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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921566/pegylation-of-cationic-liposomes-encapsulating-soluble-leishmania-antigens-sla-reduces-the-adjuvant-efficacy-of-liposomes-in-murine-model
#1
Hadi Naseri, Faezeh Eskandari, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari, Ali Khamesipour, Azam Abbasi, Ali Badiee
Although there have been several attempts to develop a vaccine against leishmaniasis; no vaccine in human has been developed yet. Liposomes consisting of 1, 2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) encapsulating soluble Leishmania antigens (SLA) enhance protective immunity of SLA against L. major infection in mice. However, they immobilized at the injection site because of their positive charge. To overcome the problem, shielding the surface charge with polyethylene glycol (PEGylation) was chosen in this study...
September 16, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919438/molecular-targets-and-pathways-for-the-treatment-of-visceral-leishmaniasis
#2
REVIEW
Vineet Jain, Keerti Jain
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) represents the most severe form of the tropical disease, leishmaniasis. Treatment of VL is complicated because of the few clinically approved antileishmanial drugs available; emerging resistance to first-line drugs; need for a temperature-controlled 'cold' supply chain; serious toxicity concerns over drugs such as Amphotericin B; high cost of medication; and unavailability of clinically approved antileishmanial vaccines. Attacking potential molecular targets, specific to the parasite, is a vital step in the treatment of this and other infectious diseases...
September 14, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917755/identification-of-trypanosomatids-by-detecting-single-nucleotide-fingerprints-using-dna-analysis-by-dynamic-chemistry-with-maldi-tof
#3
María Angélica Luque-González, Mavys Tabraue-Chávez, Bárbara López-Longarela, Rosario María Sánchez-Martín, Matilde Ortiz-González, Miguel Soriano-Rodríguez, José Antonio García-Salcedo, Salvatore Pernagallo, Juan José Díaz-Mochón
Protozoan parasites of the Trypanosomatidae family can cause devastating diseases in humans and animals, such as Human African Trypanosomiasis or Sleeping Sickness, Chagas disease and Leishmaniasis. Currently, there are molecular assays for detecting parasitic infections and their post-treatment monitoring based on nucleic acid amplification, but there are still certain limitations which limit the development of assays that can detect and discriminate between parasite infections with a single test. Here, we present the development of a novel molecular assay for the rapid identification of Trypanosomatids, integrating DNA analysis by dynamic chemistry in conjunction with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization - Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-ToF)...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916732/il-4-producing-b-cells-regulate-t-helper-cell-dichotomy-in-type-1-and-type-2-controlled-diseases
#4
Ramona Hurdayal, Hlumani H Ndlovu, Mélanie Revaz-Breton, Suraj P Parihar, Justin Komguep Nono, Melissa Govender, Frank Brombacher
Interleukin-4 (IL-4)-induced T helper (Th) 2 cells promote susceptibility to the protozoan parasite Leishmania major, while conferring immunity to the intestinal trematode Schistosoma mansoni Here, we report that abrogation of IL-4 receptor alpha (IL-4Rα) signaling on B cells in BALB/c mice (mb1(cre)IL-4Rα(-/lox)) transformed nonhealer BALB/c to a healer phenotype with an early type 1 and dramatically reduced type 2 immune response and an absence of ulceration and necrosis during cutaneous leishmaniasis. From adoptive reconstitution and mixed bone-marrow chimera studies in B cell-deficient (µMT) mice, we reveal a central role for B cell-derived IL-4 and IL-4Rα in the optimal induction of the susceptible type 2 phenotype to L...
September 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914333/-acute-skin-infections-and-their-imitators-in-children-a-photo-quiz
#5
REVIEW
M Theiler, A Schwieger-Briel, L Weibel
BACKGROUND: Skin infections account for 40% of emergency visits in pediatric dermatology. It is important to promptly recognize skin infections with potential complications and initiate treatment. However some characteristic skin findings may imitate skin infections and are often misdiagnosed. OBJECTIVES: To illustrate frequent pediatric skin infections and pitfalls in view of imitators and differential diagnoses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A photo quiz is presented with the discussion of a selection of acute pediatric skin infections in comparison to their infectious or noninfectious differential diagnoses...
