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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160356/seasonality-of-parasitic-helminths-of-leporinus-macrocephalus-and-their-parasitism-rates-in-farming-systems-in-the-amazon
#1
Williane Maria de Oliveira Martins, Márcia Cristina Nascimento Justo, Melissa Querido Cárdenas, Simone Chinicz Cohen
The objective of the present study was to analyze the seasonality of parasitic helminths of Leporinus macrocephalus from fish farms in the municipality of Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre, Brazil, and their parasitism rates. Between June 2014 and March 2015, 200 specimens were sampled from two fish farms: one with a semi-intensive system and the other with an extensive system (100 fish from each farm: 50 during the dry season and 50 during the rainy season). Fifteen species of parasites were found, with seasonal variations of some according to the farming system...
November 9, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152559/fasciola-hepatica-esps-could-indistinctly-activate-or-block-multiple-toll-like-receptors-in-a-human-monocyte-cell-line
#2
Olgary Figueroa-Santiago, Ana M Espino
Fasciola hepatica is a parasitic helminth that induces Th2/Treg responses in its mammalian host. Some reports have suggested that ESPs achieve these polarized immune responses by delaying the activation of dendritic cells and macrophages during the early stages of innate immunity, a process that is mediated by TLR4. The present study aimed to investigate whether TLRs other than TLR4 could also be targeted by F. hepatica ESPs. To achieve this aim a screening system was optimized using THP1-Blue CD14 cells. ESPs were first separated based on their molecular weight and according their net charge by ion exchange chromatography (IEC)...
2017: Ann Clin Pathol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150699/three-new-species-of-gyrodactylus-von-nordmann-1832-described-from-goodea-atripinnis-pisces-goodeidae-an-endemic-freshwater-fish-from-the-central-highlands-of-mexico
#3
Adriana García-Vásquez, Ismael Guzmán-Valdivieso, Ulises Razo-Mendivil, Miguel Rubio-Godoy
Goodea atripinnis Jordan, 1880 has a broad range of habitats and is the most widespread species of the endemic goodeid fishes, which inhabit the central highlands of Mexico. This species is known to be host to a high diversity of helminth parasites from which only three belong to the genus Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832: G. lamothei Mendoza-Palmero, Sereno-Uribe et Salgado-Maldonado, 2009, G. mexicanus Mendoza-Palmero, Sereno-Uribe et Salgado-Maldonado, 2009, and G. tomahuac Rubio-Godoy, Razo-Mendivil, García-Vásquez, Freeman, Shinn et Paladini, 2016...
November 17, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150304/are-the-estrogenic-hormonal-effects-of-environmental-toxins-affecting-small-intestinal-bacterial-and-microfilaria-overgrowth
#4
Edward Lichten
The important role of microfilaria (worms) in human and animal disease remains an area of key disagreement between the naturopathic and allopathic physicians. While microfilaria infections are rampart in undeveloped countries, they rarely rise to identification as a cause of disease in Western countries. New research studies in the diagnosis and treatment of SIBO (Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth) and (IBD) Inflammatory Bowel Diseases of ulcerative colitis, Crohn's Disease and microcytic colitis may make both sides equally correct...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145392/conservation-of-a-microrna-cluster-in-parasitic-nematodes-and-profiling-of-mirnas-in-excretory-secretory-products-and-microvesicles-of-haemonchus-contortus
#5
Henry Y Gu, Neil D Marks, Alan D Winter, William Weir, Thomas Tzelos, Tom N McNeilly, Collette Britton, Eileen Devaney
microRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that are important regulators of gene expression in a range of animals, including nematodes. We have analysed a cluster of four miRNAs from the pathogenic nematode species Haemonchus contortus that are closely linked in the genome. We find that the cluster is conserved only in clade V parasitic nematodes and in some ascarids, but not in other clade III species nor in clade V free-living nematodes. Members of the cluster are present in parasite excretory-secretory products and can be detected in the abomasum and draining lymph nodes of infected sheep, indicating their release in vitro and in vivo...
