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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465329/the-time-course-of-ongoing-activity-during-neuritis-and-following-axonal-transport-disruption
#1
Ieva Satkeviciute, George Goodwin, Geoffrey M Bove, Andrew Dilley
Local nerve inflammation (neuritis) leads to ongoing activity and axonal mechanical sensitivity (AMS) along intact nociceptor axons, and disrupts axonal transport. This phenomenon forms the most feasible cause of radiating pain, such as sciatica. We have previously shown that axonal transport disruption without inflammation or degeneration also leads to AMS, but does not cause ongoing activity at the time point when AMS occurs, despite causing cutaneous hypersensitivity. However, there have been no systematic studies of ongoing activity during neuritis or non-inflammatory axonal transport disruption...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463970/the-effect-of-transdermal-testosterone-administration-on-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-and-erectile-dysfunction-a-prospective-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#2
Cem Yucel, Mehmet Zeynel Keskin, Cetin Levent Peskircioglu
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of transdermal testosterone administration on lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and erectile dysfunction (ED). Materials and Method: Sixty-two male patients with Ageing Male Symptom Questionnaire (AMS-Q) scores over 27 and a total serum testosterone level below 350 ng/dl (12.1 nmol/l) who presented to our urology clinic with complaints of LUTS and ED, were enrolled in this study. Uroflowmetry and the International Prostate Symptom Scale were used to evaluate the severity of LUTS...
November 2017: Current Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462430/education-and-management-of-antimicrobials-amongst-nurses-in-africa-a-situation-analysis-an-infection-control-africa-network-ican-bsac-online-survey
#3
Andre N H Bulabula, Abi Jenkins, Shaheen Mehtar, Dilip Nathwani
Objectives: To assess the current involvement of nurses in the use and management of antimicrobials and their training in antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) across Africa. Methods: After a pilot study, an online questionnaire (SurveyMonkey) in both French and English was circulated via the Infection Control Africa Network (ICAN) mailing list to both members and non-members in Africa. The study was conducted from 26 May to 19 August 2016. Data were summarized in proportions and bar charts; proportions were compared using the χ2 test...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461799/laser-ablation-aerosol-mass-spectrometry-chemical-ionization-mass-spectrometry-for-ambient-surface-imaging
#4
Jennifer L Berry, Douglas A Day, Tim Elseberg, Brett B Palm, Weiwei Hu, Aroob Abdelhamid, Jason C Schroder, Uwe Karst, Jose L Jimenez, Eleanor C Browne
Mass spectrometry imaging is becoming an increasingly common analytical technique due to its ability to provide spa-tially resolved chemical information. Here, we report a novel imaging approach combining laser ablation with two mass spectrometric techniques, aerosol mass spectrometry and chemical ionization mass spectrometry, separately and in parallel. Both mass spectrometric methods provide the fast response, rapid data acquisition, low detection limits, and high-resolution peak separation desirable for imaging complex samples...
February 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458332/identification-of-genetic-variants-for-clinical-management-of-familial-colorectal-tumors
#5
Mev Dominguez-Valentin, Sigve Nakken, Hélène Tubeuf, Daniel Vodak, Per Olaf Ekstrøm, Anke M Nissen, Monika Morak, Elke Holinski-Feder, Alexandra Martins, Pål Møller, Eivind Hovig
BACKGROUND: The genetic mechanisms for families who meet the clinical criteria for Lynch syndrome (LS) but do not carry pathogenic variants in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes are still undetermined. We aimed to study the potential contribution of genes other than MMR genes to the biological and clinical characteristics of Norwegian families fulfilling Amsterdam (AMS) criteria or revised Bethesda guidelines. METHODS: The Hereditary Cancer Biobank of the Norwegian Radium Hospital was interrogated to identify individuals with a high risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) for whom no pathogenic variants in MMR genes had been found in routine diagnostic DNA sequencing...
