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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149474/interventions-for-old-world-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#1
REVIEW
Julio Heras-Mosteiro, Begoña Monge-Maillo, Mariona Pinart, Patricia Lopez Pereira, Emely Garcia-Carrasco, Pedro Campuzano Cuadrado, Ana Royuela, Irene Mendez Roman, Rogelio López-Vélez
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by a parasitic infection, is considered one of the most serious skin diseases in many low- and middle-income countries. Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis (OWCL) is caused by species found in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, the Mediterranean, and India. The most commonly prescribed treatments are antimonials, but other drugs have been used with varying success. As OWCL tends to heal spontaneously, it is necessary to justify the use of systemic and topical treatments...
November 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149298/vector-borne-diseases-and-climate-change-a-european-perspective
#2
Jan C Semenza, Jonathan E Suk
Climate change has already impacted the transmission of a wide-range of vector-borne diseases in Europe, and it will continue to do so in the coming decades. Climate change has been implicated in the observed shift of ticks to elevated altitudes and latitudes, notably including the Ixodes ricinus tick species which is a vector for Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis. Climate change is also thought to have been a factor in the expansion of other important disease vectors in Europe: Aedes albopictus (the Asian tiger mosquito), which transmits diseases such as Zika, dengue, and chikungunya, and Phlebotomus sandfly species, which transmits diseases including Leishmaniasis...
November 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145397/post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis-in-the-indian-subcontinent-a-threat-to-the-south-east-asia-region-kala-azar-elimination-programme
#3
REVIEW
Eduard E Zijlstra, Fabiana Alves, Suman Rijal, Byron Arana, Jorge Alvar
BACKGROUND: The South-East Asia Region Kala-azar Elimination Programme (KAEP) is expected to enter the consolidation phase in 2017, which focuses on case detection, vector control, and identifying potential sources of infection. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is thought to play a role in the recurrence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL)/kala-azar outbreaks, and control of PKDL is among the priorities of the KAEP. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDING: We reviewed the literature with regard to PKDL in Asia and interpreted the findings in relation to current intervention methods in the KAEP in order to make recommendations...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141753/serological-evaluation-of-cutaneous-leishmania-tropica-infection-in-northern-israel
#4
Iva Rohoušová, Dalit Talmi-Frank, Michaela Vlková, Tatiana Spitzová, Koranit Rishpon, Charles L Jaffe, Petr Volf, Gad Baneth, Moshe Efrat
Leishmania spp. are medically important unicellular parasites transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies. The World Health Organization recently highlighted the importance of reliable diagnostic tools for leishmaniasis. Our study of human infection was conducted in two endemic foci of Leishmania tropica in the Galilee region, northern Israel. Elevated anti-Leishmania antibodies were present in the majority (78.6%) of L. tropica-PCR positive individuals. Moreover, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed high sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values (ranging between 73% and 79%), thus fulfilling the basic requirement for future development of a serodiagnostic and screening tool...
October 23, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141751/assessment-of-a-leishmaniasis-reporting-system-in-tropical-bolivia-using-the-capture-recapture-method
#5
Daniel Eid, Miguel Guzman-Rivero, Ernesto Rojas, Isabel Goicolea, Anna-Karin Hurtig, Daniel Illanes, Miguel San Sebastian
This study evaluates the level of underreporting of the National Program of Leishmaniasis Control (NPLC) in two communities of Cochabamba, Bolivia during the period 2013-2014. Montenegro skin test-confirmed cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) were identified through active surveillance during medical campaigns. These cases were compared with those registered in the NPLC by passive surveillance. After matching and cleaning data from the two sources, the total number of cases and the level of underreporting of the National Program were calculated using the capture-recapture analysis...
