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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780850/canada-wide-epidemic-of-emm74-group-a-streptococcus-invasive-disease
#1
Sarah Teatero, Allison McGeer, Gregory J Tyrrell, Linda Hoang, Hanan Smadi, Marc-Christian Domingo, Paul N Levett, Michael Finkelstein, Ken Dewar, Agron Plevneshi, Taryn B T Athey, Jonathan B Gubbay, Michael R Mulvey, Irene Martin, Walter Demczuk, Nahuel Fittipaldi
Background: The number of invasive group A Streptococcus (iGAS) infections due to hitherto extremely rare type emm74 strains has increased in several Canadian provinces since late 2015. We hypothesized that the cases recorded in the different provinces are linked and caused by strains of an emm74 clone that recently emerged and expanded explosively. Methods: We analyzed both active and passive surveillance data for iGAS infections and used whole-genome sequencing to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of the emm74 strains responsible for these invasive infections country-wide...
May 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780775/optimal-cutoff-level-of-serum-squamous-cell-carcinoma-antigen-to-detect-recurrent-cervical-squamous-cell-carcinoma-during-post-treatment-surveillance
#2
Jinju Oh, Jin Young Bae
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the optimal cutoff level of serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) to detect recurrent cervical squamous cell carcinoma during post-treatment surveillance. Methods: Between January 2000 and July 2014, a total of 158 women with cervical squamous cell carcinoma were treated with radiotherapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy at our department. A total of 1,550 serum SCC-Ag tests performed during post-treatment surveillance of the 158 patients were included in this retrospective study...
May 2018: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779860/time-for-a-radical-change-to-active-surveillance-for-prostate-cancer
#3
EDITORIAL
Jenny L Donovan, Freddie C Hamdy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2018: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778403/the-cf-sputum-induction-trial-cf-spit-to-assess-lower-airway-bacterial-sampling-in-young-children-with-cystic-fibrosis-a-prospective-internally-controlled-interventional-trial
#4
Katherine Ronchetti, Jo-Dee Tame, Christopher Paisey, Lena P Thia, Iolo Doull, Robin Howe, Eshwar Mahenthiralingam, Julian T Forton
BACKGROUND: Pathogen surveillance is challenging but crucial in children with cystic fibrosis-who are often non-productive of sputum even if actively coughing-because infection and lung disease begin early in life. The role of sputum induction as a diagnostic tool for infection has not previously been systematically addressed in young children with cystic fibrosis. We aimed to assess the pathogen yield from sputum induction compared with that from cough swab and single-lobe, two-lobe, and six-lobe bronchoalveolar lavage...
May 16, 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778188/national-surveillance-plan-for-infectious-bovine-rhinotracheitis-ibr-in-autochthonous-italian-cattle-breeds-results-of-first-year-of-activity
#5
Carmen Maresca, Eleonora Scoccia, Annalisa Dettori, Andrea Felici, Roberta Guarcini, Stefano Petrini, Andrea Quaglia, Giovanni Filippini
Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR)/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IPV) caused by Bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is a significant disease in domestic and wild cattle. In June 2015, the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry in Italy approved a national surveillance plan to control and eradicate IBR in beef cattle breeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of the first year of the IBR voluntary surveillance plan in Italy. The aim of the plan is to eradicate IBR in all bovines recorded in the National Herd Book for Italian beef cattle breeds over six years...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778078/an-effective-and-low-cost-carbon-based-clean-up-method-for-pcdd-fs-and-pcbs-analysis-in-food
#6
Kleopatra Kedikoglou, Danae Costopoulou, Irene Vassiliadou, Evangelos Bakeas, Leondios Leondiadis
Sample preparation is of critical importance in dioxin analysis of food and feed samples. It is a complex procedure that includes lipid extraction followed by the application of chromatographic separation techniques, aiming in removing undesirable interferences from the matrix. The separation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is achieved by carbon-based materials which should have high fat capacity in order to be suitable for lipid-containing matrices...
May 7, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777614/enhancing-the-detection-of-injuries-and-near-misses-among-patient-care-staff-in-a-large-pediatric-hospital
#7
Maurizio Macaluso, Lauren A Summerville, Meredith E Tabangin, Nancy M Daraiseh
Objectives Compared to other industries, healthcare has one of the highest rates of non-fatal occupational injury/illness. Evidence indicates these rates are underestimated, highlighting the need for improved injury surveillance. This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating active data collection in a passive injury surveillance system to improve detection of injuries in a healthcare establishment. Methods Using digital voice recorders (DVR), pediatric healthcare providers prospectively recorded events throughout their shift for two weeks...
