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Amnion epithelial cells

Wangsheng Wang, Chao Liu, Kang Sun
Rupture of fetal membranes (ROM) can initiate parturition at both term and preterm birth. Apoptosis of the amnion epithelium plays a key role in structural remodeling of the membranes preceding ROM. However, the causative factors for apoptosis remain unidentified. Toward the end of gestation, a feed-forward regeneration of cortisol via 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) exists in the fetal membranes. Here we have examined whether cortisol accumulation is a causative factor for amnion cells apoptosis...
October 3, 2016: Endocrinology
Simon G Royce, Anna M Tominaga, Matthew Shen, Krupesh P Patel, Brooke M Huuskes, Rebecca Lim, Sharon D Ricardo, Chrishan S Samuel
Current asthma therapies primarily target airway inflammation (AI) and suppress episodes of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) but fail to treat airway remodelling (AWR), which can develop independently of AI and contribute to irreversible airway obstruction. This study compared the anti-remodelling and therapeutic efficacy of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to that of human amnion epithelial stem cells (AECs) in the setting of chronic allergic airways disease (AAD), in the absence or presence of an anti-fibrotic (serelaxin; RLX)...
September 19, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
Stephen C Strom, Roberto Gramignoli
Despite routine liver transplantation and supporting medical therapies, thousands of patients currently wait for an organ and there is an unmet need for more refined and widely available regenerative strategies to treat liver diseases. Cell transplants attempt to maximize the potential for repair and/or regeneration in liver and other organs. Over 40years of laboratory pre-clinical research and 25years of clinical procedures have shown that certain liver diseases can be treated by the infusion of isolated cells (hepatocyte transplant)...
September 2016: Human Immunology
Samantha Sheller, John Papaconstantinou, Rheanna Urrabaz-Garza, Lauren Richardson, George Saade, Carlos Salomon, Ramkumar Menon
At term, the signals of fetal maturity and feto-placental tissue aging prompt uterine readiness for delivery by transitioning quiescent myometrium to an active stage. It is still unclear how the signals reach the distant myometrium. Exosomes are a specific type of extracellular vesicle (EVs) that transport molecular signals between cells, and are released from a wide range of cells, including the maternal and fetal cells. In this study, we hypothesize that i) exosomes act as carriers of signals in utero-placental compartments and ii) exosomes reflect the physiologic status of the origin cells...
2016: PloS One
Clara Di Germanio, Michel Bernier, Michael Petr, Mauro Mattioli, Barbara Barboni, Rafael de Cabo
Amniotic epithelial cells (AECs) are a class of fetal stem cells that derives from the epiblast and resides in the amnion until birth. AECs are suitable candidates for regenerative medicine because of the ease of collection, their low immunogenicity and inability to form tumors after transplantation. Even though human AECs have been widely investigated, the fact remains that very little is known about AECs isolated from rat, one of the most common animal models in medical testing. In this study, we showed that rat AECs retained stemness properties and plasticity, expressed the pluripotency markers Sox2, Nanog, and Oct4 and were able to differentiate toward the osteogenic lineage...
May 29, 2016: Oncotarget
M Felicia Basilicata, Marcus Frank, Davor Solter, Thomas Brabletz, Marc P Stemmler
Cadherin switching from E-cadherin (E-cad) to N-cadherin (N-cad) is a key step of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) processes that occurs during gastrulation and cancer progression. We investigate whether cadherins actively participate in progression of EMT by crosstalk to signaling pathways. We apply ectopic cadherin switching before the onset of mouse gastrulation. Mutants with an induced E-cad to N-cad switch (Ncadki) die around E8.5. Severe morphological changes including a small epiblast, a rounded shape, an enlarged extra-embryonic compartment and lack of the amnion, combined with a massive cell detachment from the ectodermal layer are detected...
2016: Scientific Reports
Roberto Gramignoli, Raghuraman C Srinivasan, Kristina Kannisto, Stephen C Strom
Different cell types can be isolated from human placental tissues, and some have been reported to retain phenotypic plasticity and characteristics that make them a promising source of cells for regenerative medicine. Among these are human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs). Adoption of current good manufacturing practices (cGMP) and enhanced quality control is essential when isolating hAECs in order to deliver a safe and effective cellular product for clinical purposes. This unit describes a detailed protocol for selective isolation of hAECs from human term placenta with little to no contamination by other cell types...
