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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913847/patulin-transformation-products-and-last-intermediates-in-its-biosynthetic-pathway-e-and-z-ascladiol-are-not-toxic-to-human-cells
#1
Joanna Tannous, Selma P Snini, Rhoda El Khoury, Cécile Canlet, Philippe Pinton, Yannick Lippi, Imourana Alassane-Kpembi, Thierry Gauthier, André El Khoury, Ali Atoui, Ting Zhou, Roger Lteif, Isabelle P Oswald, Olivier Puel
Patulin is the main mycotoxin contaminating apples. During the brewing of alcoholic beverages, this mycotoxin is degraded to ascladiol, which is also the last precursor of patulin. The present study aims (1) to characterize the last step of the patulin biosynthetic pathway and (2) to describe the toxicity of ascladiol. A patE deletion mutant was generated in Penicillium expansum. In contrast to the wild strain, this mutant does not produce patulin but accumulates high levels of E-ascladiol with few traces of Z-ascladiol...
December 2, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910018/fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization-probe-validation-for-clinical-use
#2
Jun Gu, Janice L Smith, Patricia K Dowling
In this chapter, we provide a systematic overview of the published guidelines and validation procedures for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes for clinical diagnostic use. FISH probes-which are classified as molecular probes or analyte-specific reagents (ASRs)-have been extensively used in vitro for both clinical diagnosis and research. Most commercially available FISH probes in the United States are strictly regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA), and the College of American Pathologists (CAP)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898801/reduction-of-methane-emission-during-slurry-storage-by-the-addition-of-effective-microorganisms-and-excessive-carbon-source-from-brewing-sugar
#3
Mohd Saufi B Bastami, Davey L Jones, David R Chadwick
Storing livestock manure is the primary stage of manure management where microbial processes and chemical reactions result in the release of methane (CH), nitrous oxide (NO), ammonia (NH), and carbon dioxide (CO). This study examined the reduction of CH emissions from slurry storage under two temperatures (cool [10°C] and warm [30°C]) when a glucose-rich substrate (brewing sugar) and activated effective microorganisms were applied at 10% (w/w) and 5% (v/w), respectively. Brewing sugar addition influenced microbial anaerobic respiration, resulting in a reduction of slurry pH to <5...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893147/update-on-the-pharmacology-and-legal-status-of-kratom
#4
Walter C Prozialeck
Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a plant indigenous to Southeast Asia. Its leaves and the teas brewed from them have long been used by people in that region to stave off fatigue and to manage pain and opioid withdrawal. In a comprehensive review published in 2012, Prozialeck et al presented evidence that kratom had been increasingly used for the self-management of opioid withdrawal and pain in the United States. At the time, kratom was classified as a legal herbal product by the US Drug Enforcement Administration...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885939/microbial-innovations-in-the-world-of-food
#5
Hisashi Kawasaki, Kenji Ueda
Technological developments in Japan based on the results of microbial research were a major pillar supporting the postwar industrial revolution. The wellspring of these advancements was the sophisticated technology used in traditional brewing, a foundation of the characteristic Japanese food culture. In this manuscript, we will describe the fermentative production of amino acids and nucleic acids following the discovery of the umami component so distinct in Japanese cuisine, which finally revealed the true power of microbial production...
January 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885413/novel-brewing-yeast-hybrids-creation-and-application
#6
REVIEW
Kristoffer Krogerus, Frederico Magalhães, Virve Vidgren, Brian Gibson
The natural interspecies Saccharomyces cerevisiae × Saccharomyces eubayanus hybrid yeast is responsible for global lager beer production and is one of the most important industrial microorganisms. Its success in the lager brewing environment is due to a combination of traits not commonly found in pure yeast species, principally low-temperature tolerance, and maltotriose utilization. Parental transgression is typical of hybrid organisms and has been exploited previously for, e.g., the production of wine yeast with beneficial properties...
November 24, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874287/impact-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-metabolites-produced-during-fermentation-on-bread-quality-parameters-a-review
#7
Mareile Heitmann, Emanuele Zannini, Elke Arendt
Although bread making with the use of Baker's yeast has a long tradition in human history, little attention has been paid to the connection between yeast addition and the final bread quality. Nowadays, bakers mainly use different flour additives such as enzymes (amylases, hemicellulases, and proteases) to change and improve dough properties and/or bread quality. Another strategy is the use of modified industrial Baker's yeast. To date, there is no yeast strain used in the baking industry, which is genetically modified, despite some studies demonstrating that the application of recombinant DNA technology is a possibility for improved strains suitable for baking...
