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Vineetha Mandlik, Sohan Patil, Ramanamurthy Bopanna, Sudipta Basu, Shailza Singh
Cutaneous leishmaniasis affects nearly 0.7 to 1.3 million people annually. Treatment of this disease is difficult due to lack of appropriate medication and the growing problem of drug resistance. Natural compounds such as coumarins serve as complementary therapeutic agents in addition to the current treatment modalities. In this study, we have performed an in-silico screening of the coumarin derivatives and their anti-leishmanial properties has been explored both in-vitro and in-vivo. One of the compounds (compound 2) exhibited leishmanicidal activity and to further study its properties, nanoliposomal formulation of the compound was developed...
2016: PloS One
Maria A Pérez-Jacoiste Asín, Nerea Carrasco-Antón, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Rafael San Juan, Rodrigo Alonso-Moralejo, Esther González, Amado Andrés, Francisco López-Medrano, Jose M Aguado
BACKGROUND: The incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) after solid organ transplantation (SOT) is increasing. The optimal therapy for post-transplant VL remains unclear, as relapses after liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) are common. Miltefosine has been shown to be effective for treating VL in immunocompetent patients, although data in the specific population of SOT recipients are lacking. METHODS: In the setting of an outbreak of leishmaniasis occurring in Southwest Madrid, we reviewed our experience in 6 SOT recipients with persistent or relapsing VL who received a 28-day course of miltefosine (2...
October 21, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Reza Fotouhi-Ardakani, Shahriar Dabiri, Soheila Ajdari, Mohammad Hossein Alimohammadian, Elnaz AlaeeNovin, Neda Taleshi, Parviz Parvizi
The polymorphism and genetic diversity of Leishmania genus has status under discussion depending on many items such as nuclear and/or mitochondrial genes, molecular tools, Leishmania species, geographical origin, condition of micro-environment of Leishmania parasites and isolation of Leishmania from clinical samples, reservoir host and vectors. The genetic variation of Leishmania species (L. major, L. tropica, L. tarentolae, L. mexicana, L. infantum) were analyzed and compared using mitochondrial (COII and Cyt b) and nuclear (nagt, ITS-rDNA and HSP70) genes...
October 17, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Ishita Mukherjee, Abhijit Chakraborty, Saikat Chakrabarti
BACKGROUND: An active immune surveillance and a range of barriers to infection allow the host to effectively eliminate microbial pathogens. However, pathogens may use diverse strategies to subdue such host defences. For instance, one such mechanism is the use of leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins by pathogens (microbial) to cause infection. In this study, we aimed at identifying novel virulence factor(s) in Leishmania donovani, based on the possibility of lateral gene transfers of bacterial virulence factor(s) to L...
October 21, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Francielle Pelegrin Garcia, Jean Henrique da Silva Rodrigues, Zia Ud Din, Edson Rodrigues-Filho, Tânia Ueda-Nakamura, Rachel Auzély-Velty, Celso Vataru Nakamura
Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Current therapies mainly rely on antimonial drugs that are inadequate because of their high toxicity and increased drug resistance. An urgent need exists to discover new, more effective, more affordable, and more target-specific drugs. Pathways that are associated with apoptosis-like cell death have been identified in unicellular eukaryotes, including protozoan parasites. In the present study, we studied the mechanism of cell death that is induced by A3K2A3 against L...
October 19, 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
Eliz Thomas, Veenaa Venkatesh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2016: Tropical Doctor
Evan J Kipp, Jacqueline Mariscal, Rodrigo X Armijos, Margaret Weigel, Kenneth Waldrup
We detected Leishmania mexicana in skin biopsies taken from a stray canine (Canis familiaris) and Texas mouse (Peromyscus attwateri) at two ecologically disparate sites in west and central Texas using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A single PCR-positive dog was identified from a sample of 96 stray canines and was collected in a peri-urban area in El Paso County, Texas. The PCR-positive P. attwateri was trapped at a wildlife reserve in Mason County, Texas, from a convenience sample of 20 sylvatic mammals of different species...