September 15, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912944/photodynamic-therapy-with-bengal-rose-and-derivatives-against-leishmania-amazonensis
#6
Taisa Rocha Navasconi, Vanessa Nesi Dos Reis, Camila Fabiano Freitas, Paulo Cesar de Souza Pereira, Wilker Caetano, Noboru Hioka, Maria Valdrinez Campana Lonardoni, Sandra Mara Alessi Aristides, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi Silveira
Introduction: The treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is based primarily on the use of pentavalent antimonials, which may lead to many side effects limiting their use. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an alternative for the treatment of CL, and some xanthene dyes have the potential for use in PDT. Methods: The xanthenes rose bengal B (RB) and its derivatives rose bengal methyl ester (RBMET), and butyl ester (RBBUT) were analyzed for leishmanicidal activity against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis...
2017: Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910663/strategies-for-overcoming-tropical-disease-by-ruthenium-complexes-with-purine-analog-application-against-leishmania-spp-and-trypanosoma-cruzi
#7
Marzena Fandzloch, José Manuel Méndez Arriaga, Manuel Sánchez-Moreno, Andrzej Wojtczak, Julia Jezierska, Jerzy Sitkowski, Joanna Wiśniewska, Juan Manuel Salas, Iwona Łakomska
Tropical diseases currently constitute a major health problem and thus a challenge in the field of drug discovery. The current treatments show serious disadvantages due to cost, toxicity, long therapy duration and resistance, and the use of metal complexes as chemotherapeutic agents against these ailments appears to be a very attractive alternative. Herein, we describe three newly synthesized ruthenium complexes with a bioactive molecule, the purine analogue 5,6,7-trimethyl-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine (tmtp): cis,fac-[RuCl2(dmso)3(tmtp)] (1), mer-[RuCl3(dmso)(H2O)(tmtp)]·2H2O (2) and fac,cis-[RuCl3(H2O)(tmtp)2] (3)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903998/shape-form-function-and-leishmania-pathogenicity-from-textbook-descriptions-to-biological-understanding
#8
REVIEW
Jack Sunter, Keith Gull
The shape and form of protozoan parasites are inextricably linked to their pathogenicity. The evolutionary pressure associated with establishing and maintaining an infection and transmission to vector or host has shaped parasite morphology. However, there is not a 'one size fits all' morphological solution to these different pressures, and parasites exhibit a range of different morphologies, reflecting the diversity of their complex life cycles. In this review, we will focus on the shape and form of Leishmania spp...
September 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903890/human-parasitic-diseases-in-bulgaria-2013-2014
#9
Iskra Rainova, Rumen Harizanov, Iskren Kaftandjiev, Nina Tsvetkova, Ognyan Mikov, Eleonora Kaneva
BACKGROUND: In Bulgaria, more than 20 autochthonous human parasitic infections have been described and some of them are widespread. Over 50 imported protozoan and helminthic infections represent diagnostic and therapeutic challenge and pose epidemiological risk due to the possibility of local transmission. AIMS: To establish the distribution of autochthonous and imported parasitic diseases among the population of the country and to evaluate their significance for the public health system...
September 13, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902295/sandfly-fauna-diptera-psychodidae-in-an-urban-area-central-west-of-brazil
#10
Wagner de Souza Fernandes, Leandro Machado Borges, Aline Etelvina Casaril, Everton Falcão de Oliveira, Jucelei de Oliveira Moura Infran, Eliane Mattos Piranda, Elisa Teruya Oshiro, Suellem Petilim Gomes, Alessandra Gutierrez de Oliveira
Biological and ecological relations among vectors and their pathogens are important to understand the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases. Camapuã is an endemic area for visceral and tegumentary leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was to characterize the sandfly fauna present in Camapuã , MS, Brazil. Sand flies were collected every fortnight from May 2014 to April 2015 using automatic light traps in the domicile and peridomicile of twelve neighborhoods and forest. The collected specimens were identified based on morphology according to the valid identification keys...