October 23, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141725/comparison-of-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-using-either-natural-octyl-disaccharide-leprosy-idri-diagnostic-or-phenolic-glycolipid-i-antigens-for-the-detection-of-leprosy-patients-in-colombia
#6
Mónica Muñoz, Juan Camilo Beltrán-Alzate, Malcolm S Duthie, Héctor Serrano-Coll, Nora Cardona-Castro
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease with a broad spectrum of manifestations. Delays in attaining correct diagnosis permit progressive peripheral nerve damage that can produce irreversible disabilities. Tests detecting antigen-specific antibodies can aid the diagnostic process and potentially detect patients earlier. Reported tests have lacked optimal sensitivity and specificity; however, the need to develop new tests to aid early diagnosis still remains. In this study, we determined the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using natural octyl disaccharide-leprosy IDRI diagnostic (NDO-LID)...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141704/human-competence-to-transmit-leishmania-infantum-to-lutzomyia-longipalpis-and-the-influence-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#7
Gabriel Reis Ferreira, José Carlos Castelo Branco Ribeiro, Antônio Meneses Filho, Teresinha de Jesus Cardoso Farias Pereira, Daniela Moura Parente, Humberto Feitosa Pereira, Jailthon Carlos da Silva, Danielle Alves Zacarias, Letiano Vieira da Silva, Symonara Karina Medeiros Faustino, Walfrido Salmito Almeida Neto, Dorcas Lamounier Costa, Ivete Lopes de Mendonça, Carlos Henrique Nery Costa
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum is a lethal disease transmitted by sand flies. Although, considered a zoonosis with dogs held as the main reservoirs, humans are also sources of infection. Therefore, control policies currently focused on dog culling may need to consider that VL and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/VL patients may also be infectious, contributing to transmission. Reservoir competence of patients with VL without and with HIV infection and of persons asymptomatically infected with Leishmania was assessed by xenodiagnosis with the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140228/co-factor-independent-phosphoglycerate-mutase-of-leishmania-donovani-modulates-macrophage-signalling-and-promotes-t-cell-repertoires-bearing-epitopes-for-both-mhc-i-and-mhc-ii
#8
Manish K Singh, Fauzia Jamal, Amit K Dubey, Pushkar Shivam, Sarita Kumari, Pushpanjali, Ghufran Ahmed, Manas R Dikhit, S Narayan, V N R DAS, Krishna Pandey, K K Sinha, P DAS, Shubhankar K Singh
Immunoactivation depends upon the antigen potential to modulate T-cell repertoires. The present study has enumerated the effect of 61 kDa recombinant Leishmania donovani co-factor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase (rLd-iPGAM) on mononuclear cells of healthy and treated visceral leishmaniasis subjects as well as on THP-1 cell line. rLd-iPGAM stimulation induced higher expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the phagocytic cell, its receptor and CD69 on T-cell subsets. These cellular activations resulted in upregulation of host-protective cytokines IL-2, IL-12, IL-17, tumour necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ, and downregulation of IL-4, IL-10 and tumour growth factor-β...
November 15, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139377/laboratory-colonization-and-mass-rearing-of-phlebotomine-sand-flies-diptera-psychodidae
#9
Jérôme Depaquit, Bernard Pesson, Denis Augot, James Gordon Campbell Hamilton, Phillip Lawyer, Nicole Léger, Phillip Lawyer, Mireille Killick-Kendrick, Tobin Rowland, Edgar Rowton, Petr Volf
Laboratory colonies of phlebotomine sand flies are necessary for experimental study of their biology, behaviour and mutual relations with disease agents and for testing new methods of vector control. They are indispensable in genetic studies and controlled observations on the physiology and behaviour of sand flies, neglected subjects of high priority. Colonies are of particular value for screening insecticides. Colonized sand flies are used as live vector models in a diverse array of research projects, including xenodiagnosis, that are directed toward control of leishmaniasis and other sand fly-associated diseases...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138100/amphotericin-b-for-treatment-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-prospective-comparative-clinical-studies-including-dose-ranging-studies
#10
REVIEW
Chaturaka Rodrigo, Praveen Weeratunga, Sumadhya Deepika Fernando, Senaka Rajapakse
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to evaluate the evidence for use of different formulations of amphotericin B, minimum effective dose for each formulation and its comparative efficacy against other drugs in achieving definitive cure of visceral leishmaniasis. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis included following data sources; PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science and CINAHL. Controlled prospective clinical trials (randomized or non-randomized, including dose ranging studies) conducted between 1996 and 2017, with at least one treatment group receiving amphotericin B were included (published data only)...
