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Active surveillance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719659/dengue-prediction-by-the-web-tweets-are-a-useful-tool-for-estimating-and-forecasting-dengue-at-country-and-city-level
#1
Cecilia de Almeida Marques-Toledo, Carolin Marlen Degener, Livia Vinhal, Giovanini Coelho, Wagner Meira, Claudia Torres Codeço, Mauro Martins Teixeira
BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases are a leading threat to public health. Accurate and timely monitoring of disease risk and progress can reduce their impact. Mentioning a disease in social networks is correlated with physician visits by patients, and can be used to estimate disease activity. Dengue is the fastest growing mosquito-borne viral disease, with an estimated annual incidence of 390 million infections, of which 96 million manifest clinically. Dengue burden is likely to increase in the future owing to trends toward increased urbanization, scarce water supplies and, possibly, environmental change...
July 18, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719658/optisampletm-open-web-based-application-to-optimize-sampling-strategies-for-active-surveillance-activities-at-the-herd-level-illustrated-using-porcine-respiratory-reproductive-syndrome-prrs
#2
Anna Alba, Robert E Morrison, Ann Cheeran, Albert Rovira, Julio Alvarez, Andres M Perez
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) infection causes a devastating economic impact to the swine industry. Active surveillance is routinely conducted in many swine herds to demonstrate freedom from PRRSv infection. The design of efficient active surveillance sampling schemes is challenging because optimum surveillance strategies may differ depending on infection status, herd structure, management, or resources for conducting sampling. Here, we present an open web-based application, named 'OptisampleTM', designed to optimize herd sampling strategies to substantiate freedom of infection considering also costs of testing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719244/evaluation-of-the-use-of-zero-augmented-regression-techniques-to-model-incidence-of-campylobacter-infections-in-foodnet
#3
Marlène Tremblay, Stacy M Crim, Dana J Cole, Robert M Hoekstra, Olga L Henao, Dörte Döpfer
The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) is currently using a negative binomial (NB) regression model to estimate temporal changes in the incidence of Campylobacter infection. FoodNet active surveillance in 483 counties collected data on 40,212 Campylobacter cases between years 2004 and 2011. We explored models that disaggregated these data to allow us to account for demographic, geographic, and seasonal factors when examining changes in incidence of Campylobacter infection. We hypothesized that modeling structural zeros and including demographic variables would increase the fit of FoodNet's Campylobacter incidence regression models...
July 18, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718425/nlrc5-cita-a-key-player-in-cancer-immune-surveillance
#4
REVIEW
Sayuri Yoshihama, Saptha Vijayan, Tabasum Sidiq, Koichi S Kobayashi
Cancer cells need to escape immune surveillance for successful tumor growth. Loss of MHC class I has been described as a major immune evasion strategy in many cancers. MHC class I transactivator (CITA), NLRC5 [nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeats containing (NLR) family, caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) domain containing 5], is a key transcription coactivator of MHC class I genes. Recent genetic studies have revealed that NLRC5 is a major target for cancer immune evasion mechanisms...
January 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717366/interrelationship-between-climatic-ecologic-social-and-cultural-determinants-affecting-dengue-emergence-and-transmission-in-puerto-rico-and-their-implications-for-zika-response
#5
REVIEW
Angela Matysiak, Amira Roess
OBJECTIVE: The global resurgence of dengue has been attributed to rapid population growth, urban expansion, increased air travel, globalization, and climate change. Dengue is now endemic in Puerto Rico. Puerto Rico is at risk for Zika, another emerging arbovirus. The interrelationship between climatic, ecological, social, and cultural factors that affect dengue and other arboviruses' transmission is understudied. DESIGN: The objective of this systematic review is to examine the interrelationship between climatic, ecological, social, and cultural factors on dengue transmission in Puerto Rico and to draw lessons for Zika response...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716216/1-4-times-increase-in-atrial-fibrillation-related-ischemic-stroke-and-tia-over-12years-in-a-stroke-center
#6
Qiong Yang, Leonid Churilov, Dongsheng Fan, Stephen Davis, Bernard Yan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) has quadrupled in the past 50years in the general population. However, there is uncertainty regarding prevalence of AF over time in ischemic stroke patients given the aging population and enhanced surveillance of AF. We aimed to explore the changing prevalence of AF as well as other risk factors, stroke subtypes, investigations and pre-stroke medications among ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of data from a prospective database of consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke and TIA from 2004 to 2015...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715578/adverse-pathologic-findings-for-men-electing-immediate-radical-prostatectomy-defining-a-favorable-intermediate-risk-group
#7
Hiten D Patel, Jeffrey J Tosoian, H Ballentine Carter, Jonathan I Epstein
Importance: Active surveillance is recommended for patients with very low-risk (VLR) and low-risk (LR) prostate cancer. Despite controversy, recent clinical guidelines state surveillance may be considered for men with low-volume intermediate-risk (LVIR) disease. Objective: To compare rates of adverse pathologic findings among VLR, LR, and LVIR men electing immediate radical prostatectomy and evaluate criteria to define if a favorable intermediate-risk group minimizing risk exists...
