arrest-among-people-over-80-years-old-in-japan
#5
Takashi Nagata, Takeru Abe, Manabu Hasegawa, Akihito Hagihara
AIM: To determine if termination of resuscitation should be considered for older individuals, we sought to identify factors associated with clinical outcome following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in people ≥80 years old and over. METHODS: A prospective, population-based, observational study was conducted for ≥80-year-old individuals who experienced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and to whom resuscitation was provided by emergency responders between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2012 (n=377,577)...
February 6, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167641/prognostic-utility-of-a-modified-heart-score-in-chest-pain-patients-in-the-emergency-department
#6
James McCord, Rafael Cabrera, Bertil Lindahl, Evangelos Giannitsis, Kaleigh Evans, Richard Nowak, Tiberio Frisoli, Richard Body, Michael Christ, Christopher R deFilippi, Robert H Christenson, Gordon Jacobsen, Aitor Alquezar, Mauro Panteghini, Dina Melki, Mario Plebani, Franck Verschuren, John French, Garnet Bendig, Silvia Weiser, Christian Mueller
BACKGROUND: The TRAPID-AMI trial study (High-Sensitivity Troponin-T Assay for Rapid Rule-Out of Acute Myocardial Infarction) evaluated high-sensitivity cardiac troponin-T (hs-cTnT) in a 1-hour acute myocardial infarction (AMI) exclusion algorithm. Our study objective was to evaluate the prognostic utility of a modified HEART score (m-HS) within this trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twelve centers evaluated 1282 patients in the emergency department for possible AMI from 2011 to 2013...
February 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155223/evaluation-of-prolonged-qt-interval-structural-heart-disease-mimicking-long-qt-syndrome
#7
Adaya Weissler-Snir, Michael H Gollob, Vijay Chauhan, Melanie Care, Danna A Spears
BACKGROUND: In about 20-25% of patients with congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) a causative pathogenic mutation is not found. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of alternative cardiac diagnoses among patients exhibiting prolongation of QT interval with negative genetic testing for LQTS genes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 239 consecutive patients who were evaluated in the inherited arrhythmia clinic at the Toronto General Hospital between July 2013 and December 2015 for possible LQTS...
February 3, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131772/in%C3%A2-vitro-actin-motility-velocity-varies-linearly-with-the-number-of-myosin-impellers
#8
Y Wang, T P Burghardt
Cardiac myosin is the motor powering the heart. It moves actin with 3 step-size varieties generated by torque from the myosin heavy chain lever-arm rotation under the influence of myosin essential light chain whose N-terminal extension binds actin. Proposed mechanisms adapting myosin mechanochemical characteristics on the fly sometimes involve modulation of step-size selection probability via motor strain sensitivity. Strain following the power stroke, hypothetically imposed by the finite actin detachment rate 1/ton, is shown to have no effect on unloaded velocity when multiple myosins are simultaneously strongly actin bound in an in vitro motility assay...
January 25, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088193/invasive-cardiac-lipoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#9
Jason D'Souza, Rajesh Shah, Aamer Abbass, Jeremy R Burt, Aditya Goud, Chanukya Dahagam
BACKGROUND: Cardiac lipomas are rare benign tumors of the heart. They are usually asymptomatic and are thus most often diagnosed on autopsies. Symptoms, when present, depend upon the location within the heart. Typical locations are the endocardium of the right atrium and the left ventricle. Diagnostic modality of choice is cardiac MRI. Treatment guidelines have not yet been established due to the very low prevalence of these tumors and are thus guided by the patient's symptomatology. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of an invasive cardiac lipoma, wherein the initial symptom of the patient was shortness of breath...
