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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097467/strenuous-exercise-and-cardiovascular-disease-outcomes
#1
REVIEW
Jonathan H Kim, Aaron L Baggish
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes several issues at the forefront of recent controversies involving the appropriate exercise dose including epidemiologic data describing mortality trends in those who engage in high levels of physical activity and recent observational data suggesting adverse cardiovascular outcomes among long-term endurance athletes. RECENT FINDINGS: The benefits of habitual and moderate levels of exercise on cardiovascular disease outcomes in the general population have been well established...
January 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096838/a-rare-case-of-myocardial-bridge-involving-left-anterior-descending-obtuse-marginal-and-ramus-intermediate-coronary-arteries
#2
Tuncay Kiris, Diyar Koprulu, Muzaffer Elmali, Gonul Zeren, Guney Erdogan
Myocardial bridging, a congenital coronary anomaly, is a cluster of myocardial fibers crossing over the epicardial coronary arteries. It is most frequently seen in the left anterior descending artery (LAD), and rarely involves the circumflex (CX) and right coronary artery (RCA). We report a patient with an unusual coronary bridge crossing over the left anterior descending, obtuse marginal and ramus intermediate branches. The patient presented with exercise-induced angina pectoris that was relieved with medical therapy...
December 2016: Kardiochirurgia i Torakochirurgia Polska, Polish Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096689/influence-of-exercise-on-visceral-pain-an-explorative-study-in-healthy-volunteers
#3
Laura Jgm van Weerdenburg, Christina Brock, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes, Harry van Goor, Marjan de Vries, Oliver Hg Wilder-Smith
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Contradictory results have been found about the effect of different exercise modalities on pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the early effects of aerobic and isometric exercise on different types of experimental pain, including visceral pain, compared to an active control condition. METHODS: Fifteen healthy subjects (6 women, mean [standard deviation] age 25 [6.5] years) completed 3 interventions consisting of 20 minutes of aerobic cycling, 12 minutes of isometric knee extension and a deep breathing procedure as active control...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095747/effects-of-roller-massager-on-muscle-recovery-after-exercise-induced-muscle-damage
#4
Nuno Casanova, Joana F Reis, João R Vaz, Rita Machado, Bruno Mendes, Duane C Button, Pedro Pezarat-Correia, Sandro R Freitas
Two experiments (n = 10) were conducted to determine the effects of roller massager (RM) on ankle plantar flexor muscle recovery after exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). Experiment 1 examined both functional [i.e., ankle plantar flexion maximal isometric contraction and submaximal (30%) sustained force; ankle dorsiflexion maximal range of motion and resistance to stretch; and medial gastrocnemius pain pressure threshold] and morphological [cross-sectional area, thickness, fascicle length, and fascicle angle] variables, before and immediately, 1, 24, 48, and 72 h after an EIMD stimulus...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093494/exercise-dynamics-in-secondary-mitral-regurgitation-pathophysiology-and-therapeutic-implications
#5
Philippe B Bertrand, Ehud Schwammenthal, Robert A Levine, Pieter M Vandervoort
Secondary mitral valve regurgitation (MR) remains a challenging problem in the diagnostic workup and treatment of patients with heart failure. Although secondary MR is characteristically dynamic in nature and sensitive to changes in ventricular geometry and loading, current therapy is mainly focused on resting conditions. An exercise-induced increase in secondary MR, however, is associated with impaired exercise capacity and increased mortality. In an era where a multitude of percutaneous solutions are emerging for the treatment of patients with heart failure, it becomes important to address the dynamic component of secondary MR during exercise as well...
January 17, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090681/excess-of-exercise-increases-the-risk-of-atrial-fibrillation
#6
REVIEW
A Müssigbrodt, A Weber, J Mandrola, Y van Belle, S Richter, M Döring, A Arya, P Sommer, A Bollmann, G Hindricks
An interesting and still not well-understood example for old medical wisdom "Sola dosis facit venenum" is the increased prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in athletes. Numerous studies have shown a fourfold to eightfold increased risk of AF in athletes compared to the normal population. Analysis of the existing data suggests a dose-dependent effect of exercise. Moderate exercise seems to have a protective effect and decreases the risk of AF, whereas excessive exercise seems to increase the risk of AF. The described cases illustrate clinical manifestations within the spectrum of AF in elderly athletes, that is, exercise-induced AF, vagal AF, chronic AF, and atrial flutter...
