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psychogenic dystonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753149/functional-dystonia-and-the-borderland-between-neurology-and-psychiatry-new-concepts
#1
Rachel Newby, Jane Alty, Peter Kempster
Mind-brain dualism has dominated historical commentary on dystonia, a dichotomous approach that has left our conceptual grasp of it stubbornly incomplete. This is particularly true of functional dystonia, most diagnostically challenging of all functional movement disorders, in which the question of inherent psychogenicity remains a focus of debate. Phenomenological signs considered in isolation lack the specificity to distinguish organic and nonorganic forms, and dystonia's variability has frustrated attempts to develop objective laboratory-supported standards...
October 18, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719842/functional-dystonia
#2
D A Schmerler, A J Espay
Although currently lacking a sensitive and specific electrophysiologic battery test, functional (psychogenic) dystonia can sometimes be diagnosed with clinically definite certainty using available criteria. Certain regional phenotypes have been recognized as distinctive, such as unilateral lip and jaw deviation, laterocollis with ipsilateral shoulder elevation and contralateral shoulder depression, fixed wrist and finger flexion with relative sparing of the thumb and index fingers, and fixed foot plantar flexion and inversion...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667488/-clinical-features-and-treatment-of-hashimoto-encephalopathy
#3
Yoshimitsu Maki, Hiroshi Takashima
Hashimoto encephalopathy (HE) is characterized by heterogeneous neurological symptoms. HE is diagnosed based on three criteria-the presence of antithyroid antibodies, neurological symptoms from the cerebrum and/or cerebellum, and a positive response to immunotherapy. We clinically analyzed 18 patients (3 men, 15 women; age range, 38-81years) diagnosed with HE in our hospital from May 2013 to January 2016. Eleven patients showed sensory abnormalities such as strong pain, deep muscle pain, dysesthesia, paresthesia, or neuralgia...
September 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664338/an-unusual-cause-of-cervical-kyphosis
#4
Mamtha S Raj, Joseph H Schwab
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Acute fixed cervical kyphosis may be a rare presentation of conversion disorder, psychogenic dystonia, and potentially as a side effect from typical antipsychotic drugs. Haldol has been associated with acute dystonic reactions. In some cases, rigid deformities ensue. We are reporting a case of a fixed cervical kyphosis after the use of Haldol. PURPOSE: To present a case of a potential acute dystonic reaction temporally associated with Haldol ingestion leading to fixed cervical kyphosis...
September 21, 2016: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26922134/-prevention-and-treatment-of-tardive-dyskinesia-caused-by-antipsychotic-drugs
#5
A-S Seigneurie, F Sauvanaud, F Limosin
INTRODUCTION: Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a movement disorder of tongue, jawbone, trunk and/or limbs that may appear after a prolonged use of dopamine receptor blocking agents (after 3 months of treatment or after 1 month for patients over 60), and that are present during at least four consecutive weeks. TD is a frequent side effect of both classical neuroleptics and new generation antipsychotic drugs. The prevalence of iatrogenic TD is between 24 and 32 % after treatment with classical neuroleptics and about 13 % after treatment with a new generation antipsychotic...
June 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26764301/-scans-without-evidence-of-dopamine-deficit-swedds
#6
REVIEW
Yohei Mukai, Miho Murata
Dopamine transporter (DaT) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and [18F]fluoro-L-DOPA ([18F]DOPA) positron emission tomography (PET) facilitate the investigation of dopaminergic hypofunction in neurodegenerative diseases. DaT SPECT and [18F]DOPA PET have been adopted as survey tools in clinical trials. In a large study on Parkinson's disease, 4-15% of subjects clinically diagnosed with early-stage Parkinson's disease had normal dopaminergic functional imaging scans. These are called Scans without Evidence of Dopamine Deficit (SWEDDs), and are considered to represent a state different from Parkinson's disease...
January 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26603645/psychogenic-movement-disorder-in-human-t-lymphotropic-virus-type-1-associated-myelopathy
#7
Marzia Puccioni-Sohler, Jessyca T M A Ramos, Carolina Rosadas, Luiz Felipe Vasconcellos
Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the spinal cord. Acute cases of HAM/TSP and those complicated by movement disorders are rarely reported. Otherwise, psychiatric disturbances are very frequent in infected patients. It can evolve to psychogenic disorders. The case of a 46-year-old woman with acute HAM/TSP complicated by depression and psychogenic movement disorders (chorea of the hands and dystonia-like facial symptoms) is reported...