May 7, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777520/relationship-of-eating-patterns-and-metabolic-parameters-and-teneligliptin-treatment-interim-results-from-post-marketing-surveillance-in-japanese-type-2-diabetes-patients
#8
Takashi Kadowaki, Masakazu Haneda, Hiroshi Ito, Kazuyo Sasaki, Sonoe Hiraide, Miyuki Matsukawa, Makoto Ueno
INTRODUCTION: Healthy eating is a critical aspect of the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Disrupted eating patterns can result in poor glucose control and increase the likelihood of diabetic complications. Teneligliptin inhibits dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activity for 24 h and suppresses postprandial hyperglycemia after all three daily meals. This interim analysis of data from the large-scale post-marketing surveillance of teneligliptin (RUBY) in Japan examined eating patterns and their relationship with metabolic parameters and diabetic complications...
May 17, 2018: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777380/investigating-the-prognostic-ability-of-health-related-quality-of-life-on-survival-a-prospective-cohort-study-of-adults-with-lung-cancer
#9
Laura C Pinheiro, Bryce B Reeve
BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important predictor for overall survival (OS). To date, no studies compared associations between HRQOL assessed before and after a cancer diagnosis for OS. Our objectives were to (1) investigate associations between HRQOL changes and OS and (2) identify the best HRQOL assessment time point to predict OS. METHODS: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results linked with the Medicare Health Outcomes Survey data...
May 18, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776621/relationship-between-sleep-duration-and-self-reported-health-related-quality-of-life-among-us-adults-with-or-without-major-chronic-diseases-2014
#10
Yong Liu, Anne G Wheaton, Janet B Croft, Fang Xu, Timothy J Cunningham, Kurt J Greenlund
OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between sleep duration and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among adults with or without chronic conditions. METHODS: Using the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we analyzed self-reported data from adult respondents aged ≥18 years with (n=277,757, unhealthy group) and without (n=172,052. healthy group) reported history of any of nine chronic conditions (coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, asthma, arthritis, depression, chronic kidney disease)...
June 2018: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775388/epidemiology-of-elbow-ulnar-collateral-ligament-injuries-among-baseball-players-national-collegiate-athletic-association-injury-surveillance-program-2009-2010-through-2013-2014
#11
Steven F DeFroda, Avi D Goodman, Joseph A Gil, Brett D Owens
BACKGROUND: Injuries to the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) of the elbow are of major concern in baseball; however, the epidemiology of these injuries among National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletes is poorly described. PURPOSE: To determine the incidence of UCL injuries in NCAA baseball and investigate the risk factors involved. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study. METHODS: All UCL injuries for academic years 2009-2010 through 2013-2014 were extracted from the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program database...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774715/-health-surveillance-programme-for-workers-with-past-asbestos-exposure-in-tuscany-region-central-italy
#12
Elisabetta Chellini, Francesca Battisti, Maura Pellegri, Maurizio Baldacci, Domenico Sallese, Alfonso Cristaudo, Pietro Sartorelli, Giulio Arcangeli, Massimo Paoli, Sandra Fani, Gianluca Festa, Piergiuseppe Calà
Asbestos-related diseases are characterized by a long latency time since exposure. This accounts for a health surveillance programme addressed to asbestos workers to be performed for decades after the cessation of occupational exposure. We describe the health surveillance programme for former asbestos-exposed workers in Tuscany Region (Central Italy), with particular attention to organization and related critical issues. The Deliberation of the Regional Administration of Tuscany (No. 396/2016) supports the programme, defined by a regional group of experts, and defines the public health services where the programme has to be implemented...
March 2018: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774293/financial-loss-estimation-of-bovine-fasciolosis-in-slaughtered-cattle-in-south-africa
#13
Ishmael Festus Jaja, Borden Mushonga, Ezekiel Green, Voster Muchenje
South Africa's livestock population is rapidly evolving and consequently will require sustained epidemiological surveillance to detect and prevent diseases which contribute to a decrease in livestock productivity, public health risk and food wastage. Fasciola infection is one of the commonest diseases affecting livestock health and a significant portion of meat and offal's are declared unfit for human consumption. This study assessed the prevalence and monetary losses associated with Fasciola infection at three abattoirs in Eastern Cape Province...
