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Maria-Stephanie A Tolg, David M Dosa, Robin L P Jump, Angelike P Liappis, Kerry L LaPlante
Antibiograms are important clinical tools to report and track antibiotic susceptibility and help guide empiric antimicrobial therapy. Antibiograms support compliance with antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) requirements from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and are in line with recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Core Elements of AMS for nursing homes/long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Unlike most acute-care settings, LTCFs are challenged in creating antibiograms because of the low number of bacterial isolates collected annually...
June 19, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Yang Bai, Lidia Casas, Hans Scheers, Bram G Janssen, Benoit Nemery, Tim S Nawrot
BACKGROUND: Mitochondria are sensitive to air pollutants due to their lack of repair capacity. Changes in mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) or content is a proxy of mitochondrial damage and has been associated with recent exposure to traffic-derived air pollutants, nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) and black carbon (BC). Inhaled BC can be phagocytosed by airway macrophages (AMs), and its amount in AM reflects personal exposure to traffic-related air pollution. OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated the relation between the internal marker AM BC and ambient NO2 concentration and examined the associations of mtDNAcn with NO2 and AM BC...
June 19, 2018: Environment International
Eusondia Arnett, Ashlee M Weaver, Kiersten C Woodyard, Maria J Montoya, Michael Li, Ky V Hoang, Andrew Hayhurst, Abul K Azad, Larry S Schlesinger
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ is a global transcriptional regulator associated with anti-inflammatory actions. It is highly expressed in alveolar macrophages (AMs), which are unable to clear the intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). Although M.tb infection induces PPARγ in human macrophages, which contributes to M.tb growth, the mechanisms underlying this are largely unknown. We undertook NanoString gene expression analysis to identify novel PPARγ effectors that condition macrophages to be more susceptible to M...
June 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Tiago Tomazi, Antonio Francisco de Souza Filho, Marcos Bryan Heinemann, Marcos Veiga Dos Santos
The objectives of this study were to: (a) genotypically characterize Streptococcus agalactiae isolates recovered from clinical mastitis (CM) cases in dairy cows and, (b) determine the association of antimicrobial susceptibility (AMS) and genotypes of Strep. agalactiae clustered according to the genetic similarity. A total of 89 Strep. agalactiae isolates recovered from bovine CM were genotyped using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. In addition, the AMS of the isolates was determined using a commercial broth microdilution test composed of 10 antimicrobials (penicillin, ampicillin, oxacillin, cephalothin, ceftiofur, penicillin/novobiocin, erythromycin, pirlimycin, tetracycline, and sulfadimethoxine)...
2018: PloS One
Christopher J Boos, Malcolm Bass, John P O'Hara, Emma Vincent, Adrian Mellor, Luke Sevier, Humayra Abdul-Razakq, Mark Cooke, Matt Barlow, David R Woods
INTRODUCTION: Whilst the link between physical factors and risk of high altitude (HA)-related illness and acute mountain sickness (AMS) have been extensively explored, the influence of psychological factors has been less well examined. In this study we aimed to investigate the relationship between 'anxiety and AMS risk during a progressive ascent to very HA. METHODS: Eighty health adults were assessed at baseline (848m) and over 9 consecutive altitudes during a progressive trek to 5140m...
2018: PloS One
Thies H Büscher, Mikhail Kryuchkov, Vladimir L Katanaev, Stanislav N Gorb
In its evolution, the diverse group of stick and leaf insects (Phasmatodea) has undergone a rapid radiation. These insects evolved specialized structures to adhere to different surfaces typical for their specific ecological environments. The cuticle of their tarsal attachment pads (euplantulae) is known to possess a high diversity of attachment microstructures (AMS) which are suggested to reflect ecological specializations of different groups within phasmids. However, the origin of these microstructures and their developmental background remain largely unknown...
June 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Jenny Lundeberg, John R Feiner, Andrew Schober, Jeffrey W Sall, Helge Eilers, Philip E Bickler
Lundeberg, Jenny, John R. Feiner, Andrew Schober, Jeffrey W. Sall, Helge Eilers, and Philip E. Bickler. Increased cytokines at high altitude: lack of effect of ibuprofen on acute mountain sickness, physiological variables or cytokine levels. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2018. INTRODUCTION: There is no consensus on the role of inflammation in high-altitude acclimatization. AIMS: To determine the effects of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (ibuprofen 400 mg every 8 hours) on blood cytokines, acclimatization, acute mountain sickness (AMS, Lake Louise Score), and noninvasive oxygenation in brain and muscle in healthy volunteers...
