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Gustavo F Paz, Jeronimo M N Rugani, Andreza P Marcelino, Célia M F Gontijo
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between naturally occurring Leishmania spp. infections in dogs (Canis familiaris) and the practical implications of the use of serological and molecular methods to confirm diagnoses. The study population consisted of 96 domestic dogs in southeastern Brazil. Serum samples were tested for the presence of anti-Leishmania immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using four commercial canine visceral leishmaniasis kits. Dogs confirmed positive by immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) were culled and samples from mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen border, bone marrow and ear skin were taken and submitted to DNA extraction...
March 12, 2018: Acta Tropica
Meryem Mniouil, Hajiba Fellah, Fatima Amarir, Abderrahim Sadak, Abdeslam Et-Touys, Youssef Bakri, Aziza Moustachi, Fatima Zahraa Tassou, Mostapha Hida, Mohamed Lyagoubi, El Bachir Adlaoui, Mohamed Rhajaoui, Faiza Sebti
A rapid, sensitive and specific tool for detection of Leishmania infantum infection in Humans would be highly desirable, because it would allow control interventions in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis. This study was carried out at the Reference National Laboratory of Leishmaniasis (RNLL) in National Institute of Hygiene (NIH) Morocco, in order to evaluate the diagnostic potential of immunochromatographic dipstick test (ICT) rk39 in Moroccan suspected VL patients. A total of 49 admitted patients with strong clinical suspicion of VL and 40 healthy controls were investigated for the performance of the ICT rk39...
March 12, 2018: Acta Tropica
Issam Bennis, Vincent De Brouwere, Zakaria Belrhiti, Hamid Sahibi, Marleen Boelaert
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is a parasitic skin disease, linked to poverty, and belonging to the group of Neglected Tropical Diseases. Depending on the severity, the type of lesions or scars, and the context, CL can lead to self- and social stigma influencing the quality of life and psychological well-being of the patient. This dimension is, however, little documented for the most common, localized form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL). We aimed to describe the current knowledge on the psychological burden and the stigma related to LCL...
March 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
Marliane Batista Campos, Luciana Vieira do Rêgo Lima, Ana Carolina Stocco de Lima, Thiago Vasconcelos Dos Santos, Patrícia Karla Santos Ramos, Claudia Maria de Castro Gomes, Fernando Tobias Silveira
Leishmania (V.) braziliensis and Leishmania(L.) amazonensis are the most pathogenic agents of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Brazil, causing a wide spectrum of clinical and immunopathological manifestations, including: localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCLDTH+/++), borderline disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis (BDCLDTH±), anergic diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (ADCLDTH-), and mucosal leishmaniasis (MLDTH++++). It has recently been demonstrated, however, that while L. (V.) braziliensis shows a clear potential to advance the infection from central LCL (a moderate T-cell hypersensitivity form) towards ML (the highest T-cell hypersensitivity pole), L...
2018: PloS One
João Gabriel Guimarães Luz, Danilo Bueno Naves, Amanda Gabriela de Carvalho, Gilvani Alves Meira, João Victor Leite Dias, Cor Jesus Fernandes Fontes
The Brazilian municipality of Rondonópolis, Mato Grosso State, represents an important visceral leishmaniasis (VL) endemic area. This study described epidemiological and clinical aspects of the occurrence, VL/HIV coinfection and lethality related to VL in Rondonópolis. Data from autochthonous cases reported between 2011 and 2016 were obtained from official information systems. During this period, 81 autochthonous cases were reported, with decreasing incidence through 2016. Contrastingly, the lethality rate was 8...
March 8, 2018: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
John R David
The present gold standard of the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is pentavalent antimonials either sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) or meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime), These drugs are quite toxic. They are given by injection and usually administered intramuscularly or intravenously for three weeks or intralesionally for seven or more weeks. That is why the successful introduction of radiofrequency-induced heat therapy using a Thermomed™ 1.8 instrument administered in a single application, with minimal toxic effects, is so important for the treatment of CL...
March 14, 2018: Parasitology
Maryam Ramezany, Iraj Sharifi, Zahra Babaei, Pooya Ghasemi Nejad Almani, Amireh Heshmatkhah, Alireza Keyhani, Mohammad Reza Aflatoonian, Mohammad Ali Mohammadi, Fatemeh Sharifi, Mehdi Bamorovat
This study aimed to explore geographic distribution and molecular characterization of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) species by amplifying two popular markers in kinetoplast DNA and internal transcribed spacer 1 loci by nested-PCR, and characterized by sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Findings demonstrated that two species co-existed in the province: L. tropica (88.5%) and L. major (11.5%). All gender and age groups were equally infected, although males, 21-30 years old, exhibited a significantly higher infection...