February 20, 2018: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455859/heterozygous-mutations-in-oas1-cause-infantile-onset-pulmonary-alveolar-proteinosis-with-hypogammaglobulinemia
#6
Kazutoshi Cho, Masafumi Yamada, Kazunaga Agematsu, Hirokazu Kanegane, Noriko Miyake, Masahiro Ueki, Takuma Akimoto, Norimoto Kobayashi, Satoru Ikemoto, Mishie Tanino, Atsushi Fujita, Itaru Hayasaka, Satoshi Miyamoto, Mari Tanaka-Kubota, Koh Nakata, Masaaki Shiina, Kazuhiro Ogata, Hisanori Minakami, Naomichi Matsumoto, Tadashi Ariga
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is characterized by accumulation of a surfactant-like substance in alveolar spaces and hypoxemic respiratory failure. Genetic PAP (GPAP) is caused by mutations in genes encoding surfactant proteins or genes encoding a surfactant phospholipid transporter in alveolar type II epithelial cells. GPAP is also caused by mutations in genes whose products are implicated in surfactant catabolism in alveolar macrophages (AMs). We performed whole-exome sequence analysis in a family affected by infantile-onset PAP with hypogammaglobulinemia without causative mutations in genes associated with PAP: SFTPB, SFTPC, ABCA3, CSF2RA, CSF2RB, and GATA2...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454684/behavior-and-productivity-of-cows-milked-in-automated-systems-before-diagnosis-of-health-disorders-in-early-lactation
#7
M T M King, S J LeBlanc, E A Pajor, T C Wright, T J DeVries
Associations of electronically recorded data were examined before diagnosis of health disorders in early-lactation cows in herds with automated milking systems (AMS). Rumination time, activity, and milk yield data were collected for 8 mo for 605 early-lactation cows in 9 commercial AMS herds. Using multivariable generalized linear regression models controlling for parity and days in milk, data were examined relative to the day of diagnosis for health disorders occurring in absence of, or at least 14 d before, another disorder: mastitis (n = 13), new cases of lameness (n = 45), subclinical ketosis (SCK; n = 113), and purulent vaginal discharge (n = 49)...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454289/walking-speed-measurement-with-an-ambient-measurement-system-ams-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-and-walking-impairment
#8
Francois Bethoux, Jonathan S Varsanik, Timothy W Chevalier, Elkan F Halpern, Darlene Stough, Zebadiah M Kimmel
BACKGROUND: Walking speed is an important measure of gait impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS). The clinical assessment of walking speed requires dedicated time, space, and personnel, and may not accurately gauge real-world performance. The term "Ambient Measurement System" (AMS) refers to a new class of device that passively measures walking speed at home, without the need for dedicated space or specialized setup. This study compared an AMS, Echo5D, versus in-clinic standard measures of walking speed on a straight path...
February 8, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453687/impact-of-boosted-antiretroviral-therapy-on-the-pharmacokinetics-and-efficacy-of-clopidogrel-and-prasugrel-active-metabolites
#9
Niloufar Marsousi, Youssef Daali, Pierre Fontana, Jean-Luc Reny, Virginie Ancrenaz-Sirot, Alexandra Calmy, Serge Rudaz, Jules Alexandre Desmeules, Caroline Flora Samer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Prasugrel and clopidogrel are inhibitors of the ADP-P 2 Y 12 platelet receptor used in acute coronary syndrome patients. They require bioactivation via isoenzymes such as cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, CYP2C19 and CYP2B6. Ritonavir and cobicistat are potent CYP3A inhibitors, prescribed as pharmacokinetic (PK) enhancers in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. METHODS: In this study, the impact of boosted antiretroviral therapies (ARTs) on the PK of clopidogrel and prasugrel active metabolites (AMs), and on the efficacy of prasugrel and clopidogrel, were evaluated in a randomized crossover clinical trial...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452979/3-piece-inflatable-penile-prosthesis-placement-following-radical-cystoprostatectomy-and-urinary-diversion-technique-and-outcomes
#10
Jeffrey Loh-Doyle, Mukul B Patil, Hari Sawkar, Kevin Wayne, Stuart D Boyd
BACKGROUND: After radical cystoprostatectomy (RC), postoperative erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common consequence with multiple contributing etiologies. The inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) offers patients a definitive treatment option when ED is refractory to medical therapies. Because of the hostile postoperative anatomy of these patients, a careful surgical approach is necessary for successful outcomes and to avoid adjacent organ injury. To date, there is no series describing the outcomes of 3-piece IPP placement in patients with urinary diversions...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451392/evaluation-of-cams-for-14-c-microtracer-adme-studies-opportunities-to-change-the-current-drug-development-paradigm
#11
Frédéric Lozac'h, Simon Fahrni, Daniele De Maria, Caroline Welte, Joël Bourquin, Hans-Arno Synal, David Pearson, Markus Walles, Gian Camenisch
AIM: Although regulatory guidances require human metabolism information of drug candidates early in the development process, the human mass balance study (or hADME study), is performed relatively late. hADME studies typically involve the administration of a 14 C-radiolabelled drug where biological samples are measured by conventional scintillation counting analysis. Another approach is the administration of therapeutic doses containing a 14 C-microtracer followed by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) analysis, enabling hADME studies completion much earlier...