October 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Fernando J Andrade-Narvaez, Elsy Nalleli Loría-Cervera, Erika I Sosa-Bibiano, Nicole R Van Wynsberghe
American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a major public health problem caused by vector-borne protozoan intracellular parasites from the genus Leishmania, subgenera Viannia and Leishmania. Asymptomatic infection is the most common outcome after Leishmania inoculation. There is incomplete knowledge of the biological processes explaining the absence of signs or symptoms in most cases while other cases present a variety of clinical findings. Most studies of asymptomatic infection have been conducted in areas of endemic visceral leishmaniasis...
October 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Jedsada Sukantamala, Kong-Wah Sing, Narong Jaturas, Raxsina Polseela, John-James Wilson
Certain species of Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are vectors of the protozoa which causes leishmaniasis. Sandflies are found breeding in enclosed places like caves. Thailand is a popular tourist destination, including for ecotourism activities like caving, which increases the risk of contact between tourists and sandflies. Surveillance of sandflies is important for monitoring this risk but identification of species based on morphology is challenged by phenotypic plasticity and cryptic diversity...
October 19, 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
K S Rock, R J Quinnell, G F Medley, O Courtenay
The leishmaniases comprise a complex of diseases characterized by clinical outcomes that range from self-limiting to chronic, and disfiguring and stigmatizing to life threatening. Diagnostic methods, treatments, and vector and reservoir control options exist, but deciding the most effective interventions requires a quantitative understanding of the population level infection and disease dynamics. The effectiveness of any set of interventions has to be determined within the context of operational conditions, including economic and political commitment...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
Prasan K Panda, Siddharth Jain, Rita Sood, Rajni Yadav, Naval K Vikram
Histoplasmosis is caused by a dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum in endemic areas, mainly America, Africa, and Asia. In India, it is being reported from most states; however, it is endemic along the Ganges belt. We report a case of an apparently immunocompetent male who presented with 3-month history of fever, cough, and weight loss with recent onset odynophagia and had hepatosplenomegaly and mucocutaneous lesions over the face. The differential diagnosis of leishmaniasis, tuberculosis, leprosy, fungal infection, lymphoproliferative malignancy, and other granulomatous disorders was considered, but he succumbed to his illness...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Miguel Ángel Flores-Terry, Manuela López-Nieto, Rafael Cruz-Conde de Boom, Jose Antonio Garrido-Martín
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: Medicina Clínica
Ruixue Miao, Zhiling Wang, Qin Guo, Yang Wen, Qiong Liao, Yu Zhu, Min Shu, Chaomin Wan
BACKGROUND: Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a life-threatening parasitic infection transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. We undertook this study to analyze the clinical features of pediatric VL in a population of Chinese children. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed with pediatric patients (≤14years) diagnosed with VL based on bone-marrow biopsy, serology and diagnosis based on clinical manifestation and the improvement after the experimental drug when negative bone marrow and serology results were shown...
September 30, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Benjamin H Kaffenberger, David Shetlar, Scott Norton, Misha Rosenbach
Global temperatures continue to rise, reaching new records almost every year this decade. Although the causes are debated, climate change is a reality. Consequences of climate change include melting of the arctic ice cap, rising of sea levels, changes in precipitation patterns, and increased severe weather events. This article updates dermatologists about the effects of climate change on the epidemiology and geographic ranges of selected skin diseases in North America. Although globalization, travel, and trade are also important to changing disease and vector patterns, climate change creates favorable habitats and expanded access to immunologically naïve hosts...
October 11, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
C Cossart, G Le Moal, M Garcia, E Frouin, E Hainaut-Wierzbicka, F Roblot
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis is not normally expressed in skin. Herein, we describe the case of an HIV-positive patient who developed two unusual skin manifestations during an episode of visceral leishmaniasis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 48-year-old female patient consulted initially for infiltrated purpura of all four limbs. Skin biopsy revealed leukocytoclastic vasculitis with Leishman-Donovan bodies. Laboratory tests showed medullary, splenic, gastric and colic involvement, suggesting systemic disease, and enabling visceral leishmaniasis to be diagnosed...