March 14, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Nicole Zimara, Menberework Chanyalew, Abraham Aseffa, Ger van Zandbergen, Bernd Lepenies, Maximilian Schmid, Richard Weiss, Anne Rascle, Anja Kathrin Wege, Jonathan Jantsch, Valentin Schatz, Gordon D Brown, Uwe Ritter
Resistant mouse strains mount a protective T cell-mediated immune response upon infection with Leishmania (L.) parasites. Healing correlates with a T helper (Th) cell-type 1 response characterized by a pronounced IFN-γ production, while susceptibility is associated with an IL-4-dependent Th2-type response. It has been shown that dermal dendritic cells are crucial for inducing protective Th1-mediated immunity. Additionally, there is growing evidence that C-type lectin receptor (CLR)-mediated signaling is involved in directing adaptive immunity against pathogens...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Erica Cristina da Silva Chagas, Arineia Soares Silva, Nelson Ferreira Fé, Lucas Silva Ferreira, Vanderson de Souza Sampaio, Wagner Cosme Morhy Terrazas, Jorge Augusto Oliveira Guerra, Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira de Souza, Henrique Silveira, Maria das Graças Vale Barbosa Guerra
BACKGROUND: Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are vectors of Leishmania species, the etiological agents of leishmaniasis, which is one of the most important emerging infectious diseases in the Americas. In the state of Amazonas in Brazil, anthropogenic activities encourage the presence of these insects around rural homes. The present study aimed to describe the composition and distribution of sand fly species diversity among the ecotopes (intradomicile, peridomicile and forest) in an area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission and detect natural infection with Leishmania DNA to evaluate which vectors are inside houses and whether the presence of possible vectors represents a hazard of transmission...
March 13, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Edeltraud J Lenk, William K Redekop, Marianne Luyendijk, Christopher Fitzpatrick, Louis Niessen, Wilma A Stolk, Fabrizio Tediosi, Adriana J Rijnsburger, Roel Bakker, Jan A C Hontelez, Jan H Richardus, Julie Jacobson, Epke A Le Rutte, Sake J de Vlas, Johan L Severens
BACKGROUND: The control or elimination of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has targets defined by the WHO for 2020, reinforced by the 2012 London Declaration. We estimated the economic impact to individuals of meeting these targets for human African trypanosomiasis, leprosy, visceral leishmaniasis and Chagas disease, NTDs controlled or eliminated by innovative and intensified disease management (IDM). METHODS: A systematic literature review identified information on productivity loss and out-of-pocket payments (OPPs) related to these NTDs, which were combined with projections of the number of people suffering from each NTD, country and year for 2011-2020 and 2021-2030...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Tatjana Souza Lima Keesen, Larisse Virgolino da Silva, Juliana da Câmara Rocha, Luciana Nalone Andrade, Tamires Cardoso Lima, Damião Pergentino de Sousa
Leishmaniasis belongs to a complex of zoonotic disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania and is considered a major public health problem. Several essential oil chemical components have inhibitory effect against protozoa, including Leishmania donovani. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate for the first time the anti-Leishmania activity of two p-menthane monoterpene isomers (EPER-1: perillaldehyde 1,2-epoxide and EPER-2: perillaldehyde 8,9-epoxide) against L. donovani promastigotes as well as evaluating cytotoxic effect on mononuclear peripheral blood cells...
March 13, 2018: Natural Product Research
Mostafa Ramadhan Dokhan, Kaouther Jaouadi, Sadok Salem, Osama Zenbil, Jean Paul Gonzalez, Afif Ben Salah, Badreddin Bashir Annajar
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a public health concern caused by Leishmania ( L. ) major and ( L. ) tropica in Libya. Information on sandfly vectors, as well as their associated Leishmania species, is of paramount importance because vector dispersion is one of the major factors responsible for pathogen dissemination. A number of 515 sandflies (275 males and 240 females) were collected during June-November 2012 using the CDC miniature light traps from Al Rabta, northwest of Libya. Two hundred and forty unfed females were identified; Phlebotomus ( Ph...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Cielo M León, Marina Muñoz, Juan H Tabares, Carolina Hernandez, Carolina Florez, Martha S Ayala, Juan David Ramírez
Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is ideal for the detection of Leishmania DNA as it is a quick and easy-to-perform test that does not require complex or sophisticated equipment or infrastructure. However, the application of this technique in the detection of Leishmania DNA has not been comprehensively analyzed to date (analytical validation). Our objective was to evaluate the sensitivity and analytical specificity (anticipated reportable range [ARR], the limit of detection [LoD], and accuracy) of LAMP targeting the 18S rRNA gene in the diagnosis of six New World Leishmania species...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Suelen S da Silva, Sandra S Mizokami, Jacqueline R Fanti, Idessania N Costa, Juliano Bordignon, Ionice Felipe, Wander R Pavanelli, Waldiceu A Verri, Ivete Conchon Costa
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the analgesic effect of Glucantime (antimoniate N-methylglucamine) in Leishmania amazonensis infection and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), chronic paw inflammation model, in BALB/c mice. METHODS: Two models of chronic inflammatory pain in BALB/c mice paw were used: infection with L. amazonensis and CFA stimulation. Both animals models received daily treatment with Glucantime (10 mg/kg, i.p.) and during the treatment was measured the mechanical hyperalgesia with electronic version of von Frey filaments...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Fatemeh Tabatabaie, Nasim Samarghandi, Somayeh Zarrati, Fatemeh Maleki, Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani, Taher Elmi, Sayed Hussain Mosawi
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease induced by a protozoan from the genus Leishmania . No effective vaccine has yet been developed against the disease. AIM: In this work, two nano-vaccines, TSA recombinant plasmid and dendrimer and poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanoparticles (as adjuvants), were designed and tested for their immunogenicity in BALB/c mice. METHODS: After the plasmid construction and preparation of adjuvants, three intramuscular injections of the nano-vaccines (100 µg) and the recombinant TSA protein (20 µg) were subcutaneously performed...