February 16, 2018: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437438/cosmic-ray-lithium-production-at-the-nova-eruptions-followed-by-a-type-ia-supernova
#12
Norita Kawanaka, Shohei Yanagita
Recent measurements of cosmic-ray (CR) light nuclei by AMS-02 have shown that there is an unexpected component of CR lithium whose spectral index is harder than that expected from the secondary production scenario. We propose the nearby type Ia supernova following a nova eruption as the origin of lithium nuclei in the CRs. By fitting the data of CR protons, helium, and lithium fluxes provided by AMS-02 with our theoretical model we show that this scenario is consistent with the observations. The observational tests that can check our hypothesis are briefly discussed...
January 26, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428576/ganglioside-gm1-protects-against-high-altitude-cerebral-edema-in-rats-by-suppressing-the-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-response-via-the-pi3k-akt-nrf2-pathway
#13
Gu Gong, Liang Yin, Libang Yuan, Daming Sui, Yangyang Sun, Haiyu Fu, Liang Chen, Xiaowu Wang
High altitude cerebral edema (HACE) is a severe type of acute mountain sickness (AMS) that occurs in response to a high altitude hypobaric hypoxic (HH) environment. GM1 monosialoganglioside can alleviate brain injury under adverse conditions including amyloid-β-peptide, ischemia and trauma. However, its role in HACE-induced brain damage remains poorly elucidated. In this study, GM1 supplementation dose-dependently attenuated increase in rat brain water content (BWC) induced by hypobaric chamber (7600 m) exposurefor 24 h...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423603/sex-differences-in-children-referred-for-assessment-an-exploratory-analysis-of-the-autism-mental-status-exam-amse
#14
Roald A Øien, Sara M Vambheim, Logan Hart, Anders Nordahl-Hansen, Craig Erickson, Logan Wink, Martin R Eisemann, Frederick Shic, Fred R Volkmar, David Grodberg
The autism mental status exam is an eight-item observational assessment that structures the way we observe and document signs and symptoms of ASD. Investigations of test performance indicate strong sensitivity and specificity using gold-standard assessment as reference standard. This study aims to explore potential sex differences in AMSE test performance and observations of 123 children referred for autism assessment. Results indicates more language deficits in females with ASD than in males with ASD and less sensory symptoms in females compared to males with ASD...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423350/primary-psychiatric-disorder-masking-the-diagnosis-of-neuropsychiatric-lupus-in-a-patient-with-altered-mental-status-a-case-report
#15
Osman Perez, Kairavee Dave, Aimee Almanzar, Tajul Prodhan, Livasky Concepion
Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) has a wide variety of neurologic and psychiatric features. NPSLE symptoms and the psychotic features of primary psychiatric disorders often overlap with each other. These psychotic features often mask and delay the diagnosis of NPSLE. We present the case of a 59-year-old female previously diagnosed with bipolar disorder and generalized anxiety disorder presenting with altered mental status (AMS), subsequently diagnosed with neuropsychiatric lupus. Initially, medication overdose was suspected as an empty bottle of trazodone was found beside her...