June 20, 2018: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Jia Liu, Linda Volkers, Wanchana Jangsangthong, Cindy I Bart, Marc C Engels, Guangqian Zhou, Martin J Schalij, Dirk L Ypey, Daniël A Pijnappels, Antoine A F de Vries
Aims: The generation of homogeneous cardiomyocyte populations from fresh tissue or stem cells is laborious and costly. A potential solution to this problem would be to establish lines of immortalized cardiomyocytes. However, as proliferation and (terminal) differentiation of cardiomyocytes are mutually exclusive processes, their permanent immortalization causes loss of electrical and mechanical functions. We therefore aimed at developing conditionally immortalized atrial myocyte (iAM) lines allowing toggling between proliferative and contractile phenotypes by a single-component change in culture medium composition...
June 18, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Matiram Pun, Sara E Hartmann, Michael Furian, Adrienna M Dyck, Lara Muralt, Mona Lichtblau, Patrick R Bader, Jean M Rawling, Silvia Ulrich, Konrad E Bloch, Marc J Poulin
Aim: High altitude (HA) hypoxia may affect cognitive performance and sleep quality. Further, vigilance is reduced following sleep deprivation. We investigated the effect on vigilance, actigraphic sleep indices, and their relationships with acute mountain sickness (AMS) during very HA exposure, acclimatization, and re-exposure. Methods: A total of 21 healthy altitude-naive individuals (25 ± 4 years; 13 females) completed 2 cycles of altitude exposure separated by 7 days at low altitude (LA, 520 m). Participants slept at 2900 m and spent the day at HA, (5050 m)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Emma Díaz-Ruiz-Navamuel, Andrés Ortega Piris, Carlos A Pérez-Labajos
Faced with the unavoidable reality of the emission of pollutant gases by vessels both while sailing and when performing in-port manoeuvres, the international community has devised an extensive set of rules to limit greenhouse gas emissions and the emission of other pollutants which are bad for our health. In order to make these reductions in the emissions, the areas addressed are the engine regime or speed control, the quality of the fuel used, the state of conservation of the vessel and its hull or the time taken to perform the manoeuvres of mooring and unmooring...
June 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Michael Furian, Mona Lichtblau, Sayaka S Aeschbacher, Bermet Estebesova, Berik Emilov, Ulan Sheraliev, Nuriddin H Marazhapov, Maamed Mademilov, Batyr Osmonov, Maya Bisang, Stefanie Ulrich, Tsogyal D Latshang, Silvia Ulrich, Talant M Sooronbaev, Konrad E Bloch
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may experience acute mountain sickness (AMS) and other altitude-related adverse health effects (ARAHE) when travelling to high altitude. We evaluated whether dexamethasone, a drug used for AMS prevention in healthy individuals, would prevent AMS/ARAHE in COPD. METHODS: In this placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-design trial COPD patients, GOLD grade 1-2, living below 800m, were randomized to receive dexamethasone (8mg/day) or placebo starting on the day before ascent and while staying in a high altitude clinic at 3100m for 2 days...