November 22, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868081/blood-brain-barrier-integrity-intrathecal-immunoactivation-and-neuronal-injury-in-hiv
#8
Birgitta Anesten, Aylin Yilmaz, Lars Hagberg, Henrik Zetterberg, Staffan Nilsson, Bruce J Brew, Dietmar Fuchs, Richard W Price, Magnus Gisslén
OBJECTIVE: Although blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment has been reported in HIV-infected individuals, characterization of this impairment has not been clearly defined. METHODS: BBB integrity was measured by CSF/plasma albumin ratio in this cross-sectional study of 631 HIV-infected individuals and 71 controls. We also analyzed CSF and blood HIV RNA and neopterin, CSF leukocyte count, and neurofilament light chain protein (NFL) concentrations. The HIV-infected participants included untreated neuroasymptomatic patients, patients with untreated HIV-associated dementia (HAD), and participants on suppressive antiretroviral treatment (ART)...
December 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854062/determination-of-pesticide-and-phthalate-residues-in-tea-by-quechers-method-and-their-fate-in-processing
#9
Sapna Yadav, Satyajeet Rai, Ashutosh K Srivastava, Smita Panchal, D K Patel, V P Sharma, Sudha Jain, L P Srivastava
In this study, the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method was applied for the analysis of the multiclass pesticide residues of 12 organochlorines (OCs), 9 organophosphates (OPs), 11 synthetic pyrethroids (SPs), 4 herbicides, 6 phthalates in raw tea (loose tea, branded tea and herbal tea), and tea infusion in 4 different containers (glass cup, earthen cup, plastic bag and disposal cup). In loose tea and branded tea residues, malathion (0.257 and 0.118 mg kg(-1)), cypermethrin (0...
November 17, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846797/identification-and-characterization-of-micrornas-in-humulus-lupulus-using-high-throughput-sequencing-and-their-response-to-citrus-bark-cracking-viroid-cbcvd-infection
#10
Ajay Kumar Mishra, Ganesh Selvaraj Duraisamy, Jaroslav Matoušek, Sebastjan Radisek, Branka Javornik, Jernej Jakse
BACKGROUND: Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) plants are grown primarily for the brewing industry and have been used as a traditional medicinal herb for a long time. Severe hop stunt disease caused by the recently discovered Citrus bark cracking viroid (CBCVd) is one of the most devastating diseases among other viroid infections in hop. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding small RNAs that play important roles in gene expression regulation. To identify miRNAs in hop and their response to CBCVd-infection, two small RNA (sRNA) libraries were prepared from healthy and CBCVd-infected hop plants and were investigated by high throughput sequencing...
November 15, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830465/partial-characterization-of-the-proteolytic-properties-of-an-enzymatic-extract-from-aguama-bromelia-pinguin-l-fruit-grown-in-mexico
#11
Jesús Martín Moreno-Hernández, Xitlalli Desideria Hernández-Mancillas, Evelia Lorena Coss Navarrete, Miguel Ángel Mazorra-Manzano, Idalia Osuna-Ruiz, Víctor Alfonso Rodríguez-Tirado, Jesús Aarón Salazar-Leyva
Plant proteases are capable of performing several functions in biological systems, and their use is attractive for biotechnological process due to their interesting catalytic properties. Bromelia pinguin (aguama) is a wild abundant natural resource in several regions of Central America and the Caribbean Islands but is underutilized. Their fruits are rich in proteases with properties that are still unknown, but they represent an attractive source of enzymes for biotechnological applications. Thus, the proteolytic activity in enzymatic crude extracts (CEs) from wild B...
November 9, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793826/exploring-the-impact-of-post-harvest-processing-on-the-microbiota-and-metabolite-profiles-during-a-case-of-green-coffee-bean-production
#12
Florac De Bruyn, Sophia Jiyuan Zhang, Vasileios Pothakos, Julio Torres, Charles Lambot, Alice V Moroni, Michael Callanan, Wilbert Sybesma, Stefan Weckx, Luc De Vuyst
: The post-harvest treatment and processing of fresh coffee cherries can impact the quality of the unroasted green coffee beans. In the present case study, freshly harvested Arabica coffee cherries were processed through two different wet and dry methods, to monitor differences in the microbial community structure, as well as substrate and metabolite profiles. The changes were followed throughout the entire post-harvest processing chain, from harvest to drying, by implementing up-to-date techniques, encompassing multiple-step metagenomic DNA extraction, high-throughput sequencing and multiphasic metabolite target analysis...
October 28, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786360/influence-of-brewing-conditions-on-taste-components-in-fuding-white-tea-infusions
#13
Haihua Zhang, Yulin Li, Yangjun Lv, Yulan Jiang, Junxian Pan, Yuwei Duan, Yuejin Zhu, Shikang Zhang
BACKGROUND: White tea has received increasing attention of late as a result of its sweet taste and health benefits. During the brewing of white tea, many factors may affect the nutritional and sensory quality of the resulting infusions. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of various infusion conditions on the taste components of Fuding white tea, including infusion time, ratio of tea and water, number of brewing steps, and temperature. RESULTS: Brewing conditions had a strong effect on the taste compound profile and sensory characteristics...