October 23, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416696/tnfr-tnf-%C3%AE-signaling-pathway-regulates-apoptosis-of-alveolar-macrophages-in-coal-workers-pneumoconiosis
#16
Qing-Zeng Qian, Xiang-Ke Cao, Hai-Yan Liu, Guo-Ying Zheng, Qing-Qiang Qian, Fu-Hai Shen
We explored the role of TNFR/TNF-α signalingin apoptosis among alveolar macrophages (AM) and its relevance to the development of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). Purified alveolar macrophages (AMs) were prepared from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid harvested from 366 CWP patients and 120 healthy subjects enrolled inthe study. The purified AMs were then divided into control, SOD, anti-TNFR, TNFR and NFkB inhibitor groups and analyzed for apoptosis usingflow cytometry (sub-diploid peak) and western blotting (Bcl-2, Caspase-3 and Caspase-8 expression)...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415950/acute-exposure-to-crotonaldehyde-induces-dysfunction-of-immune-system-in-male-wistar-rats
#17
Limeng Wang, Zhihua Yang, Long Xu, Xiujie Pan, Xingyu Liu, Junwei Zhao, Xiang Li, Maoxiang Zhu, Jianping Xie
Crotonaldehyde is a ubiquitous air pollutant in the environment. It is reported to be harmful to the biosystems in vivo and in vitro. The exposure to crotonaldehyde irritates the mucous membranes and induces edema, hyperemia, cell necrosis, inflammation, and acute respiratory distress syndrome in the lungs. However, the effects of crotonaldehyde on the immune system have not been reported. In the present study, 6-8 weeks old male Wistar rats were exposed to crotonaldehyde by intratracheal instillation at doses of 4, 8, and 16 μL/kg body weight (b...
2018: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413629/transcriptome-de-novo-assembly-and-analysis-of-differentially-expressed-genes-related-to-cytoplasmic-male-sterility-in-onion
#18
Qiaoling Yuan, Ce Song, Luyao Gao, Huihui Zhang, Cuicui Yang, Jie Sheng, Jian Ren, Dian Chen, Yong Wang
Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the major vegetables in China and accounts for a large proportion of China's vegetable exports. Onion cytoplasmic male sterility, which is often used in onion breeding, is caused by the interaction between the nuclear genes and the cytoplasm. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of onion cytoplasmic male sterility remains unclear. In this study, we analysed the anther microstructure of the onion cytoplasmic male sterile line SA2 and the onion maintainer line SB2. We found that the pollen abortion in SA2 occurred at the tetrad stage during the microspore development, which was very different from that in SB2...
January 31, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412549/salvage-surgical-procedure-for-artificial-sphincter-extrusion
#19
Flavio Trigo Rocha, Jean Felipe Prodocimo Lesting
Case Hypothesis: Surgical removal is the standard treatment for artificial sphincter extrusion. However in some specific situations is possible to maintain the prosthesis with good results. CASE REPORT: We report a 60 years old patient presenting sphincter pump extrusion one month after artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) AMS 800™ placement for treating post-radical prostatectomy urinary incontinence (PRPUI). He also had a penile prosthesis implant one year before that was replaced in the same surgery the sphincter was implanted...
February 8, 2018: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410029/sustained-multimodal-antimicrobial-stewardship-in-an-australian-tertiary-intensive-care-unit-from-2008-2015-an-interrupted-time-series-analysis
#20
Suman Adhikari, Michael Piza, Peter Taylor, Kush Deshpande, Doris Lam, Pam Konecny
The long term outcomes and sustainability of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) in the intensive care unit (ICU) require evaluation. This study analysed the effect of a multimodal ICU AMS introduced in a 15-bed medical-surgical tertiary Australian adult ICU in November, 2008, with interrupted time-series analysis of antibiotic usage, resistance and cost from November 2005-October 2015, including national ICU average usage as a control. Overall ICU mortality, 30-day blood stream infection (BSI) mortality and length of stay (LOS) were compared over the same period...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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