January 14, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087181/challenging-the-99th-percentile-a-lower-troponin-cutoff-leads-to-low-mortality-of-chest-pain-patients
#10
Nils Arne Sörensen, Johannes Tobias Neumann, Francisco Ojeda, Tjark Schwemer, Thomas Renné, Renate B Schnabel, Tanja Zeller, Mahir Karakas, Stefan Blankenberg, Dirk Westermann
BACKGROUND: Rule-out of non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction is based on consecutive measurements of cardiac troponins using the 99th percentile of the respective assay as cutoff. The new ESC guidelines alternatively offer rapid 1h algorithms with lower cutoffs than the 99th percentile for rule-out of non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. We aimed to compare a recently introduced 1h algorithm based on a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-TnI) cutoff of 6ng/L at 0h and 1h to the current standard of care using the 99th percentile (27ng/L) as cutoff with reference to follow-up events in a large chest pain cohort...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063854/hospital-admissions-for-chest-pain-associated-with-cocaine-use-in-the-united-states
#11
Vikas Singh, Alex P Rodriguez, Badal Thakkar, Ghanshyambhai T Savani, Nileshkumar J Patel, Apurva O Badheka, Mauricio G Cohen, Carlos E Alfonso, Raul D Mitrani, Juan Viles-Gonzalez, Jeffrey J Goldberger
BACKGROUND: The outcomes related to chest pain associated with cocaine use and its burden on the healthcare system are not well studied. METHODS: Data were collected from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2001-2012). Subjects were identified by using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Primary outcome was a composite of mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiac arrest. RESULTS: We identified 363,143 admissions for cocaine-induced chest pain...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062631/rule-in-and-rule-out-of-myocardial-infarction-using-cardiac-troponin-and-glycemic-biomarkers-in-patients-with-symptoms-suggestive-of-acute-coronary-syndrome
#12
Colleen Shortt, Jinhui Ma, Natasha Clayton, Jonathan Sherbino, Richard Whitlock, Guillaume Pare, Stephen A Hill, Matthew McQueen, Shamir R Mehta, P J Devereaux, Andrew Worster, Peter A Kavsak
BACKGROUND: Early rule-in/rule-out of myocardial infarction (MI) in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) is important for patient care and resource allocation. Given that dysglycemia is a strong risk factor for MI, we sought to explore and compare different combinations of cardiac troponin (cTn) cutoffs with glycemic markers for the early rule-in/rule-out of MI. METHODS: We included ED patients (n = 1137) with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who had cTnI, high-sensitivity cTnI (hs-cTnI), hs-cTnT, glucose, and hemoglobin A1c (Hb A1c) measurements...
January 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062614/myocardial-infarction-type-2-and-myocardial-injury
#13
REVIEW
Yader Sandoval, Kristian Thygesen
BACKGROUND: The development and implementation of sensitive and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays has not only expedited the early ruling in and ruling out of acute myocardial infarction, but has also contributed to the identification of patients at risk for myocardial injury with necrosis, as confirmed by the presence of cardiac troponin concentrations above the 99th percentile. Myocardial injury with necrosis may occur either in the presence of overt ischemia from myocardial infarction, or in the absence of overt ischemia from myocardial injury accompanying other conditions...
January 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062612/cardiac-troponin-assays-guide-to-understanding-analytical-characteristics-and-their-impact-on-clinical-care
#14
REVIEW
Fred S Apple, Yader Sandoval, Allan S Jaffe, Jordi Ordonez-Llanos
BACKGROUND: Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) determinations are fixtures in clinical practice and research. Cardiac troponin testing has been the standard of practice for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), early rule-out, risk stratification, and outcomes assessment in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and non-ACS myocardial injury. We recognize from reading the literature over the past several years how poorly understood the analytical characteristics are for cTnI and cTnT assays by laboratorians, clinicians, and scientists who use these assays...
January 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039229/the-role-of-diastolic-stress-testing-in-the-evaluation-for-hfpef-a-simultaneous-invasive-echocardiographic-study
#15
Masaru Obokata, Garvan C Kane, Yogesh N V Reddy, Thomas P Olson, Vojtech Melenovsky, Barry A Borlaug
BACKGROUND: -Diagnosis of heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is challenging and relies largely on demonstration of elevated cardiac filling pressures (pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, PCWP). Current guidelines recommend use of natriuretic peptides (NT-proBNP) and rest/exercise echocardiography (E/e' ratio) to make this determination. Data to support this practice is conflicting. METHODS: -Simultaneous echocardiographic-catheterization studies were prospectively conducted at rest and during exercise in subjects with invasively-proven HFpEF (n=50) and participants with dyspnea but no identifiable cardiac pathology (n=24)...