October 27, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786308/antioxidant-and-antitumor-activity-of-a-bioactive-polyphenolic-fraction-isolated-from-the-brewing-process
#14
Marco Tatullo, Grazia Maria Simone, Franco Tarullo, Gianfranco Irlandese, Danila De Vito, Massimo Marrelli, Luigi Santacroce, Tiziana Cocco, Andrea Ballini, Salvatore Scacco
There is increasing interest in identifying natural bioactive compounds that can improve mitochondrial functionality and regulate apoptosis. The brewery industry generates wastewater that could yield a natural extract containing bioactive phenolic compounds. Polyphenols act as antioxidants and have been documented to protect the human body from degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases or cancer. The main aims of our research were to determine the phenolic profile of a crude extract obtained (at pilot scale) from a brewery waste stream and to evaluate the biochemical activity of this extract on the mitochondrial function of a cancer cell line (SH-SY5Y)...
October 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784948/screening-of-bacillus-strains-from-sun-vinegar-for-efficient-production-of-flavonoid-and-phenol
#15
Changqing Zhao, Xingxiu Zhao, Jing Zhang, Wei Zou, Yi Zhang, Li Li, Jun Liu
The aim of this study was to screen out a bacillus from Sichuan sun vinegar grains capable of producing a high total amount of flavonoids and total phenols. Forty-eight strains were initially screened out from Sichuan sun vinegar grains. The sodium nitrite-aluminum nitrate-sodium hydroxide colorimetry method was used to determine the total flavonoids, and the Folin-phenol method was used to determine the total phenols. Based on the results of total flavonids and total phenol producing capacities of the strains, one strain was singled out for use in this study...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784159/occurrence-and-residue-pattern-of-phthalate-esters-in-fresh-tea-leaves-and-during-its-manufacturing-and-brewing
#16
Pingxiang Liu, Hongping Chen, Guanwei Gao, Zhenxia Hao, Chen Wang, Guicen Ma, Yunfeng Chai, Lin Zhang, Xin Liu
The residues of 16 phthalate esters (PAEs) in fresh tea leaves and made tea were determined via gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to study their distribution and degradation characteristics during tea planting and processing. Five PAEs were detected in all fresh tea leaves, and higher concentrations were detected in mature leaves. The distribution of PAEs in fresh tea leaves ranged from 69.7 μg/kg to 2244.0 μg/kg. The degradative percentages of ∑5PAEs during green tea manufacturing ranged from 61% to 63% and were significantly influenced by the drying process...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778472/impedance-technology-reduces-the-enumeration-time-of-brettanomyces-yeast-during-beer-fermentation
#17
Sanelle van Wyk, Filipa V M Silva
Brettanomyces yeasts are increasingly being used to produce lambic style beers and craft beers with unique flavours. Currently, the industry monitors Brettanomyces bruxellensis using time consuming plate counting. B. bruxellensis is a fastidious slow growing organism, requiring 5 days of incubation at 30 °C for visible growth on agar plates. Thus, a need exists to develop a quicker, feasible method to enumerate this yeast. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the feasibility of using the 'direct' and 'indirect' impedance methods for the enumeration of B...
October 25, 2016: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773607/identification-of-4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one-as-the-characteristic-aroma-of-sake-made-from-low-glutelin-rice
#18
Sachiko Iizuka-Furukawa, Atsuko Isogai, Kazutaka Kusaka, Tsutomu Fujii, Yoshinori Wakai
The grassy characteristic aroma perceived in brewed sake made from low-glutelin rice (Oryza sativa L. Mizuhonoka) was examined by gas chromatography-olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. By comparing the odor properties and Kovats retention indices to those of standard compounds, 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4MMP) was found to contribute to the characteristic aroma. Sake brewing using Mizuhonoka, low-glutelin rice, and Gin-ohmi (a control) revealed that 4MMP concentrations in Mizuhonoka sake samples were higher than those in Gin-ohmi samples over the fermentation period...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770860/marine-microbial-amylases-properties-and-applications
#19
J Suriya, S Bharathiraja, M Krishnan, P Manivasagan, S-K Kim
Amylases are crucial enzymes which hydrolyze internal glycosidic linkages in starch and produce as primary products dextrins and oligosaccharides. Amylases are classified into α-amylase, β-amylase, and glucoamylase based on their three-dimensional structures, reaction mechanisms, and amino acid sequences. Amylases have innumerable applications in clinical, medical, and analytical chemistries as well as in food, detergent, textile, brewing, and distilling industries. Amylases can be produced from plants, animals, and microbial sources...
2016: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740924/caffeine-consumption-patterns-and-determinants-among-adolescents-in-serbia
#20
Dragana Dragas Milovanovic, Mihajlo Jakovljevic, Milica Scekic, Natasa Djordjevic
BACKGROUND: The number of adolescents who use caffeine is constantly increasing. As juvenile age is vulnerable, it is reasonable to expect that they will differently perceive reason and react to caffeine use than adults, and be more prone to unwanted physiological and psychological consequences of its consumption. AIM: Analysis of the scope and pattern of caffeine consumption among adolescents in Serbia. STUDY DESIGN: The cross-sectional survey was implemented in the study population of 191 Serbian adolescents during 2010...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
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