January 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26403429/electrophysiological-evaluation-of-psychogenic-movement-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Nitish L Kamble, Pramod Kumar Pal
Psychogenic movement disorders (PMD) include a group of neurological symptoms which cannot be explained by any organic syndrome. The diagnosis of PMD is challenging for both neurologist and psychiatrist. Electrophysiological examination is a useful tool to evaluate and support a diagnosis PMD. It includes a set of tests which are chosen appropriate to the clinical setting that provides objective criteria for the diagnosis of PMD. The various tests available include accelerometry, surface electromyography, electroencephalography, jerk locked back averaging and pre-movement potentials, somatosensory evoked potentials, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) etc...
January 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26365778/functional-psychogenic-movement-disorders-clinical-presentations
#9
REVIEW
Mark Hallett
Functional or psychogenic movement disorders are common and disabling, and sometime difficult to diagnose. The history and physical exam can give positive features that will support the diagnosis, which should not be based solely on exclusion. Some clues in the history are sudden onset, intermittent time course, variability of manifestation over time, childhood trauma, history of other somatic symptom and secondary gain. Anxiety and depression are common, but not necessarily more than the general population...
January 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26125045/intraoperative-neurophysiology-in-deep-brain-surgery-for-psychogenic-dystonia
#10
Vesper Fe Marie L Ramos, Ajay S Pillai, Codrin Lungu, Jill Ostrem, Philip Starr, Mark Hallett
Psychogenic dystonia is a challenging entity to diagnose and treat because little is known about its pathophysiology. We describe two cases of psychogenic dystonia who underwent deep brain stimulation when thought to have organic dystonia. The intraoperative microelectrode recordings in globus pallidus internus were retrospectively compared with those of five patients with known DYT1 dystonia using spontaneous discharge parameters of rate and bursting, as well as movement-related discharges. Our data suggest that simple intraoperative neurophysiology measures in single subjects do not differentiate psychogenic dystonia from DYT1 dystonia...
June 2015: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25667816/recognizing-uncommon-presentations-of-psychogenic-functional-movement-disorders
#11
José Fidel Baizabal-Carvallo, Robert Fekete
BACKGROUND: Psychogenic or functional movement disorders (PMDs) pose a challenge in clinical diagnosis. There are several clues, including sudden onset, incongruous symptoms, distractibility, suggestibility, entrainment of symptoms, and lack of response to otherwise effective pharmacological therapies, that help identify the most common psychogenic movements such as tremor, dystonia, and myoclonus. METHODS: In this manuscript, we review the frequency, distinct clinical features, functional imaging, and neurophysiological tests that can help in the diagnosis of uncommon presentations of PMDs, such as psychogenic parkinsonism, tics, and chorea; facial, palatal, and ocular movements are also reviewed...
2015: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25658681/alexithymia-in-neurological-disease-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Lucia Ricciardi, Benedetta Demartini, Aikaterini Fotopoulou, Mark J Edwards
OBJECTIVE: Alexithymia has been considered a personality trait characterized by difficulties identifying and describing feelings and an externally oriented thinking style. A high rate of alexithymia is reported among patients with psychiatric and psychosomatic disorders. In this review, the authors examined the literature regarding the prevalence and importance of alexithymia in patients with neurological disorders. METHODS: A systematic search of the computerized databases MEDLINE and PubMed was conducted in order to identify papers on alexithymia in neurological disease...
2015: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25296919/acute-movement-disorders-in-children-experience-from-a-developing-country
#13
Jatinder Singh Goraya
We describe acute movement disorders in 92 children, aged 5 days to 15 years, from an Indian tertiary hospital. Eighty-nine children had hyperkinetic movement disorders, with myoclonus in 25, dystonia in 21, choreoathetosis in 19, tremors in 15, and tics in 2. Tetany and tetanus were seen in 5 and 2 children, respectively. Hypokinetic movement disorders included acute parkinsonism in 3 children. Noninflammatory and inflammatory etiology were present in 60 and 32 children, respectively. Benign neonatal sleep myoclonus in 16 and opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome in 7 accounted for the majority of myoclonus cases...