November 2017: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774029/lfa-1-in-t-cell-migration-and-differentiation
#14
REVIEW
Brandon L Walling, Minsoo Kim
Maintenance of homeostatic immune surveillance and development of effective adaptive immune responses require precise regulation of spatial and temporal lymphocyte trafficking throughout the body to ensure pathogen clearance and memory generation. Dysregulation of lymphocyte activation and migration can lead to impaired adaptive immunity, recurrent infections, and an array of autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation. Central to the recruitment of T cells, integrins are cell surface receptors that regulate adhesion, signal transduction, and migration...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773774/us-and-cuban-scientists-forge-collaboration-on-arbovirus-research
#15
Jorge Pérez-Ávila, Maria G Guzmán-Tirado, Jorge Fraga-Nodarse, Gray Handley, James Meegan, Jose L Pelegrino-Martínez de la Cotera, Anthony S Fauci
After December 17, 2014, when the US and Cuban governments announced their intent to restore relations, the two countries participated in various exchange activities in an effort to encourage cooperation in public health, health research and biomedical sciences. The conference entitled Exploring Opportunities for Arbovirus Research Collaboration, hosted at Havana's Hotel Nacional, was part of these efforts and was the first major US-Cuban scientific conference in over 50 years. Its purpose was to share information about current arbovirus research and recent findings, and to explore opportunities for future joint research...
April 2018: MEDICC Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772756/developing-an-acoustic-sensing-yarn-for-health-surveillance-in-a-military-setting
#16
Theodore Hughes-Riley, Tilak Dias
Overexposure to high levels of noise can cause permanent hearing disorders, which have a significant adverse effect on the quality of life of those affected. Injury due to noise can affect people in a variety of careers including construction workers, factory workers, and members of the armed forces. By monitoring the noise exposure of workers, overexposure can be avoided and suitable protective equipment can be provided. This work focused on the creation of a noise dosimeter suitable for use by members of the armed forces, where a discrete dosimeter was integrated into a textile helmet cover...
May 17, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772561/thyroid-cancer-phenotypes-in-relation-to-inflammation-and-autoimmunity
#17
Loredana Pagano, Chiara Mele, Maria Teresa Sama, Marco Zavattaro, Marina Caputo, Lucrezia De Marchi, Samuele Paggi, Flavia Prodam, Gianluca Aimaretti, Paolo Marzullo
Thyroid cancer represents the most frequent endocrine neoplasm and is epidemiologically linked to a growing incidence worldwide, which is only in part explained by the increased detection of small cancers in a preclinical stage. Understanding the molecular pathogenesis of well-differentiated thyroid cancers and poorly-differentiated thyroid cancers has prompted interest into the identification of crucial signaling pathways and molecular derangements related to genetic and epigenetic alterations. Increasing attention has been recently focused on inflammation and immunity as major culprit mechanisms involved in thyroid tumourigenesis, through the detection of activated immune cells, pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as signal integrations between inflammatory and proliferative pathways within the thyroid tumour micro-environment...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772218/new-evidence-for-the-benefit-of-psa-screening-data-from-400-887-kaiser-permanente-patients
#18
Paul F Alpert
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether prostate cancer screening with PSA is beneficial in reducing prostate cancer mortality, and to determine optimal screening intervals and age groups to be screened. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of 400,887 men under age 80, with no prior history of prostate cancer, who had PSA testing at Kaiser Permanente Northern California in the 5 calendar years 1998 to 2002, and were followed for 12-16 years. Subjects were stratified into 6 groups based on the screening interval, and into 7 groups based on age...
May 14, 2018: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772103/how-can-we-expand-active-surveillance-criteria-in-patients-with-low-and-intermediate-risk-prostate-cancer-without-increasing-the-risk-of-misclassification-development-of-a-novel-risk-calculator
#19
Giorgio Gandaglia, Roderick C N van den Bergh, Derya Tilki, Nicola Fossati, Piet Ost, Christian I Surcel, Prasanna Sooriakumaran, Igor Tsaur, Massimo Valerio, Alexander Kretschmer, Emanuele Zaffuto, Laurent Salomon, Francesco Montorsi, Markus Graefen, Henk van der Poel, Alexandre de la Taille, Alberto Briganti, Guillaume Ploussard
OBJECTIVE: To develop a novel tool to increase the number of prostate cancer (PCa) patients eligible for active surveillance (AS) without increasing the risk of unfavourable pathologic features (i.e., misclassification) at radical prostatectomy (RP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Overall, 16,049 patients with low- or intermediate risk PCa treated with RP were identified. Misclassification was defined as non-organ confined or grade group ≥3 disease at RP. The coefficients of a logistic regression model predicting misclassification were used to develop a risk score...
May 17, 2018: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771386/immunotherapy-in-cns-cancers-the-role-of-immune-cell-trafficking
#20
Nivedita M Ratnam, Mark R Gilbert, Amber J Giles
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly malignant CNS tumor with very poor survival despite intervention with conventional therapeutic strategies. Although the CNS is separated from the immune system by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), emerging evidence of immune surveillance and the selective infiltration of GBMs by immune suppressive cells indicates that there is breakdown or compromise of these physical barriers. This in turn offers hope that immunotherapy can be applied to specifically target and reduce tumor burden...
May 15, 2018: Neuro-oncology
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