2016: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
Tina Deihim, Ghasem Yazdanpanah, Hassan Niknejad
PURPOSE: Because of long-term incorporation of amniotic membrane (AM) into corneal stroma after transplantation as a scaffold for stem cell delivery, the variation in haziness is a major factor that influences visual quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate probable sources of transparency variation in fresh and freeze-dried AM and compare the obtained results with transparency of rabbit corneas. METHODS: Amnions were extracted from placental and reflected regions of placentas from elective Cesarean sections...
July 2016: Cornea
Samantha K Barton, Mary Tolcos, Suzanne L Miller, Charles Christoph-Roehr, Georg M Schmölzer, Timothy J M Moss, Stuart B Hooper, Euan M Wallace, Graeme R Polglase
Mechanical ventilation is a risk factor for cerebral inflammation and brain injury in preterm neonates. The risk increases proportionally with the intensity of treatment. Recent studies have shown that cerebral inflammation and injury can be initiated in the delivery room. At present, initiation of intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) in the delivery room is one of the least controlled interventions a preterm infant will likely face. Varying pressures and volumes administered shortly after birth are sufficient to trigger pathways of ventilation-induced lung and brain injury...
2016: Neonatology
Shruti Balaji, Yu Zhou, Anasuya Ganguly, Emmanuel C Opara, Shay Soker
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the ectopic expression of PDX1, a dominant pancreatic transcription factor, plays a critical role in the developmental programming of the pancreas even from cells of unrelated tissues such as keratinocytes and amniotic fluid stem cells. In this study we have chosen to drive pancreatic development in human amnion epithelial cells by inducing endogenous PDX1 expression. Further, we have investigated the role of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) and Poly-L-Ornithine (PLO) on this differentiation process...
2016: BMC Developmental Biology
Q Shen, X Ma, Y Hua, M Chen, Y Wang, Q Zhou, W Ye, X Zhu
Salvia miltiorrhiza is one of the most common Chinese herbal drugs, which is effective to treat oligohydramnios. In this study, the aim was to investigate how Salvia miltiorrhiza regulate aquaporin 3 expression in the human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs) with normal amniotic fluid volume or isolated oligohydramnios, whether via extracellular signal regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) signal transduction pathway or not. Primary hAECs cultures from 120 patients were incubated with Salvia miltiorrhiza or/and ERK1/2 inhibitor-- U0126...
2016: Current Molecular Medicine
Yong Wang, Xingwen Li, Liyuan Sun, Baihuan Feng, Wenjun Sun
Previously, we found that exposure to a 50-Hz magnetic field (MF) could induce epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) clustering and phosphorylation on cell surface. In order to explore the possible mechanisms, the roles of acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) and lipid raft in MF-induced EGFR clustering were investigated in the present study. Human amnion epithelial (FL) cells were exposed to a 50-Hz MF at 0.4 mT for different durations. Intracellular ASMase activity was detected using the Amplex® Red Sphingomyelinase Assay Kit...
February 26, 2016: Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction Research
Bin Zhao, Jia-Qi Liu, Zhao Zheng, Jun Zhang, Shu-Yue Wang, Shi-Chao Han, Qin Zhou, Hao Guan, Chao Li, Lin-Lin Su, Da-Hai Hu
Wound healing is a highly orchestrated physiological process consisting in a complex interaction of cellular and biochemical events. Human amniotic epithelial stem cells (HAESCs) have been shown to be an attractive resource for wound healing because they are primitive stem cells. However, the exact effects of amnion-derived stem cells on the migration or proliferation of keratinocytes and their potential mechanism are not fully understood. We have found that HAESCs accelerate the migration of keratinocytes and induce a remarkable increase in the activity of phospho-ERK, phospho-JNK, and phospho-AKT, the blockade of which by their specific inhibitors significantly inhibits migration induced by HAESC-conditioned medium (CM)...
