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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543101/immunoglobulin-m-antibodies-are-not-specific-for-serodiagnosis-of-human-toxocariasis
#1
William Henry Roldán, Guita Rubinsky Elefant, Antonio Walter Ferreira
Serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis is established by detecting serum anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies, but there is little knowledge regarding the reactivity of human IgM antibodies against the Toxocara antigens. In this study, we have evaluated the reactivity of IgM antibodies in sera from patients with toxocariasis, patients with other helminth infections, and healthy individuals, against Toxocara larval excretory-secretory (TES) antigens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western-blot (WB). Anti-Toxocara IgM were detected in 91...
May 25, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542260/hookworm-infection-is-associated-with-decreased-cd4-t-cell-counts-in-hiv-infected-adult-ugandans
#2
Bozena M Morawski, Miya Yunus, Emmanuel Kerukadho, Grace Turyasingura, Logose Barbra, Andrew Mijumbi Ojok, Andrew DiNardo, Stefanie Sowinski, David R Boulware, Rojelio Mejia
Most studies evaluating epidemiologic relationships between helminths and HIV have been conducted in the pre-ART era, and evidence of the impact of helminth infections on HIV disease progression remains conflicting. Less is known about helminth infection and clinical outcomes in HIV-infected adults receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). We sampled HIV-infected adults for eight gastrointestinal parasites and correlated parasitic infection with demographic predictors, and clinical and immunologic outcomes. Contrasting with previous studies, we measured parasitic infection with a quantitative, highly sensitive and specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method...
May 25, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542189/mir-277-4989-regulate-transcriptional-landscape-during-juvenile-to-adult-transition-in-the-parasitic-helminth-schistosoma-mansoni
#3
Anna V Protasio, Stijn van Dongen, Julie Collins, Leonor Quintais, Diogo M Ribeiro, Florian Sessler, Martin Hunt, Gabriel Rinaldi, James J Collins, Anton J Enright, Matthew Berriman
Schistosomes are parasitic helminths that cause schistosomiasis, a disease affecting circa 200 million people, primarily in underprivileged regions of the world. Schistosoma mansoni is the most experimentally tractable schistosome species due to its ease of propagation in the laboratory and the high quality of its genome assembly and annotation. Although there is growing interest in microRNAs (miRNAs) in trematodes, little is known about the role these molecules play in the context of developmental processes...
May 23, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538175/extracellular-vesicles-from-a-helminth-parasite-suppress-macrophage-activation-and-constitute-an-effective-vaccine-for-protective-immunity
#4
Gillian Coakley, Jana L McCaskill, Jessica G Borger, Fabio Simbari, Elaine Robertson, Marissa Millar, Yvonne Harcus, Henry J McSorley, Rick M Maizels, Amy H Buck
Recent studies have demonstrated that many parasites release extracellular vesicles (EVs), yet little is known about the specific interactions of EVs with immune cells or their functions during infection. We show that EVs secreted by the gastrointestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus are internalized by macrophages and modulate their activation. EV internalization causes downregulation of type 1 and type 2 immune-response-associated molecules (IL-6 and TNF, and Ym1 and RELMα) and inhibits expression of the IL-33 receptor subunit ST2...
May 23, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536880/seasonal-variation-of-strongylosis-in-working-donkeys-of-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-studies
#5
Motuma Debelo Dibaba, A M Getachew, Zerihun Assefa, Alemayehu Fanta, Manyahilishal Etana, Seyoum Firew, Lemessa Goshu, F Burden
Helminths are one of the major health problems of working donkeys, often with heavy worm burden and contributing to their early demise and/or reduction in their work output. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were conducted to investigate the current infection prevalence and level of strongyles infection donkeys would acquire through different seasons in the mid-lowland agro-ecological zones of Ethiopia. For this purpose, faecal samples from 206 (cross-sectional study) and 102 (longitudinal study) randomly selected donkeys were directly collected from the rectum and analysed...
May 24, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536879/effects-of-dietary-intake-of-garlic-on-intestinal-trematodes
#6
Alba Cortés, Miguel García-Ferrús, Javier Sotillo, J Guillermo Esteban, Rafael Toledo, Carla Muñoz-Antolí
The current strategy for the control of helminth infections relies on chemotherapy. However, resistance appearance is promoting the necessity of developing new drugs against trematodes. Herein, potential trematocidal effects of garlic (Allium sativum) are investigated in the context of intestinal foodborne trematodes, employing the Echinostoma caproni-mouse model. Daily administration of dietary doses of garlic was conducted in three groups of mice: (i) before infection (prophylaxis), (ii) after infection (therapeutic) and (iii) both, before and after infection (continuous)...