November 11, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137663/patent-landscape-of-neglected-tropical-diseases-an-analysis-of-worldwide-patent-families
#11
Folahanmi Tomiwa Akinsolu, Vitor Nobre de Paiva, Samuel Santos Souza, Orsolya Varga
BACKGROUND: "Neglected Tropical Diseases" (NTDs) affect millions of people in Africa, Asia and South America. The two primary ways of strategic interventions are "preventive chemotherapy and transmission control" (PCT), and "innovative and intensified disease management" (IDM). In the last 5 years, phenomenal progress has been achieved. However, it is crucial to intensify research effort into NTDs, because of the emerging drug resistance. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the term NTDs covers 17 diseases, namely buruli ulcer, Chagas disease, dengue, dracunculiasis, echinococcosis, trematodiasis, human African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, leprosy, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, rabies, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthes, taeniasis, trachoma, and yaws...
November 14, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136773/the-potential-use-of-melatonin-to-treat-protozoan-parasitic-infections-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Ahmad Daryani, Mahbobeh Montazeri, Abdol Satar Pagheh, Mehdi Sharif, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Azam Hosseinzadeh, Russel J Reiter, Ramtin Hadighi, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Habib Ghaznavi, Saeed Mehrzadi
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a circadian hormone produced in vertebrates by the pineal gland and other organs. Melatonin is believed to influence immune cells leading to modulation of the proliferative response of stimulated lymphocytes as well as cytokine production. Due to the antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of melatonin, it is suggested that this molecule could be a therapeutic alternative agent to fight bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections by a variety of mechanisms. Herein, we review the effects of melatonin on the cell biology of protozoan parasites and host's immune response...
November 7, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135995/efficacy-of-a-new-rapid-diagnostic-test-kit-to-diagnose-sri-lankan-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-caused-by-leishmania-donovani
#13
Gayani De Silva, Vijani Somaratne, Sujai Senaratne, Manuja Vipuladasa, Rajitha Wickremasinghe, Renu Wickremasinghe, Shalindra Ranasinghe
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Sri Lanka is caused by Leishmania donovani. This study assessed the diagnostic value of a new rapid diagnostic immunochromatographic strip (CL-Detect™ IC-RDT), that captures the peroxidoxin antigen of Leishmania amastigotes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sampled 74 clinically suspected CL lesions, of which 59 (79.7%) were positive by PCR, 43 (58.1%) by Giemsa stained slit skin smear (SSS) and 21 (28.4%) by the new IC-RDT...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134797/the-importance-of-collaboration-between-industry-academics-and-nonprofits-in-tropical-disease-drug-discovery
#14
Lori Ferrins, Michael P Pollastri
Collaborations between academic, industrial, and nonprofit companies can provide sufficient impetus to propel projects that have little economic return; such projects are prevalent in tropical disease drug discovery. In these collaborations, each partner contributes a unique set of skills and technical expertise which is advantageous to the project as a whole. Highly product-focused processes and specialized expertise sets dominate industry groups. When coupled with the strategic guidance from public-private partnerships and the academic tendency to work on high-risk projects with low financial rewards, a powerful combination results...
