Read by QxMD icon Read


Johannes Charlier, Aklilu H Ghebretinsae, Bruno Levecke, Els Ducheyne, Edwin Claerebout, Jozef Vercruysse
Helminth parasites of grazing ruminants are highly prevalent globally and impact negatively on animal productivity and food security. There is a growing concern that climate change increases helminth disease frequency and intensity. In Europe, these concerns stem from case reports and theoretical life cycle models assessing the effects of climate change scenarios on helminth epidemiology. We believe this study is the first to investigate climate-driven trends in helminth infections of cattle on a cohort of randomly selected farms...
October 19, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Marcelo Arantes Levenhagen, Hélio Conte, Julia Maria Costa-Cruz
Strongyloides stercoralis is a helminth parasite that can infect millions of people worldwide, particularly in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions with poor sanitation. Several aspects of epidemiology, biology and host-parasite interactions of S. stercoralis have been studied, and substantial knowledge has been acquired; however, very few studies on immunotherapeutic control strategies to prevent infection and disease in humans have been conducted. Therefore, this article reviews the current progress and targets toward vaccine and passive immunization approaches for Strongyloides spp...
October 18, 2016: Immunology Letters
P I Zvinorova, T E Halimani, F C Muchadeyi, O Matika, V Riggio, K Dzama
A longitudinal study was conducted in low-input low-output farming systems to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infections in different age groups, sex and associated risk factors in goats. A total of 580 indigenous goats were randomly selected in areas representing the five agro-ecological regions of Zimbabwe in the dry and wet seasons. Blood and faecal samples were collected from each animal and egg/oocyst per gram of faeces (epg/opg), larval culture, and packed cell volumes (PCV) were determined...
October 2016: Small Ruminant Research: the Journal of the International Goat Association
Sutas Suttiprapa, Gabriel Rinaldi, Isheng J Tsai, Victoria H Mann, Larisa Dubrovsky, Hong-Bin Yan, Nancy Holroyd, Thomas Huckvale, Caroline Durrant, Anna V Protasio, Tatiana Pushkarsky, Sergey Iordanskiy, Matthew Berriman, Michael I Bukrinsky, Paul J Brindley
Schistosomiasis is the most important helminthic disease of humanity in terms of morbidity and mortality. Facile manipulation of schistosomes using lentiviruses would enable advances in functional genomics in these and related neglected tropical diseases pathogens including tapeworms, and including their non-dividing cells. Such approaches have hitherto been unavailable. Blood stream forms of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of the hepatointestinal schistosomiasis, were infected with the human HIV-1 isolate NL4-3 pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Hudson Alves Pinto, Vitor Luis Tenà Rio Mati, Diego Florencio Pujoni, Alan Lane de Melo
The trematodes belonging to the genus Platynosomum are biliary parasites of birds and mammals (domestic and wildlife) in tropical and subtropical areas of the globe. Despite several reports on platynosomosis in captive nonhuman primates, mainly in South America, the taxonomy of species of Platynosomum that infect these hosts remains confused, and it is not clear whether the species found in cats is the same that infects nonhuman primates. Because a detailed morphological study of Platynosomum from nonhuman primates is lacking, in this study we analyzed specimens of Platynosomum recovered from the biliary system of Callithrix penicillata kept in captivity in an animal facility...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
Tad Dallas, Andrew W Park, John M Drake
Host-parasite associations are complex interactions dependent on aspects of hosts (e.g. traits, phylogeny or coevolutionary history), parasites (e.g. traits and parasite interactions) and geography (e.g. latitude). Predicting the permissive host set or the subset of the host community that a parasite can infect is a central goal of parasite ecology. Here we develop models that accurately predict the permissive host set of 562 helminth parasites in five different parasite taxonomic groups. We developed predictive models using host traits, host taxonomy, geographic covariates, and parasite community composition, finding that models trained on parasite community variables were more accurate than any other covariate group, even though parasite community covariates only captured a quarter of the variance in parasite community composition...