February 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Letícia Sayuri Murase, João Vítor Perez de Souza, Quirino Alves de Lima Neto, Tatiane França Perles de Mello, Bruna Muller Cardoso, Daniele Stéfanie Sara Lopes Lera-Nonose, Jorge Juarez Vieira Teixeira, Maria Valdrinez Campana Lonardoni, Izabel Galhardo Demarchi
This is a systematic review on the role of metalloproteases in the pathogenicity of the American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) caused by New World Leishmania species. The review followed the PRISMA method, searching for articles in PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS and ISI Web of Science, by employing the following terms: 'leishmaniasis', 'cutaneous leishmaniasis', 'mucocutaneous leishmaniasis', 'diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis', 'Leishmania' and 'metalloproteases'. GP63 of New World Leishmania species is a parasite metalloproteases involved in the degradation and cleavage of many biological molecules as kappa-B nuclear factor, fibronectin, tyrosine phosphatases...
March 13, 2018: Parasitology
Doroodgar Moein, Doroodgar Masoud, Mahboobi Saeed, Doroodgar Abbas
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) can be seen in 2 forms, zoonotic and anthroponotic, in Iran. In this study, epidemiological aspects of CL were studied during an 8-year period (2009-2016) in city of Kashan, central Iran. The demographic and epidemiological data, including age, sex, occupation, number and site of the lesions, treatment regimen, past history of CL, and season of all patients were gathered from the health centers. Descriptive statistics were used to describe features of the study data. Total 2,676 people with CL were identified...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Emeline Riboldi, Flavio Carvalho, Pedro Roosevelt Torres Romão, Regina Bones Barcellos, Graziele Lima Bello, Raquel Rocha Ramos, Rosemari Terezinha de Oliveira, João Pessoa Araújo Júnior, Maria Lucia Rossetti, Eliane Dallegrave
In Brazil, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is expanding and becoming urbanized, especially in non-endemic areas such as the State of Rio Grande do Sul. Considering that infected dogs are the main reservoir for zoonotic VL, this study evaluated the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, a new area of expansion of VL in Brazil. Serum and plasma from 405 asymptomatic dogs from the municipalities of Canoas (n=107), São Leopoldo (n=216), and Novo Hamburgo (n=82) were tested for CVL using immunochromatographic (DPP® ) and ELISA EIE® assays (2 assays officially adopted by the Brazilian government for the diagnosis of CVL) and real-time PCR to confirm the results...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Patrícia Flávia Quaresma, Cristiana Ferreira Alves de Brito, Jeronimo Marteleto Nunes Rugani, Janaína de Moura Freire, Rodrigo de Paula Baptista, Elizabeth Castro Moreno, Raquel Carvalho Gontijo, Felipe Dutra Rego, Joaquim Edemilson Diniz, Maria Norma Melo, Célia Maria Ferreira Gontijo
American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) samples obtained from the lesions of patients with typical (n = 25, 29%), atypical (n = 60, 69%) or both (n = 2%) clinical manifestations were analysed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, hsp70 restriction-fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), hsp70 sequencing and phylogenetics methods. The hsp70 PCR-RFLP analysis revealed two different profiles whose the most samples differed from those expected for Leishmania braziliensis and the other Leishmania species tested: of 39 samples evaluated, two (5%) had a restriction profile corresponding to L...
March 12, 2018: Parasitology
Fred Bernardes Filho, Rodolfo Mendes Queiroz, Breno Nery
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
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