October 11, 2016: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Sarfaraz Ahmad Ejazi, Pradyot Bhattacharya, Md Asjad Karim Bakhteyar, Aquil Ahmad Mumtaz, Krishna Pandey, Vidya Nand Ravi Das, Pradeep Das, Mehebubar Rahaman, Rama Prosad Goswami, Nahid Ali
BACKGROUND: Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL), a severe parasitic disease, could be fatal if diagnosis and treatment is delayed. Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), a skin related outcome, is a potential reservoir for the spread of VL. Diagnostic tests available for VL such as tissue aspiration are invasive and painful although they are capable of evaluating the treatment response. Serological tests although less invasive than tissue aspiration are incompetent to assess cure. Parasitological examination of slit-skin smear along with the clinical symptoms is routinely used for diagnosis of PKDL...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
L F S Batista, Y T Utsunomiya, T B F da Silva, R A Dias, T Y Tomokane, A D Pacheco, V L R da Matta, F T Silveira, M Marcondes, C M Nunes, M D Laurenti
A genome-wide association study (GWAS) could unravel the complexity of the cell-mediated immunity (CMI) to canine leishmaniasis (CanL). Thereby we committed to scan 110,165 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) aiming to identify chromosomal regions associated to leishmanin skin test (LST), lymphocyte proliferation assay (LPA) and cytokines responses to further understanding the role played by the CMI in the outcome of the natural Leishmania infantum infection in 189 dogs. Based on LST and LPA, four CMI profiles were identified (LST-/LPA-, LST+/LPA-, LST-/LPA+ and LST+/LPA+), which were not associated to subclinical infected or diseased dogs...
October 10, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Jose A Garcia-Salcedo, Juan D Unciti-Broceta, Javier Valverde-Pozo, Miguel Soriano
Leishmania and Trypanosoma are members of the Trypanosomatidae family that cause severe human infections such as leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, and sleeping sickness affecting millions of people worldwide. Despite efforts to eradicate them, migrations are expanding these infections to developing countries. There are no vaccines available and current treatments depend only on chemotherapy. Drug resistance is a major obstacle for the treatment of these diseases given that existing drugs are old and limited, with some having severe side effects...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Verónica Seguel, Lorena Castro, Chantal Reigada, Leonel Cortes, María V Díaz, Mariana R Miranda, Claudio A Pereira, Michel Lapier, Carolina Campos-Estrada, Antonio Morello, Ulrike Kemmerling, Juan D Maya, Rodrigo López-Muñoz
Benznidazole is the first-line drug used in treating Chagas disease, which is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). However, benznidazole has limited efficacy and several adverse reactions. Pentamidine is an antiprotozoal drug used in the treatment of leishmaniasis and African trypanosomiasis. In T. cruzi, pentamidine blocks the transport of putrescine, a precursor of trypanothione, which constitutes an essential molecule in the resistance of T. cruzi to benznidazole. In the present study, we describe the effect of the combination of benznidazole and pentamidine on isolated parasites, mammalian cells and in mice infected with T...
October 8, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Fernanda A Marques, Rodrigo P Soares, Gregório G Almeida, Carolina C Souza, Maria N Melo, Sebastião A Pinto, Valeria B Quixabeira, Ledice I Pereira, Miriam L Dorta, Fatima Ribeiro-Dias, Fernando T Silveira, Sydnei M Silva, Celia M Gontijo, Wagner L Tafuri
American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is a neglected disease widely distributed in Latin America. In Brazil, it is caused by different Leishmania species belonging to the Subgenera Viannia and Leishmania. ATL diagnosis is routinely based on clinical, epidemiological, parasitological and immunological (delayed-type hypersensitivity skin test-DTH) evidences. The main objective of this work was to determine the efficacy of a previous immunohistochemical (IHC) method developed by our group. Seventy eight skin biopsies from patients with different ATL clinical forms and origins were evaluated...
October 8, 2016: Parasitology International
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