November 16, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144463/a-single-cell-survey-of-the-small-intestinal-epithelium
#6
Adam L Haber, Moshe Biton, Noga Rogel, Rebecca H Herbst, Karthik Shekhar, Christopher Smillie, Grace Burgin, Toni M Delorey, Michael R Howitt, Yarden Katz, Itay Tirosh, Semir Beyaz, Danielle Dionne, Mei Zhang, Raktima Raychowdhury, Wendy S Garrett, Orit Rozenblatt-Rosen, Hai Ning Shi, Omer Yilmaz, Ramnik J Xavier, Aviv Regev
Intestinal epithelial cells absorb nutrients, respond to microbes, function as a barrier and help to coordinate immune responses. Here we report profiling of 53,193 individual epithelial cells from the small intestine and organoids of mice, which enabled the identification and characterization of previously unknown subtypes of intestinal epithelial cell and their gene signatures. We found unexpected diversity in hormone-secreting enteroendocrine cells and constructed the taxonomy of newly identified subtypes, and distinguished between two subtypes of tuft cell, one of which expresses the epithelial cytokine Tslp and the pan-immune marker CD45, which was not previously associated with non-haematopoietic cells...
November 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144297/effect-of-reagents-used-during-detection-and-quantification-of-ascaris-suum-in-environmental-samples-on-egg-viability
#7
Isaac Dennis Amoah, Poovendhree Reddy, Thor Axel Stenström
Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are a major health concern globally. Infection is mostly through contact with contaminated water, food or soil. Therefore to break the cycle of viable transmission STH eggs must be quantitatively detected in the environment. The effect of different reagents on the viability of Ascaris suum eggs during laboratory detection and quantification was assessed and different incubation solutions compared. Sulphuric acid gave a slightly higher recovery percentage of viable eggs (91...
November 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143662/heat-treatment-and-false-positive-heartworm-antigen-testing-in-ex-vivo-parasites-and-dogs-naturally-infected-by-dirofilaria-repens-and-angiostrongylus-vasorum
#8
Luigi Venco, Simone Manzocchi, Marco Genchi, Laura H Kramer
BACKGROUND: Heartworm antigen testing is considered sensitive and specific. Currently available tests are reported as detecting a glycoprotein found predominantly in the reproductive tract of the female worm and can reach specificity close to 100%. Main concerns regard sensitivity in the case of light infections, the presence of immature females or cases of all-male infections. Research and development have been aimed at increasing sensitivity. Recently, heat treatment of serum prior to antigen testing has been shown to result in an increase in positive antigen test results, presumably due to disruption of natural antigen-antibody complexes...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143641/effects-of-deworming-on-child-and-maternal-health-a-literature-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Winter Maxwell Thayer, Adrienne Clermont, Neff Walker
BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminth infections are widespread. Many studies have been published on the topic of deworming. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) is a software package that uses a deterministic mathematical model to estimate the effect of scaling up interventions on maternal and child health outcomes. This review investigates the scope of available evidence for benefits of deworming treatments in order to inform a decision about possible inclusion of deworming as an intervention in LiST...
November 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143232/assessment-of-gastrointestinal-nematode-infection-anthelmintic-usage-and-husbandry-practices-on-two-small-scale-goat-farms-in-malaysia
#10
Flora Wong, Neil Sargison
Haemonchosis is a common problem on goat farms in tropical countries such as Malaysia. Prevention of production losses generally depends on the use of anthelmintic drugs, but is threatened by the emergence of anthelmintic resistance. This study investigates anthelmintic efficacy on small-scale Malaysian goat farms and describes putative risk factors. Adult goats had moderate to high pre-treatment faecal trichostrongyle egg counts, despite being housed on slatted floors and fed on cut-and-carry forage, raising questions about the source of nematode infection...