December 30, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034899/comparison-of-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-early-rule-out-pathways-for-acute-myocardial-infarction
#16
Andrew R Chapman, Atul Anand, Jasper Boeddinghaus, Amy V Ferry, Dennis Sandeman, Philip D Adamson, Jack P Andrews, Stephanie Tan, Sheun F Cheng, Michelle D'Souza, Kate Orme, Fiona E Strachan, Thomas Nestelberger, Raphael Twerenbold, Patrick Badertscher, Tobias Reichlin, Alasdair Gray, Anoop S V Shah, Christian Mueller, David E Newby, Nicholas L Mills
BACKGROUND: -High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays enable myocardial infarction to be ruled out earlier, but the optimal approach is uncertain. We compared the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) rule-out pathway, with a pathway that incorporates lower cardiac troponin concentrations to risk stratify patients. METHODS: -Patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (n=1,218) underwent high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I measurement at presentation, 3 and 6 or 12 hours...
December 29, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012882/out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-without-return-of-spontaneous-circulation-in-the-field-who-are-the-survivors
#17
Yan Xiong, Hong Zhan, Yuanzheng Lu, Kaipan Guan, Ngozi Okoro, Denise Mitchell, Megan Dwyer, Auna Leatham, Gilberto Salazar, Xiaoxing Liao, Ahamed Idris
BACKGROUND: Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in the field is a vital determinant contributing to survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). However, nearly one third of survivors at the Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC) site did not obtain ROSC in the field. METHODS: A retrospective, observational analysis was performed on all adult patients with non-traumatic OHCA treated on scene and transported to hospital, who did not gain ROSC in the field at DFW ROC site between 2006 through 2011...
March 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005512/cardiac-mr-imaging-in-acute-coronary-syndrome-application-and-image-interpretation
#18
Farhood Saremi
Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a frequent cause of hospitalization and coronary interventions. Cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is an increasingly used technique for initial work-up of chest pain and early post-reperfusion and follow-up evaluation of ACS to identify patients at high risk of further cardiac events. Cardiac MR imaging can evaluate with accuracy a variety of prognostic indicators of myocardial damage, including regional myocardial dysfunction, infarct distribution, infarct size, myocardium at risk, microvascular obstruction, and intramyocardial hemorrhage in both acute setting and later follow-up examinations...
January 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005450/the-ecg-in-the-differential-diagnosis-between-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy-and-acute-coronary-syndrome
#19
REVIEW
Federico Guerra, Irene Giannini, Alessandro Capucci
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) is an acquired cardiomyopathy affecting mostly postmenopausal women mimicking an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). TC clinical presentation involves chest pain, elevated cardiac enzymes, wall motion abnormalities and electrocardiographic changes, all of which share striking similarities to ACS. Areas covered: Differential diagnosis between TC and ACS can be complex since there are no reliable and widely-accepted electrocardiographic criteria and, at the moment, only coronary angiography can rule out one of the two diagnoses with good certainty...
February 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003419/47-year-old-female-with-an-apical-mass
#20
Jack Andrews, Christopher Ce Lang, Marc Dweck
CLINICAL INTRODUCTION: A 47-year-old female with no medical history presented with a sudden collapse. Physical examination, chest X-ray and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I were normal, however ECG demonstrated anterior T-wave inversion. CT pulmonary angiography was performed which ruled out pulmonary embolism but revealed a non-calcified, homogenous mass at the left ventricular (LV) apex. It was not clear whether this mass was intramyocardial or pericardial. Transthoracic echocardiography confirmed the apical mass but was unable to establish its aetiology...
December 21, 2016: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
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