October 20, 2016: Parasitology
Alexandre P Meli, Ghislaine Fontés, Danielle T Avery, Scott A Leddon, Mifong Tam, Michael Elliot, Andre Ballesteros-Tato, Jim Miller, Mary M Stevenson, Deborah J Fowell, Stuart G Tangye, Irah L King
T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are a CD4(+) T cell subset critical for long-lived humoral immunity. We hypothesized that integrins play a decisive role in Tfh cell biology. Here we show that Tfh cells expressed a highly active form of leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) that was required for their survival within the germinal center niche. In addition, LFA-1 promoted expression of Bcl-6, a transcriptional repressor critical for Tfh cell differentiation, and inhibition of LFA-1 abolished Tfh cell generation and prevented protective humoral immunity to intestinal helminth infection...
October 18, 2016: Immunity
Shyamalima Gogoi, Arun K Yadav
BACKGROUND: Leaves of Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Roxb. have been traditionally used as an herbal remedy to treat the intestinal helminthic infections in traditional medicine of India. AIM: This study was undertaken to evaluate the potential in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic effects of C. bonducella leaf extract against Syphacia obvelata (Nematoda) and Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The in vitro anthelmintic activity of the extract was investigated on adult worms of S...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Purobi Nath, Arun K Yadav
BACKGROUND: The rhizomes of a herb Acorus calamus Linn. (Acoraceae) have been widely used as a traditional medicine to cure intestinal-helminthic infections in India and South Africa. AIM: This study was undertaken to investigate the in vivo anthelmintic activity of a standardized methanolic extract obtained from the rhizomes A. calamus in a rodent model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A methanolic extract obtained from rhizomes of A. calamus was characterized for active principle using nuclear magnetic resonance (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, mass and infrared spectroscopy...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
G F Medley, H C Turner, R F Baggaley, C Holland, T D Hollingsworth
Diagnostics play a crucial role in determining treatment protocols and evaluating success of mass drug administration (MDA) programmes used to control soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). The current diagnostic, Kato-Katz, relies on inexpensive, reusable materials and can be used in the field, but only trained microscopists can read slides. This diagnostic always underestimates the true prevalence of infection, and the accuracy worsens as the true prevalence falls. We investigate how more sensitive diagnostics would impact on the management and life cycle of MDA programmes, including number of mass treatment rounds, health impact, number of unnecessary treatments and probability of elimination...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
J E Truscott, H C Turner, S H Farrell, R M Anderson
Infections caused by soil-transmitted helminthias (STHs) affect over a billion people worldwide, causing anaemia and having a large social and economic impact through poor educational outcomes. They are identified in the World Health Organization (WHO) 2020 goals for neglected tropical diseases as a target for renewed effort to ameliorate their global public health burden through mass drug administration (MDA) and water and hygiene improvement. In this chapter, we review the underlying biology and epidemiology of the three causative intestinal nematode species that are mostly considered under the STH umbrella term...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
Séverine Erismann, Serge Diagbouga, Peter Odermatt, Astrid M Knoblauch, Jana Gerold, Akina Shrestha, Tarnagda Grissoum, Aminata Kaboré, Christian Schindler, Jürg Utzinger, Guéladio Cissé
BACKGROUND: Unsafe drinking water, unimproved sanitation and lack of hygiene pose health risks, particularly to children in low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections in school-aged children in two regions of Burkina Faso. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in February 2015 with 385 children aged 8-14 years from eight randomly selected schools in the Plateau Central and Centre-Ouest regions of Burkina Faso...
October 18, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Francesca Tamarozzi, Joseph D Turner, Nicolas Pionnier, Angela Midgley, Ana F Guimaraes, Kelly L Johnston, Steven W Edwards, Mark J Taylor
The endosymbiotic bacteria, Wolbachia, induce neutrophilic responses to the human helminth pathogen Onchocerca volvulus. The formation of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs), has been implicated in anti-microbial defence, but has not been identified in human helminth infection. Here, we demonstrate NETs formation in human onchocerciasis. Extracellular NETs and neutrophils were visualised around O. volvulus in nodules excised from untreated patients but not in nodules from patients treated with the anti-Wolbachia drug, doxycycline...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Eliana Isac, Guaraciara de A Picanço, Tatiane L da Costa, Nayana F de Lima, Daniella de S M M Alves, Carolina M Fraga, Ruy de S Lino Junior, Marina C Vinaud
Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is a broad-spectrum anti-parasitic drug used against a wide variety of protozoans and helminthes. Albendazole, its active metabolite albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSO), is one of the drugs of choice to treat both intestinal and tissue helminth and protozoan infections. However little is known regarding their impact on the metabolism of parasites. The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro effect of NTZ and ABZSO in the glycolysis of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci. The cysticerci were treated with 1...