May 23, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535806/the-past-matters-estimating-intrinsic-hookworm-transmission-intensity-in-areas-with-past-mass-drug-administration-to-control-lymphatic-filariasis
#7
Marleen Werkman, James E Truscott, Jaspreet Toor, James E Wright, Roy M Anderson
BACKGROUND: Current WHO guidelines for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) control focus on mass drug administration (MDA) targeting preschool-aged (pre-SAC) and school-aged children (SAC), with the goal of eliminating STH as a public health problem amongst children. Recently, attention and funding has turned towards the question whether MDA alone can result in the interruption of transmission for STH. The lymphatic filariasis (LF) elimination programme, have been successful in reaching whole communities...
May 23, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534454/opportunities-and-challenges-in-metabarcoding-approaches-for-helminth-community-identification-in-wild-mammals
#8
Tuomas Aivelo, Alan Medlar
Despite metabarcoding being widely used to analyse bacterial community composition, its application in parasitological research remains limited. What interest there has been has focused on previously intractable research settings where traditional methods are inappropriate, for example, in longitudinal studies and studies involving endangered species. In settings such as these, non-invasive sampling combined with metabarcoding can provide a fast and accurate assessment of component communities. In this paper we review the use of metabarcoding in the study of helminth communities in wild mammals, outlining the necessary procedures from sample collection to statistical analysis...
May 23, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533444/t-follicular-helper-cell-derived-il-4-is-required-for-ige-production-during-intestinal-helminth-infection
#9
Alexandre P Meli, Ghislaine Fontés, Cindy Leung Soo, Irah L King
IgE production plays a crucial role in protective as well as pathogenic type 2 immune responses. Although the cytokine IL-4 is required for the development of IgE-producing plasma cells, the source of IL-4 and cellular requirements for optimal IgE responses remain unclear. Recent evidence suggests that T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are the primary producer of IL-4 in the reactive lymph node during type 2 immune responses. As Tfh cells are also required for the development of plasmablasts derived from germinal center and extrafollicular sources, we hypothesized that this cell subset is essential for the IgE plasmablast response...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526990/how-does-supplementary-feeding-affect-endoparasite-infection-in-wild-boar
#10
Ragne Oja, Kaisa Velström, Epp Moks, Pikka Jokelainen, Brian Lassen
Supplementary feeding is widely used in game management but may aid the transmission of parasites. Firstly, feeding sites attract animals and may be regarded as high-risk areas for parasite transmission. Secondly, high host population densities resulting from and supported by supplementary feeding, as well as accumulation of parasites in the environment, may increase parasite prevalence. Our aim was to investigate whether host density or the number of feeding sites drives endoparasite infection in an Estonian wild boar (Sus scrofa) population...
May 19, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526608/microrna-analysis-of-taenia-crassiceps-cysticerci-under-praziquantel-treatment-and-genome-wide-identification-of-taenia-solium-mirnas
#11
Matías Gastón Pérez, Natalia Macchiaroli, Gabriel Lichtenstein, Gabriela Conti, Sebastián Asurmendi, Diego Humberto Milone, Georgina Stegmayer, Laura Kamenetzky, Marcela Cucher, Mara Cecilia Rosenzvit
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that have emerged as important regulators of gene expression and perform critical functions in development and disease. In spite of the increased interest in miRNAs from helminth parasites, no information is available on miRNAs from Taenia solium, the causative agent of cysticercosis, a neglected disease affecting millions of people worldwide. Here we performed a comprehensive analysis of miRNAs from Taenia crassiceps, a laboratory model for T. solium studies, and identified miRNAs in the T...
May 17, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526606/identification-of-emsox2-a-member-of-the-sox-family-of-transcription-factors-as-a-potential-regulator-of-echinococcus-multilocularis-germinative-cells
#12
Zhe Cheng, Fan Liu, Mengya Dai, Jianjian Wu, Xiu Li, Xinrui Guo, Huimin Tian, Zhijie Heng, Ying Lu, Xiaoli Chai, Yanhai Wang
Larvae of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis cause alveolar echinococcosis (AE), one of the most lethal helminthic infections in humans. The germinative cells, a population of stem cell-like cells, are considered to drive the continuous growth of the metacestodes within the host. The mechanisms and relative molecules controlling the behavior of germinative cells are poorly understood. Sox transcription factors play important roles in maintenance and regulation of stem/progenitor cells. We here describe the identification of a Sox family member in E...
May 17, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526605/microevolutionary-response-of-a-gut-nematode-to-intestinal-inflammation
#13
Cédric Lippens, Bruno Faivre, Gabriele Sorci
Parasitic helminths interfere with the immune responses of their hosts to establish long-lasting, chronic infections. While favorable to the parasite, the capacity to dampen the immune response can also provide a benefit to the host in terms of reduced risk of immune disorders and immunopathology. The immunomodulatory role of nematodes has been exploited in clinical trials to treat a number of inflammatory and immune diseases. However, how parasites adapt to an inflammatory environment remains a poorly explored question...