March 2015: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24868415/attention-in-parkinson-s-disease-mimicking-suggestion-in-psychogenic-movement-disorder
#14
Jong Sam Baik
The various reported psychogenic movement disorders (PMDs) include tremor, dystonia, myoclonus, gait disorder, Parkinsonism, tics, and chorea. Although it is not easy to diagnose PMDs, several features such as distractibility, entrainment, suggestion and placebo trial are quite helpful to diagnose. Especially, distractibility or suggestion is a good tool to do in outpatient clinic easily. We describe a patient with parkinsonian features which were improved by internal suggestion to focusing attention. Initially, we suspected her diagnosis as PMDs; however she was confirmed with organic Parkinson's disease later...
October 2012: Journal of Movement Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24868410/psychogenic-balance-disorders-is-it-a-new-entity-of-psychogenic-movement-disorders
#15
Jong Sam Baik, Myung Sik Lee
The various reported psychogenic dyskinesias include tremor, dystonia, myoclonus, gait disorder, Parkinsonism, tics, and chorea. It is not easy to diagnose psychogenic movement disorders, especially in patients with underlying organic disease. We describe three patients with balance and/or posture abnormalities that occur when they stand up, start to move, or halt from walking, although their gaits are normal. One had an underlying unilateral frontal lobe lesion. All patients improved dramatically after receiving a placebo-injection or medication...
May 2012: Journal of Movement Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24868388/electrophysiologic-evaluation-of-psychogenic-movement-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Pramod Kumar Pal
Psychogenic movement disorders (PMD) are a group of disorders which are in the border zone between neurology and psychiatry. All necessary laboratory investigations should be done to rule out an underlying organic disorder. While clinical acumen of a trained movement disorder specialist may be sufficient to diagnose most PMD, there are clinical situations where electrophysiological tests are required either to rule out an organic movement disorder or even diagnose a PMD. Current electrophysiological test are most useful for tremor, followed by jerks and least for spasms or dystonia...
May 2011: Journal of Movement Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24825955/pain-in-parkinson-s-disease-associated-with-comt-gene-polymorphisms
#17
Wanjun Li, Yongqian Chen, Bowen Yin, Limei Zhang
BACKGROUND: PD patients present high incidence of pain with unknown pathogenesis. Objective. We investigated the relation of COMT polymorphisms rs4633 and rs6267 with PD pain. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: One hundred PD patients and 105 controls were evaluated with simplified Mc GILL pain scale and VAS scale. PD patients were assessed with H&Y grade, UPDRS score, and HAMD scale. Polymorphisms rs4633 and rs6267 were detected by PCR and direct sequencing. RESULTS: Fifty-seven percent of PD patients experienced pain, consisting of PD-related pain (64...
2014: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24439694/therapeutic-sedation-for-functional-psychogenic-neurological-symptoms
#18
Jon Stone, Ingrid Hoeritzauer, Kirsteen Brown, Alan Carson
BACKGROUND: Patients with severe functional (psychogenic) neurological symptoms such as paralysis and fixed dystonia present a therapeutic challenge, particularly if no movement is possible during physiotherapy. Sedation has been discussed as a treatment for functional neurological symptoms for 100 years but technique, use of video and outcome has not been systematically described. METHODS: Therapeutic sedation of patients with severe functional neurological symptoms with propofol and follow up at a neuroscience centre...
February 2014: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24321218/a-clinical-study-of-non-parkinsonian-tremor-in-moroccan-patients
#19
W Regragui, L Lachhab, R Razine, E H Ait Benhaddou, A Benomar, M Yahyaoui
OBJECTIVE: To report the characteristics of the most frequent tremors in a population of Moroccan patients. BACKGROUND: Tremor is the most common movement disorder. It implies a wide variety of disorders with Parkinson's disease and essential tremor being the most frequent. METHODS: A retrospective study of 148 patients with tremor referred to our movement disorders outpatient clinic was performed. Clinical features and treatment regimens were analyzed...
January 2014: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24125808/thalamic-post-inhibitory-bursting-occurs-in-patients-with-organic-dystonia-more-often-than-controls
#20
K Kobayashi, C C Liu, A L Jensen, J L Vitek, Z Mari, F A Lenz
We now test the hypothesis that post-inhibitory bursting in the human pallidal receiving nucleus of the thalamus (ventral oral) mediates inhibitory pallido-thalamic transmission during dystonia. We have compared thalamic single neuron activity in nine patients with organic dystonia to that in a patient with psychogenic dystonia (Psyd) and in healthy waking monkeys. In organic dystonia, EMG power is commonly concentrated at the lowest frequency of the smoothed autopower spectrum (0.39Hz). Therefore, segments of spike trains with a signal-to-noise ratio ≥2 at 0...
December 6, 2013: Brain Research
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