November 15, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141763/pilot-study-of-the-addition-of-mass-treatment-for-malaria-to-existing-school-based-programs-to-treat-neglected-tropical-diseases
#11
Lauren M Cohee, Moses Chilombe, Andrew Ngwira, Samuel K Jemu, Don P Mathanga, Miriam K Laufer
Malaria and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), including schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths, threaten the health of school aged in sub-Saharan Africa. Established school-based mass drug administration (MDA) programs are used to control NTDs. Recent clinical trials have shown benefit of mass treatment of malaria in schools. The potential of adding malaria treatment to existing NTD programs has not been thoroughly evaluated. We offered malaria treatment with artemether-lumefantrine during routine NTD MDA and developed peer education programs in two primary schools in southern Malawi...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141759/cell-type-specific-immunomodulation-induced-by-helminthes-effect-on-metainflammation-insulin-resistance-and-type-2-diabetes
#12
Vivekanandhan Aravindhan, Gowrishankar Anand
Recent epidemiological studies have documented an inverse relationship between the decreasing prevalence of helminth infections and the increasing prevalence of metabolic diseases ("metabolic hygiene hypothesis"). Chronic inflammation leading to insulin resistance (IR) has now been identified as a major etiological factor for a variety of metabolic diseases other than obesity and Type-2 diabetes (metainflammation). One way by which helminth infections such as filariasis can modulate IR is by inducing a chronic, nonspecific, low-grade, immune suppression mediated by modified T-helper 2 (Th2) response (induction of both Th2 and regulatory T cells) which can in turn suppress the proinflammatory responses and promote insulin sensitivity (IS)...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141740/a-lateral-flow-rapid-test-for-human-toxocariasis-developed-using-three-toxocara-canis-recombinant-antigens
#13
Muhammad Hafiznur Yunus, Siti Naqiuyah Tan Farrizam, Izzati Zahidah Abdul Karim, Rahmah Noordin
Laboratory diagnosis of toxocariasis is still a challenge especially in developing endemic countries with polyparasitism. In this study, three Toxocara canis recombinant antigens, rTES-26, rTES-30, and rTES-120, were expressed and used to prepare lateral flow immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) dipsticks. The concordance of the results of the rapid test (comprising three dipsticks) with a commercial IgG-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Cypress Diagnostics, Belgium) was compared against the concordance of two other commercial IgG-ELISA kits (Bordier, Switzerland and NovaTec, Germany) with the Cypress kit...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139069/piloting-the-effectiveness-of-pig-health-education-in-combination-with-oxfendazole-treatment-on-prevention-and-or-control-of-porcine-cysticercosis-gastrointestinal-parasites-african-swine-fever-and-ectoparasites-in-ang%C3%A3-nia-district-mozambique
#14
A G Chilundo, M V Johansen, A Pondja, R Miambo, S Afonso, S Mukaratirwa
A community-based intervention combining health education (HE) and treatment of pigs for control of porcine cysticercosis (PC), gastrointestinal (GI) helminths, African swine fever (ASF) and external parasites was tested involving six villages of resource-poor smallholder pig farmers. Farmers and pigs of six rural villages were randomly allocated into group 1 (HE), which served as controls, and group 2 (HE + OFZ) pigs received a single oral dose of 30 mg/kg OFZ. Farmers were trained in pig health, housing and feeding...
November 14, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138640/prevalence-of-soil-transmitted-helminthiases-and-schistosomiasis-in-preschool-age-children-in-mwea-division-kirinyaga-south-district-kirinyaga-county-and-their-potential-effect-on-physical-growth
#15
Stephen Sifuna Wefwafwa Sakari, Amos K Mbugua, Gerald M Mkoji
Intestinal parasitic infections can significantly contribute to the burden of disease, may cause nutritional and energetic stress, and negatively impact the quality of life in low income countries of the world. This cross-sectional study done in Mwea irrigation scheme, in Kirinyaga, central Kenya, assessed the public health significance of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH), schistosomiasis, and other intestinal parasitic infections, among 361 preschool age children (PSAC) through fecal examination, by measuring anthropometric indices, and through their parents/guardians, by obtaining sociodemographic information...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137663/patent-landscape-of-neglected-tropical-diseases-an-analysis-of-worldwide-patent-families
#16
Folahanmi Tomiwa Akinsolu, Vitor Nobre de Paiva, Samuel Santos Souza, Orsolya Varga
BACKGROUND: "Neglected Tropical Diseases" (NTDs) affect millions of people in Africa, Asia and South America. The two primary ways of strategic interventions are "preventive chemotherapy and transmission control" (PCT), and "innovative and intensified disease management" (IDM). In the last 5 years, phenomenal progress has been achieved. However, it is crucial to intensify research effort into NTDs, because of the emerging drug resistance. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the term NTDs covers 17 diseases, namely buruli ulcer, Chagas disease, dengue, dracunculiasis, echinococcosis, trematodiasis, human African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, leprosy, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, rabies, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthes, taeniasis, trachoma, and yaws...