January 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087817/t-cell-redeployment-and-intracellular-cytokine-expression-following-exercise-effects-of-exercise-intensity-and-cytomegalovirus-infection
#7
Emily C LaVoy, Maryam Hussain, Justin Reed, Hawley Kunz, Mira Pistillo, Austin B Bigley, Richard J Simpson
The magnitude of lymphocytosis following exercise is directly related to exercise intensity. Infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) also augments lymphocytosis after exercise. It is not known if the enhanced T-cell response to exercise due to CMV depends on exercise intensity. Furthermore, exercise-induced changes in T-cell expression of type I and type II cytokines are thought to be intensity dependent, but direct comparisons are lacking. The aim of this experiment was to determine if CMV affects the exercise-induced redistribution of T-cell subsets at varying intensities, and determine the effect of exercise intensity on CD8(+) T-cell cytokine expression...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080323/oral-adenosine-5-triphosphate-atp-administration-increases-postexercise-atp-levels-muscle-excitability-and-athletic-performance-following-a-repeated-sprint-bout
#8
Martin Purpura, John A Rathmacher, Matthew H Sharp, Ryan P Lowery, Kevin A Shields, Jeremy M Partl, Jacob M Wilson, Ralf Jäger
OBJECTIVE: Oral adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) administration has failed to increase plasma ATP levels; however, chronic supplementation with ATP has shown to increase power, strength, lean body mass, and blood flow in trained athletes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ATP supplementation on postexercise ATP levels and on muscle activation and excitability and power following a repeated sprint bout. METHODS: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized design, 42 healthy male individuals were given either 400 mg of ATP as disodium salt or placebo for 2 weeks prior to an exercise bout...
January 12, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078981/resilience-to-alzheimer-s-disease-the-role-of-physical-activity
#9
Pedrinolla Anna, Schena Federico, Venturelli Massimo
BACKGROUND: Although Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative pathology characterized by accumulation of β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles at cerebral level, recent studies highlighted that AD might be the result of many altered physiological processes occurring at whole-organism level. The ability to adapt to stressors by "bending" but not "breaking" can be considered as "resilience". Individuals incline to withstand such pathophysiological challenges, can be considered more resilient than those that do not...
January 11, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078614/resistance-exercise-reduces-seizure-occurrence-attenuates-memory-deficits-and-restores-bdnf-signaling-in-rats-with-chronic-epilepsy
#10
Alexandre Aparecido de Almeida, Sérgio Gomes da Silva, Glauber Menezes Lopim, Diego Vannucci Campos, Jansen Fernandes, Francisco Romero Cabral, Ricardo Mario Arida
Epilepsy is a disease characterized by recurrent, unprovoked seizures. Cognitive impairment is an important comorbidity of chronic epilepsy. Human and animal model studies of epilepsy have shown that aerobic exercise induces beneficial structural and functional changes and reduces the number of seizures. However, little is yet understood about the effects of resistance exercise on epilepsy. We evaluated the effects of a resistance exercise program on the number of seizures, long-term memory and expression/activation of signaling proteins in rats with epilepsy...
January 11, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073122/central-%C3%AE-opioidergic-system-activation-evoked-by-heavy-and-severe-intensity-cycling-exercise-in-humans-a-pilot-study-using-positron-emission-tomography-with-11c-carfentanil
#11
Mikio Hiura, Muneyuki Sakata, Kenji Ishii, Jun Toyohara, Keiichi Oda, Tadashi Nariai, Kiichi Ishiwata
The central opioid receptor system likely contributes to the mechanism underlying the changes in affect elicited by exercise. Our aim was to use positron emission tomography (PET) to test whether exercise intensity influences activation of the μ-opioid receptor system in the brain, and whether changes in opioid receptor activation correlate with exercise-induced changes in affect. 7 healthy young male subjects (23±2 years) performed 20-min constant-load cycling exercises at heavy (ExH) and severe-intensity (ExS), and PET was performed using [(11)C]carfentanil as a tracer before and after each exercise...