May 17, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524145/-orbital-case-of-ocular-dirofilariasis
#14
M B Gushсhina, E V Egorova, N S Yuzhakova, S A Mal'kov
AIM: to report a clinical case of orbital dirofilariasis with attention to peculiarities of disease presentation, diagnostic measures, and treatment results. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A patient with a history of spontaneously subsiding recurrent oedema of the lower eyelid suspicious of parasitic cyst formation. The diagnosis was confirmed preoperatively by orbital ultrasound. Surgical intervention included orbitotomy with microsurgical excision of the parasitic cyst via a percutaneous approach through the lower eyelid skin crease...
2017: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523202/identification-of-a-novel-alternatively-spliced-form-of-inflammatory-regulator-swap-70-like-adapter-of-t-cells
#15
Marie Hashimoto, Jun-Ichi Nagao, Shojiro Ikezaki, Sonoko Tasaki, Ken-Ichi Arita-Morioka, Yuka Narita, Tamaki Cho, Kenji Yuasa, Amnon Altman, Yoshihiko Tanaka
Activation of naive CD4(+) T cells results in the development of several distinct subsets of effector Th cells, including Th2 cells that play a pivotal role in allergic inflammation and helminthic infections. SWAP-70-like adapter of T cells (SLAT), also known as Def6 or IBP, is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for small GTPases, which regulates CD4(+) T cell inflammatory responses by controlling Ca(2+)/NFAT signaling. In this study, we have identified a novel alternatively spliced isoform of SLAT, named SLAT2, which lacks the region encoded by exons 2-7 of the Def6 gene...
2017: International Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520995/new-molecular-diagnostic-tools-in-traveller-s-diarrhea
#16
Jordi Vila
Traveller's diarrhea can be caused by bacteria, protozoa, helminths and viruses. Globally, the most common causes of traveller's diarrhea are two pathotypes of Escherichia coli (enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative) and Shigella, although there are significant variations according to the geographic area visited. While traveller's diarrhea is usually a mild, self-limiting disease, half of the travellers with traveller's diarrhea have some limitation in their activities during the journey and up to 10% present persistent diarrhea or other complications, making microbiological diagnosis necessary...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518035/angiostrongylus-cantonensis-meningitis-and-myelitis-texas-usa
#17
Roukaya Al Hammoud, Stacy L Nayes, James R Murphy, Gloria P Heresi, Ian J Butler, Norma Pérez
Infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis roundworms is endemic in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Basin. A. cantonensis meningitis and myelitis occurred in summer 2013 in a child with no history of travel outside of Texas, USA. Angiostrongyliasis is an emerging neurotropic helminthic disease in Texas and warrants increased awareness among healthcare providers.
June 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515074/immune-checkpoints-on-innate-lymphoid-cells
#18
Laura Chiossone, Eric Vivier
In this issue of JEM, Taylor et al. (https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20161653) describe PD-1 as a critical negative regulator of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC-2s). PD-1 intrinsically controls proliferation and cytokine production of both mouse and human ILC-2s. PD-1 signaling inhibits STAT5 phosphorylation and the removal of this brake by knocking down PD-1 expression or by using anti-PD-1 blocking antibodies, translated in vivo into better clearance of helminth worm infection in mice.
May 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514691/mast-cells-are-crucial-for-induction-of-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-and-clearance-of-helminth-infections
#19
Chikako Shimokawa, Takashi Kanaya, Masami Hachisuka, Kenji Ishiwata, Hajime Hisaeda, Yosuke Kurashima, Hiroshi Kiyono, Tomohiro Yoshimoto, Tsuneyasu Kaisho, Hiroshi Ohno
Mast cells are important for eradication of intestinal nematodes; however, their precise mechanisms of action have remained elusive, especially in the early phase of infection. We found that Spi-B-deficient mice had increased numbers of mast cells and rapidly expelled the Heligmosomoides polygyrus (Hp) nematode. This was accompanied by induction of interleukin-13 (IL-13)-producing group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) and goblet cell hyperplasia. Immediately after Hp infection, mast cells were rapidly activated to produce IL-33 in response to ATP released from apoptotic intestinal epithelial cells...
May 16, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514681/only-two-can-tango-mast-cells-displace-epithelial-cells-to-dance-with-ilc2s
#20
Tiffany Bouchery, Nicola L Harris
Mast cells have been implicated in protective immunity to helminth infection, but the precise mechanism remains unclear. In this issue of Immunity, Shimokawa et al., 2017 report that mast cells are a bridge linking dying epithelial cells with effector type 2 innate lymphoid cells.
May 16, 2017: Immunity
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