July 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Dandan Zhu, Ruth Muljadi, Siow Teng Chan, Patricia Vosdoganes, Camden Lo, Joanne C Mockler, Euan M Wallace, Rebecca Lim
The effects of human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs) on angiogenesis remain controversial. It is yet unknown if the presence of inflammation and/or gestational age of hAEC donors have an impact on angiogenesis. In this study, we examined the differences between term and preterm hAECs on angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Conditioned media from term hAECs induced the formation of longer huVEC tubules on Matrigel. Both term and preterm hAECs expressed VEGFA, PDGFB, ANGPT1, and FOXC1, which significantly increased after TNFα and IFNγ stimulation...
2016: Stem Cells International
Hassan Niknejad, Ghasem Yazdanpanah, Abolhassan Ahmadiani
Amniotic membrane (AM), the nearest layer of fetal membranes to the fetus, contains two types of cells with unique characteristics that make them excellent candidates for clinical applications. Amniotic epithelial and mesenchymal cells have low immunogenicity, anti-inflammation, anti-fibrosis and anti-bacterial properties and no ethical issues. Although amniotic cells have stem cell properties and express transcription factors specific for pluripotent stem cells, they are not tumorigenic after transplantation...
March 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Yuhua Gao, Chunyu Bai, Dong Zheng, Changli Li, Wenxiu Zhang, Mei Li, Weijun Guan, Yuehui Ma
Although melatonin has been shown to exhibit a wide variety of biological functions, its effects on promoting differentiation of neural cells remain unknown. Wnt signaling mediates major developmental processes during embryogenesis and regulates maintenance, self-renewal, and differentiation of adult mammalian stem cells. However, the role of the noncanonical Wnt pathway during neurogenesis remains poorly understood. In this study, the amniotic epithelial cells ( AECs) were isolated from bovine amnion and incubated with various melatonin concentrations (0...
April 2016: Journal of Pineal Research
Xiaofen Yao, Yuna Guo, Qian Wang, Minhua Xu, Qiuwan Zhang, Ting Li, Dongmei Lai
Human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs) transplantation via tail vein has been reported to rescue ovarian function in mice with chemotherapy-induced primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). To test whether intraperitoneally transplanted hAECs could induce therapeutic effect and to characterize the paracrine effect of transplanted hAECs, we utilized a chemotherapy induced mice model of POI and investigated the ability of hAECs and conditioned medium collected from cultured hAECs (hAECs-CM) to restore ovarian function...
2016: Stem Cells International
H Mrázová, J Koller, K Kubišová, G Fujeríková, E Klincová, P Babál
Sterilization is an important step in the preparation of biological material for transplantation. The aim of the study is to compare morphological changes in three types of biological tissues induced by different doses of gamma and electron beam radiation. Frozen biological tissues (porcine skin xenografts, human skin allografts and human amnion) were irradiated with different doses of gamma rays (12.5, 25, 35, 50 kGy) and electron beam (15, 25, 50 kGy). Not irradiated specimens served as controls. The tissue samples were then thawn and fixed in 10 % formalin, processed by routine paraffin technique and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, alcian blue at pH 2...
June 2016: Cell and Tissue Banking
Lei-Wei Jiang, Hongduo Chen, Hongguang Lu
BACKGROUND: Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) is a desirable reserve of stem cells. Human de-epidermized dermis (DED) retains basic tissue structure and parts of the basement membrane (BM) components at the acelluIar dermal surface, and provides a potential tool for skin regeneration. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential role of hAECs in skin regeneration, we used DED to perform organotypic culture of hAECs to develop organotypic skin. METHODS: HAECs were isolated and cultured...
January 2016: Journal of Dermatological Science
Eleni Antoniadou, Anna L David
The placenta represents a reservoir of progenitor, stem cells and epithelial cells that have been shown to differentiate into various types, including adipogenic, osteogenic, myogenic, hepatogenic, cardiac, pancreatic, endothelial, pulmonary and neurogenic lineages. This review focuses on the properties of placenta-derived cells, and it evaluates their current therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine and cell transplantations. Ongoing clinical and preclinical studies are investigating the safety and efficacy of the human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs), human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSCs) and chorionic mesenchymal stromal cells (hCMSCs)...
February 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
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