November 14, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133542/dermal-leishmaniasis-in-a-25-year-old-syrian-refugee
#15
Scott Bradshaw, Ivan V Litvinov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133249/immunomodulation-of-dual-specificity-phosphatase-4-during-visceral-leishmaniasis
#16
Shabina Parveen, Atish Roy Chowdhury, Junaid Jibran Jawed, Suchandra Bhattacharyya Majumdar, Bhaskar Saha, Subrata Majumdar
DUSP4, an inducible protein has a substrate specificity toward ERK1/2, a component of MAP kinase which is enhanced during Leishmania infection. The DUSP4(-/-) mice show increased susceptibility towards the infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania mexicana. These observations emphatically established the fact that unlike DUSP1, DUSP4 has host protective role. In our study, it has been Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) significantly reduced the expression of DUSP4 during infection...
November 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132413/germacranolide-type-sesquiterpene-lactones-from-smallanthus-sonchifolius-with-promising-activity-against-leishmania-mexicana-and-trypanosoma-cruzi
#17
Jerónimo L Ulloa, Renata Spina, Agustina Casasco, Patricia B Petray, Virginia Martino, Miguel A Sosa, Fernanda M Frank, Liliana V Muschietti
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis and Chagas disease are life-threatening illnesses caused by the protozoan parasites Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi, respectively. They are known as "neglected diseases" due to the lack of effective drug treatments and the scarcity of research work devoted to them. Therefore, the development of novel and effective drugs is an important and urgent need. Natural products are an important source of bioactive molecules for the development of new drugs. In this study, we evaluated the activity of enhydrin, uvedalin and polymatin B, three sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) isolated from Smallanthus sonchifolius, on Leishmania mexicana (MNYC/BZ/62/M) and Trypanosoma cruzi (Dm28c)...
November 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129568/cutaneous-leishmaniasis-distinct-functions-of-dendritic-cells-and-macrophages-in-the-interaction-of-the-host-immune-system-with-leishmania-major
#18
REVIEW
Esther von Stebut, Stefan Tenzer
Leishmaniasis is transmitted by sand flies leading to parasite inoculation into skin. In the mammalian host, the parasite primarily resides in skin macrophages (MΦ) and dendritic cells (DC). MΦ are silently invaded by the parasite eliciting a stress response, whereas DC become activated, release IL-12, and prime antigen-specific T cells. Here we review the basics of the immune response against this human pathogen and elucidate the role and function DC and MΦ for establishment of protective immunity against leishmaniasis...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128607/effects-of-a-new-antiprotozoal-drug-n-n-diphenyl-4-methoxy-benzamidine-on-energy-linked-functions-of-rat-liver-mitochondria
#19
Lyvia Lintzmaier Petiz, Amanda do Rocio Andrade Pires, Aurea Echevarria, Cláudio Eduardo Rodrigues-Santos, Maria Eliane Merlin Rocha, Alexandra Acco, Silvia Maria Suter Correia Cadena
Amidines are chemically characterized by the presence of two nitrogen atoms that bind to the same carbon atom in its structure. Several biological activities have been ascribed to these compounds. Pentamidine, an aromatic diamidine, is effective in the treatment against Pneumocystis carinii and leishmaniasis, but it can also have severe side effects. New amidine derivatives have been synthesized, among them N,N'-diphenyl-4-methoxy-benzamidine (methoxyamidine), which is effective against Leishmania amazonensis (LD50 = 20 μM) and Trypanosoma cruzi (LD50 = 59 nM)...
November 9, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128405/systems-cues-governing-il6-signaling-in-leishmaniasis
#20
Bhavnita Soni, Bhaskar Saha, Shailza Singh
IL-6 has been proposed to favor the development of Th2 responses and play an important role in the communication between cells of multicellular organisms. They are involved in the regulation of complex cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation and act as key player during inflammation and immune response. Th2 cytokines play an immunoregulatory role in early infection. Literature says in mice infected with L. major, IL-6 may promote the development of both Th1 and Th2 responses. IL-4 is also considered to be the signature cytokine of Th-2 response...
November 8, 2017: Cytokine
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