June 14, 2018: Chest
M Sannino, S Faugno, M Crimaldi, A Di Francia, L Ardito, F Serrapica, F Masucci
A study was carried out to evaluate the effects of an automatic milking system (AMS) on milk yield and composition of buffalo (Mediterranean-type Bubalus bubalis) cows. Performed from January 2015 to December 2015 in an organic buffalo dairy farm equipped with both a traditional tandem milking parlor and an AMS, the study involved 90 primiparous buffaloes randomly allotted to a tandem or AMS group from 5 to 10 d of lactation onward. Number of milkings per day and daily milk yield of each cow were recorded, and individual milk sampling was carried out twice a month...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
James A Salfer, Justin M Siewert, Marcia I Endres
The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to describe housing and management practices on farms using automatic milking systems (AMS) in 2 states of the upper Midwest and to evaluate the association of various housing and management factors with 3 measures of animal welfare: prevalence of lameness, severe hock lesions, and dirty cows. Fifty-four farms were visited once to collect facility measurements and observations, interview the dairy producer, and score cows for locomotion, hock lesions, and hygiene...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Justin M Siewert, James A Salfer, Marcia I Endres
The objective of this study was to identify housing and management factors associated with productivity on automatic milking system (AMS) dairy farms measured as daily milk yield/AMS and daily milk yield/cow. Management, housing, and lameness prevalence data were collected from 33 AMS farms in Minnesota and Wisconsin during a farm visit. All farms in the study used free-flow cow traffic. Mixed model analysis of cross-sectional data showed that farms with automatic feed push-up via a robot produced more milk per AMS/day and per cow/day than farms where feed was pushed up manually...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
L G Spivak, D V Platonova, D V Enikeev, L M Rapoport, A Z Vinarov, Yu L Demidko
RELEVANCE: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition. Pharmacological management of ED involves medications produced by chemical synthesis. Despite high efficiency, their use is often accompanied by some side effects. Considering this, herbal preparations with sufficient efficacy and greater safety have received much attention. AIM: To compare the efficacy and safety of two herbal preparations (EFFEX Tribulus and Tribestan) based on Tribulus Terrestris herb dry extract in patients with ED...
May 2018: Urologii︠a︡
Lei Li, Hong Yang, Yan Li, Xiao-Dong Li, Ting-Ting Zeng, Su-Xia Lin, Ying-Hui Zhu, Xin-Yuan Guan
The tumor microenvironment, including stroma cells, signaling molecules, and the extracellular matrix, critically regulates the growth and survival of cancer cells. Dissecting the active molecules in tumor microenvironment may uncover the key factors that can impact cancer progression. Human NSCLC tumor tissue-conditioned medium (TCM) and adjacent nontumor tissue-conditioned medium (NCM) were used to treat two NSCLC cells LSC1 and LAC1, respectively. Cell growth and foci formation assays were applied to assess the effects of TCM and NCM on cancer cells...
2018: Cell Death Discovery
Theresa M Catania, Caroline A Branigan, Natalia Stawniak, Jennifer Hodson, David Harvey, Tony R Larson, Tomasz Czechowski, Ian A Graham
Artemisia annua is established as an efficient crop for the production of the anti-malarial compound artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone synthesized and stored in Glandular Secretory Trichomes (GSTs) located on the leaves and inflorescences. Amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (AMS) catalyzes the conversion of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) to amorpha-4,11-diene and diphosphate, which is the first committed step in the synthesis of artemisinin. FPP is the precursor for sesquiterpene and sterol biosynthesis in the plant...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Leif Wide, Karin Eriksson
BACKGROUND: The natural ovarian stimulation is mediated by four gonadotrophin glycoforms: FSHtri with three, FSHtetra with four, LHdi with two, and LHtri with three N-glycans. The aim of the study was to determine the serum concentrations of the four glycoforms and their contents of anionic monosaccharides (AMS), i.e. sialic acid (SA) and sulfonated N-acetylgalactosamine (SU) residues throughout the menstrual cycle. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from 78 healthy women with regular menstrual cycles...
June 12, 2018: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences
J Broom, A Broom, E Kirby
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic optimization is an urgent international issue. Regulatory frameworks, including the requirement to have a functioning antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programme, are now ubiquitous across the hospital sector nationally and internationally. However, healthcare is ultimately delivered in a diverse range of institutional settings and social contexts. There is emerging evidence that implementation of antibiotic optimization strategies may be inappropriate or even counterproductive to attempts to optimize in atypical healthcare settings...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Alexander J Rondon, Karan Goswami, Timothy L Tan, Noam Shohat, Javad Parvizi
BACKGROUND: Warfarin has been used as prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism (VTE) after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) for over 60 years. With trends of shorter hospital stays for TJA patients, it is important to examine how many patients achieve therapeutic international normalized ratio (INR) at time of discharge. We aimed at elucidating the proportion of patients discharged at therapeutic INR and whether this is affected by inpatient specialty anticoagulation management service (AMS) involvement...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
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