October 14, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Pedro H O Cavalcante, Maralina T Silva, Everton G N Santos, Vanessa A Chagas-Moutinho, Claudia P Santos
The fish fauna in the State of Acre represents 10·7% of all fish species recorded from Brazil, but, despite this, there are few fish parasite studies in this area. The recent expansion of fish farming in Acre prompted a need for helminthological studies of the most commonly consumed fish species in the area, Pimelodus blochii (Pimelodidae). The aim of this study was to analyse the helminth fauna of P. blochii from the Acre and Xapuri Rivers in Northwestern Brazil. Numerous nematodes were collected from the intestine and two species of the family Atractidae were identified: Rondonia rondoni Travassos, 1920 and Orientatractis moraveci n...
October 17, 2016: Parasitology
Nicholas R Dunham, Scott Reed, Dale Rollins, Ronald J Kendall
Debilitating ocular diseases are often reported in avian species. By and large, helminth parasites have been overlooked in avian diseases and regarded as inconsequential. The decline of Northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) in the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas has prompted an investigation of the factors influencing their disappearance. Infection by the eyeworm (Oxyspirura petrowi) has been documented in many avian species; however, the effect it has on its host is not well understood. Heavy eyeworm infection has been documented in Northern bobwhites throughout this ecoregion, leading to eye pathology in this host species...
December 2016: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Anders Dige, Tue Kruse Rasmussen, Peter Nejsum, Rikke Hagemann-Madsen, Andrew R Williams, Jørgen Agnholt, Jens F Dahlerup, Christian L Hvas
Helminthic therapy of immune-mediated diseases has gained attention in recent years, but we know little of how helminths modulate human immunity. In this study, we investigated how self-infection with Trichuris (T.) trichiura in an adult man without intestinal disease affected mucosal and systemic immunity. Colonic mucosal biopsies were obtained at baseline, during T. trichiura infection, and after its clearance following mebendazole treatment. Unexpectedly, the volunteer experienced a Campylobacter colitis following T...
October 15, 2016: Parasite Immunology
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3402/gha.v9.32197.].
2016: Global Health Action
Asifa Wali, Masood-Ul Hassan Balkhi, Rafia Maqbool, Mohammed Maqbool Darzi, Feroz Ahmad Shah, Farooz Ahmad Bhat, Bilal Ahmad Bhat
The present study was undertaken to determine the incidence of helminth parasites in fishes with special reference to water quality parameters in Dal Lake and River Jhelum and correlate the observations. Water, fish, and parasite samples were collected during different seasons from various sites and processed. Three fish species, namely, Schizothorax niger Heckel 1838, Schizothorax esocinus Heckel 1838, and Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel 1838, were recovered from these water bodies. The physicochemical parameters temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and free carbon dioxide showed variation vis-à-vis the season and location of the stations in water bodies...
2016: Journal of Parasitology Research
Kazunobu Asano, Zhiliang Wu, Piyarat Srinontong, Takahide Ikeda, Isao Nagano, Hirokuyi Morita, Yoichi Maekawa
Infectious microorganisms often modify host immunity to escape from immune elimination. Trichinella is a unique nematode of the helminth family, which parasitize the inside of host muscle cells without robust eliminative reactions. There are two main species in genus Trichinella, encapsulated (T. spiralis(Ts), T. britovi) and non-encapsulated (T. pseudospiralis(Tp)). It has already been established that Trichinella infection affects host immune responses in several experimental immune diseases in animal models; however, most of those studies were done using Ts infection...
October 10, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"