January 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072848/physiologic-determinants-of-exercise-capacity-in-pulmonary-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-a-multidimensional-analysis
#12
Camille Rolland-Debord, Stephanie Fry, Jonathan Giovannelli, Carole Langlois, Nicolas Bricout, Bernard Aguilaniu, Agnes Bellocq, Olivier Le Rouzic, Stephane Dominique, Alain Delobbe, Geraldine François, Abdellatif Tazi, Benoit Wallaert, Cecile Chenivesse
BACKGROUND: Reduced exercise capacity severely impacts quality of life in pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Ascertaining mechanisms that impair exercise capacity is necessary to identify targets for symptomatic treatments. METHODS: Dyspnea, pulmonary function tests and cardiopulmonary exercise test were analysed in 62 study participants. Data were compared between subjects with impaired and normal aerobic capacity (V'O2 peak less than 84% versus 84% predicted or more)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071674/predictors-of-exercise-induced-pulmonary-hypertension-in-patients-with-asymptomatic-degenerative-mitral-regurgitation-mechanistic-insights-from-2d-speckle-tracking-echocardiography
#13
Ryo Kamijima, Kengo Suzuki, Masaki Izumo, Shingo Kuwata, Kei Mizukoshi, Manabu Takai, Seisyou Kou, Akio Hayashi, Keisuke Kida, Tomoo Harada, Yoshihiro J Akashi
Presence of exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension (EIPH) in asymptomatic degenerative mitral regurgitation (DMR) determines prognosis. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanism and predictors of EIPH in asymptomatic DMR. Ninety-one consecutive asymptomatic patients with DMR who underwent exercise stress echocardiography were prospectively included. We obtained various conventional echocardiographic parameters at rest and during peak exercise, as well as left atrial (LA) function at rest using 2-dimensional speckle-tracking analysis...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068681/hypoxia-and-hyperoxia-affect-serum-angiogenic-regulators-in-t2dm-men-during-cycling
#14
C Brinkmann, A Metten, P Scriba, C V M Tagarakis, P Wahl, J Latsch, K Brixius, W Bloch
Exercise-induced transient increases in pro-angiogenic regulators can promote angiogenesis.This pilot study aims to analyze the potential of exercise to positively affect angiogenic regulators in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), who often exhibit abnormal angiogenesis, under different environmental conditions. 9 overweight/obese men with uncomplicated T2DM (8 took anti-diabetic drugs) performed submaximal cycling for 40 min in normoxia (≈21 vol%O2), hypoxia (≈14 vol%O2) and during alternating hypoxia/hyperoxia (≈14 vol%O2/≈30 vol%O2, 5-min intervals) (3×3 crossover design)...
January 9, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066938/effect-of-gender-and-exercise-on-haematological-and-biochemical-parameters-in-holsteiner-horses
#15
A Andriichuk, H Tkachenko
The objective of this study was to assess the influence of exercise of average intensity in the haematological and biochemical values, as well as acidic resistance of erythrocytes in mares and stallions of Holsteiner breed. A total of seventeen horses of Holstein breed (seven mares and 10 stallions aged 6 years) were used in this study. The blood samples were assessed for haematocrit (HCT) value, haemoglobin concentration (HGB), the amount of red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), platelets (PLT), leucogram, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), red cell distribution width (RDW) and platelet distribution width (PDW)...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064384/gut-microbiota-composition-associated-with-alterations-in-cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-psychosocial-outcomes-among-breast-cancer-survivors
#16
Jesseca A Paulsen, Travis S Ptacek, Stephen J Carter, Nianjun Liu, Ranjit Kumar, LaKeshia Hyndman, Elliot J Lefkowitz, Casey D Morrow, Laura Q Rogers
PURPOSE: In this proof-of-concept pilot study, our purpose was to determine correlations between gut microbiota composition and alterations in cardiorespiratory fitness and psychosocial outcomes among post-primary treatment breast cancer survivors (BCS). METHODS: Composition of the gut microbiota in BCS (n = 12) was assessed at baseline (M0) and at the end of 3 months (M3) using Illumina MiSeq DNA Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Gut microbiota composition was analyzed using the QIIME bioinformatics software and represented through diversity metrics and taxa analyses...