November 14, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136163/ascaris-suum-infection-down-regulates-inflammatory-pathways-in-the-pig-intestine-in-vivo-and-in-human-dendritic-cells-in-vitro
#17
Helene L E Midttun, Nathalie Acevedo, Per Skallerup, Sara Almeida, Kerstin Skovgaard, Lars Andresen, Søren Skov, Luis Caraballo, Irma van Die, Claus B Jørgensen, Merete Fredholm, Stig M Thamsborg, Peter Nejsum, Andrew R Williams
Ascaris suum is a helminth parasite of pigs closely related to its human counterpart, A. lumbricoides, which infects almost one billion people. Ascaris spp. is thought to modulate host immune and inflammatory responses, which may drive immune hyporesponsiveness during chronic infections. Using transcriptomic analysis, we show here that pigs with a chronic A. suum infection have a substantial suppression of inflammatory pathways in the intestinal mucosa, with a broad down-regulation of genes encoding cytokines and antigen-processing and co-stimulatory molecules...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135391/gongylonema-parasites-of-rodents-a-key-to-species-and-new-data-on-gongylonema-neoplasticum
#18
Helrik Costa Cordeiro, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos Melo, Elane Guerreiro Giese, Jeannie Nascimento Dos Santos
Specimens of the genus Gongylonema were collected from the gastric mucosa of rodents of the Rattus rattus Linnaeus, 1758 and Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769 collected in urban areas in Belém, Pará, in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. The helminths were processed for analysis using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, and presented taxonomic characteristics of the species Gongylonema neoplasticum. The SEM analyses revealed the presence of 2 developed buccal plates (1 dorsal, 1 ventral), also called interlabia, with a proeminent and bifurcated ventral plaque...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134026/type-material-of-acanthocephala-nematoda-and-other-non-helminths-phyla-cnidaria-annelida-and-arthropoda-housed-in-the-helminthological-collection-of-the-oswaldo-cruz-institute-fiocruz-chioc-rio-de-janeiro-brazil-from-1979-to-2016
#19
Daniela A Lopes, Delir Corrêa Gomes, Marcelo Knoff
The third part of the catalogue of type material in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute/FIOCRUZ (CHIOC), comprising types deposited between 1979 and 2016, is presented to complement the first list of all types that was published in 1979. This part encompasses Acanthocephala, Nematoda and the other non-helminth phyla Cnidaria, Annelida, and Arthropoda. Platyhelminthes was covered in the first (Monogenoidea) and second (Rhabditophora Trematoda and Cestoda) parts of the catalogue published in September 2016 and March 2017, respectively...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133417/human-resistin-protects-against-endotoxic-shock-by-blocking-lps-tlr4-interaction
#20
Jessica C Jang, Jiang Li, Luca Gambini, Hashini M Batugedara, Sandeep Sati, Mitchell A Lazar, Li Fan, Maurizio Pellecchia, Meera G Nair
Helminths trigger multiple immunomodulatory pathways that can protect from sepsis. Human resistin (hRetn) is an immune cell-derived protein that is highly elevated in helminth infection and sepsis. However, the function of hRetn in sepsis, or whether hRetn influences helminth protection against sepsis, is unknown. Employing hRetn-expressing transgenic mice (hRETNTg(+)) and recombinant hRetn, we identify a therapeutic function for hRetn in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic shock. hRetn promoted helminth-induced immunomodulation, with increased survival of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb)-infected hRETNTg(+) mice after a fatal LPS dose compared with naive mice or Nb-infected hRETNTg(-) mice...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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