August 24, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902293/characterization-of-leishmania-l-infantum-chagasi-in-visceral-leishmaniasis-associated-with-hiv-co-infection-in-northeastern-brazil
#11
Elaine Cristina Bomfim de Lima, Walter Lins Barbosa, Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito, Fábio Lopes de Melo, Sinval Pinto Brandão, Zulma Maria de Medeiros
Visceral leishmaniasis, associated with HIV/AIDS coinfection, is becoming a more aggressive disease, complicating an accurate prognosis. A 21-year-old HIV-positive female presenting with clinical features of visceral leishmaniasis was enrolled in this study. Bone marrow cytology, Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle culture and kDNA PCR of peripheral blood were all positive. Typing methods, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and ITS1-RFLP PCR of peripheral blood confirmed infection by Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi . PCR has proved to be safer and more affordable than other characterization methods; ITS1-RFLP PCR can diagnose and type Leishmania spp...
August 24, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902290/effect-of-secondary-infection-on-epithelialisation-and-total-healing-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-lesions
#12
Liliane de Fátima Antonio, Marcelo Rosandiski Lyra, Maurício Naoto Saheki, Armando de Oliveira Schubach, Luciana de Freitas Campos Miranda, Maria de Fátima Madeira, Maria Cristina da Silva Lourenço, Aline Fagundes, Érica Aparecida Dos Santos Ribeiro, Leonardo Barreto, Maria Inês Fernandes Pimentel
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) generally presents with a single or several localised cutaneous ulcers without involvement of mucous membranes. Ulcerated lesions are susceptible to secondary contamination that may slow the healing process. OBJECTIVE: This study verified the influence of non-parasitic wound infection on wound closure (epithelialisation) and total healing. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with a confirmed diagnosis of CL and ulcerated lesions underwent biopsy of ulcer borders...
September 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902258/phlebotomines-in-an-area-endemic-for-american-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-northeastern-coast-of-brazil
#13
Ana Patricia Oliveira da Silva, Débora Elienai de Oliveira Miranda, Marcos Antônio Bezerra Santos, Neurisvan Ramos Guerra, Silvia Rafaelli Marques, Leucio Câmara Alves, Rafael Antonio Nascimento Ramos, Gílcia Aparecida de Carvalho
Phlebotomines have worldwide distribution with many species present in Brazil, including the northeastern region, where the fauna is very diverse. The aim of this study was to identify the sandfly fauna in an area endemic for American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in the state of Pernambuco. Sandflies were caught on three consecutive nights every month from October 2015 to September 2016, from 5 pm to 5 am, using seven light traps of Centers for Disease Control (CDC) type. Females were identified and used for molecular Leishmania detection...
August 24, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901553/total-leishmania-antigens-with-poly-i-c-induce-th1-protective-response
#14
Maria Victoria Sanchez, Ricardo Javier Eliçabe, María Silvia Di Genaro, María José Germanó, Susana Gea, María Fernanda García Bustos, María Cristina Salomón, Eduardo Alberto Scodeller, Diego Esteban Cargnelutti
AIMS: Our proposal was to develop a vaccine based on total Leishmania antigens (TLA) adjuvanted with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [Poly(I:C)] able to induce a Th1 response which can provide protection against Leishmania infection. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice were vaccinated with two doses of TLA-Poly(I:C) administered by subcutaneous route at three week interval. Humoral and cellular immune responses induced by the immunization were measured. The protective efficacy of the vaccine was evaluated by challenging mice with infective promastigotes of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis into the footpad...
September 13, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900667/ammonium-trichloro-1-2-ethanediolato-o-o-tellurate-cures-experimental-visceral-leishmaniasis-by-redox-modulation-of-leishmania-donovani-trypanothione-reductase-and-inhibiting-host-integrin-linked-pi3k-akt-pathway
#15
Preeti Vishwakarma, Naveen Parmar, Pragya Chandrakar, Tanuj Sharma, Manoj Kathuria, Pramod K Agnihotri, Mohammad Imran Siddiqi, Kalyan Mitra, Susanta Kar
In an endeavor to search for affordable and safer therapeutics against debilitating visceral leishmaniasis, we examined antileishmanial potential of ammonium trichloro [1,2-ethanediolato-O,O']-tellurate (AS101); a tellurium based non toxic immunomodulator. AS101 showed significant in vitro efficacy against both Leishmania donovani promastigotes and amastigotes at sub-micromolar concentrations. AS101 could also completely eliminate organ parasite load from L. donovani infected Balb/c mice along with significant efficacy against infected hamsters (˃93% inhibition)...