January 7, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064025/plantar-flexor-muscle-weakness-and-fatigue-in-spastic-cerebral-palsy-patients
#17
Daria Neyroud, Stéphane Armand, Geraldo De Coulon, Sarah R Dias Da Silva, Nicola A Maffiuletti, Bengt Kayser, Nicolas Place
BACKGROUND: Patients with cerebral palsy develop an important muscle weakness which might affect the aetiology and extent of exercise-induced neuromuscular fatigue. AIM: This study evaluated the aetiology and extent of plantar flexor neuromuscular fatigue in patients with cerebral palsy. METHODS: Ten patients with cerebral palsy and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals (∼20 years old, 6 females) performed four 30-s maximal isometric plantar flexions interspaced by a resting period of 2-3s to elicit a resting twitch...
January 5, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062686/the-gstp1-c-313a-g-polymorphism-in-russian-and-polish-athletes
#18
Aleksandra Zarebska, Zbigniew Jastrzębski, Ildus I Ahmetov, Piotr Zmijewski, Pawel Cieszczyk, Agata Leonska-Duniec, Marek Sawczuk, Katarzyna Leznicka, Grzegorz Trybek, Ekaterina A Semenova, Agnieszka Maciejewska-Skrendo
The GSTP1 gene encodes glutathione S-transferase P1 which is a member of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) that are a family of enzymes playing an important role in detoxification and in the antioxidant defense system. There were some the evidence indicating that GSTP1 c.313A>G polymorphism may be beneficial for exercise performance. Therefore, we have decided to verify the association between the frequency of GSTP1 c.313A>G variants, physical performance and athlete's status in two cohorts: in a group of Russian athletes (n=507) and in an independent population of Polish athletes (n=510) in a replication study...
January 6, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057817/contractile-efficiency-of-dystrophic-mdx-mouse-muscle-in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-assessment-of-adaptation-to-exercise-of-functional-end-points
#19
Roberta Francesca Capogrosso, Paola Mantuano, Anna Cozzoli, Francesca Sanarica, Ada Maria Massari, Elena Conte, Adriano Fonzino, Arcangela Giustino, Jean-Francois Rolland, Angelo Quaranta, Michela De Bellis, Giulia Maria Camerino, Robert W Grange, Annamaria De Luca
Progressive weakness is a typical feature of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients and is exacerbated in the benign mdx mouse model by in vivo treadmill exercise. We hypothesized a different threshold for functional adaptation of mdx muscles in response to the duration of the exercise protocol. In vivo weakness was confirmed by grip strength after 4, 8 and 12 weeks of exercise in mdx mice. Torque measurements revealed that exercise-related weakness in mdx mice correlated with the duration of the protocol, while wild-type (wt) mice were stronger...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056410/role-of-bdnf-val66met-polymorphism-in-modulating-exercised-induced-emotional-memories
#20
Dharani Keyan, Richard A Bryant
Brief physical exercise enhances memories for neutral events, and modulates fear learning in animals. Exercise-induced arousal induces the release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which may moderate memory-enhancing effects. This study investigated the effect of exercise, and the extent to which the BDNF val66met polymorphism (which limits BDNF activity-dependent secretion) influenced emotional memories. Sixty-two healthy participants were randomly assigned to either 10min of intense exercise (n=31) or slow walking (control condition; n=31), and then immediately viewed positive and negative images...
December 21, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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