September 12, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900023/gene-expression-in-leishmania-is-regulated-predominantly-by-gene-dosage
#16
Stefano A Iantorno, Caroline Durrant, Asis Khan, Mandy J Sanders, Stephen M Beverley, Wesley C Warren, Matthew Berriman, David L Sacks, James A Cotton, Michael E Grigg
Leishmania tropica, a unicellular eukaryotic parasite present in North and East Africa, the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent, has been linked to large outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis in displaced populations in Iraq, Jordan, and Syria. Here, we report the genome sequence of this pathogen and 7,863 identified protein-coding genes, and we show that the majority of clinical isolates possess high levels of allelic diversity, genetic admixture, heterozygosity, and extensive aneuploidy. By utilizing paired genome-wide high-throughput DNA sequencing (DNA-seq) with RNA-seq, we found that gene dosage, at the level of individual genes or chromosomal "somy" (a general term covering disomy, trisomy, tetrasomy, etc...
September 12, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898610/-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-hiv-infected-patients-the-challenge-of-relapse-and-treatment-failure
#17
Patrícia Cipriano, Ana Cláudia Miranda, Isabel Antunes, Kamal Mansinho
INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis is an endemic disseminated infection, considered to be the third most frequent opportunistic parasitic infection in Europe. It is especially prevalent in patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus, in whom it poses a great therapeutic challenge due to increased risk of relapse. The goal of this study is to characterize a population of co-infected patients, as well as the efficiency of the adopted treatment strategies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study with a sample composed of all patients with visceral leishmaniasis and human immunodeficiency virus admitted in an Infectious Diseases ward over a period of 10 years...
June 30, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894565/hematological-characteristics-of-yemeni-adults-and-children-with-visceral-leishmaniasis-could-eosinopenia-be-a-suspicion-index
#18
Jameel Al-Ghazaly, Waled Al-Dubai, Munasser Abdullah, Leila Al-Gharasi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Delay in the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) particularly in non-endemic areas is associated with higher mortality. In our experience, we found that marked bone marrow eosinopenia was a very frequent accompaniment of VL and might be a useful clue for the diagnosis, which indicates the opportunity for further morphological assessment. The aim of this study was to describe the hematological characteristics including peripheral blood and bone marrow findings of Yemeni adults and children with VL...
2017: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892492/hif-1%C3%AE-is-a-key-regulator-in-potentiating-suppressor-activity-and-limiting-the-microbicidal-capacity-of-mdsc-like-cells-during-visceral-leishmaniasis
#19
Akil Hammami, Belma Melda Abidin, Tania Charpentier, Aymeric Fabié, Annie-Pier Duguay, Krista M Heinonen, Simona Stäger
Leishmania donovani is known to induce myelopoiesis and to dramatically increase extramedullary myelopoiesis. This results in splenomegaly, which is then accompanied by disruption of the splenic microarchitecture, a chronic inflammatory environment, and immunosuppression. Chronically inflamed tissues are typically hypoxic. The role of hypoxia on myeloid cell functions during visceral leishmaniasis has not yet been studied. Here we show that L. donovani promotes the output from the bone marrow of monocytes with a regulatory phenotype that function as safe targets for the parasite...
September 11, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892476/induction-of-allopurinol-resistance-in-leishmania-infantum-isolated-from-dogs
#20
Daniel Yasur-Landau, Charles L Jaffe, Adi Doron-Faigenboim, Lior David, Gad Baneth
Resistance to allopurinol in zoonotic canine leishmaniasis has been recently shown to be associated with disease relapse in naturally-infected dogs. However, information regarding the formation of resistance and its dynamics is lacking. This study describes the successful in-vitro induction of allopurinol resistance in Leishmania infantum cultured under increasing drug pressure. Allopurinol susceptibility and growth rate of induced parasites were monitored over 23 weeks and parasite clones were tested at selected time points and compared to their parental lines, both as promastigotes and as amastigotes...
September 11, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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