July 13, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714477/mus81-nuclease-activity-is-essential-for-replication-stress-tolerance-and-chromosome-segregation-in-brca2-deficient-cells
#8
Xianning Lai, Ronan Broderick, Valérie Bergoglio, Jutta Zimmer, Sophie Badie, Wojciech Niedzwiedz, Jean-Sébastien Hoffmann, Madalena Tarsounas
Failure to restart replication forks stalled at genomic regions that are difficult to replicate or contain endogenous DNA lesions is a hallmark of BRCA2 deficiency. The nucleolytic activity of MUS81 endonuclease is required for replication fork restart under replication stress elicited by exogenous treatments. Here we investigate whether MUS81 could similarly facilitate DNA replication in the context of BRCA2 abrogation. Our results demonstrate that replication fork progression in BRCA2-deficient cells requires MUS81...
July 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713796/multimodal-imaging-in-focal-therapy-planning-and-assessment-in-primary-prostate-cancer
#9
Hossein Jadvar
PURPOSE: There is increasing interest in focal therapy (male lumpectomy) of localized low-intermediate risk prostate cancer. Focal therapy is typically associated with low morbidity and provides the possibility of retreatment. Imaging is pivotal in stratification of men with localized prostate cancer for active surveillance, focal therapy or radical intervention. This article provides a concise review of focal therapy and the evolving role of imaging in this clinical setting. METHODS: We performed a narrative and critical literature review by searching PubMed/Medline database from January 1997 to January 2017 for articles in the English language and the use of search keywords "focal therapy", "prostate cancer", and "imaging"...
June 2017: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713331/thyroid-stimulating-hormone-receptor-antibodies-in-pregnancy-clinical-relevance
#10
REVIEW
Ines Bucci, Cesidio Giuliani, Giorgio Napolitano
Graves' disease is the most common cause of thyrotoxicosis in women of childbearing age. Approximately 1% of pregnant women been treated before, or are being treated during pregnancy for Graves' hyperthyroidism. In pregnancy, as in not pregnant state, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (TSHR) antibodies (TRAbs) are the pathogenetic hallmark of Graves' disease. TRAbs are heterogeneous for molecular and functional properties and are subdivided into activating (TSAbs), blocking (TBAbs), or neutral (N-TRAbs) depending on their effect on TSHR...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710901/baseline-and-longitudinal-plasma-caveolin-1-level-as-a-biomarker-in-active-surveillance-for-early-stage-prostate-cancer
#11
Spyridon P Basourakos, John W Davis, Brian F Chapin, John F Ward, Curtis A Pettaway, Louis L Pisters, Neema Navai, Mary F Achim, Xuemei Wang, Hsiang-Chun Chen, Seungtaek Choi, Deborah Kuban, Patricia Troncoso, Sam Hanash, Timothy C Thompson, Jeri Kim
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of caveolin-1 as a predictor of disease reclassification in men with early prostate cancer undergoing active surveillance. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed archived plasma samples prospectively collected from men with early prostate cancer in a single-institution active surveillance study. Of 825 patients enrolled, 542 had 1 or more years of follow-up. Baseline and longitudinal plasma caveolin-1 levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
July 15, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710271/novel-alphacoronaviruses-and-paramyxoviruses-co-circulate-with-type-1-and-sars-related-betacoronaviruses-in-synanthropic-bats-in-luxembourg
#12
Maude Pauly, Jacques B Pir, Catherine Loesch, Aurélie Sausy, Chantal J Snoeck, Judith M Hübschen, Claude P Muller
Several infectious disease outbreaks with high mortality in humans have been attributed to viruses that are thought to have evolved from bat viruses. In this study from Luxembourg, the genetic diversity and epidemiology of paramyxoviruses and coronaviruses shed by the bat species Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and Myotis emarginatus was evaluated. Faeces collection (n= 624) was performed longitudinally in a mixed-species colony in 2015 and 2016. In addition, faeces (n= 254) were collected cross-sectionally from six Myotis emarginatus colonies in 2016...
July 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709825/the-ambiguous-role-of-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-lymphocytes-in-antitumor-immunity
#13
REVIEW
Guranda Chitadze, Hans-Heinrich Oberg, Daniela Wesch, Dieter Kabelitz
γδ T cells play a role in immune surveillance because they recognize stress-induced surface molecules and metabolic intermediates that are frequently dysregulated in transformed cells. Hence, γδ T cells have attracted much interest as effector cells in cell-based immunotherapy. Recently, however, it has been realized that γδ T cells can also promote tumorigenesis through various mechanisms including regulatory activity and IL-17 production. In this review we outline both the pathways involved in cancer cell recognition and killing by γδ T cells as well as current evidence for their protumorigenic activity in various models...
July 11, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709561/factors-associated-with-need-for-revascularisation-in-non-coronary-arterial-occlusive-lesions-secondary-to-takayasu-s-arteritis
#14
C A Hinojosa, J E Anaya-Ayala, Z Gomez-Arcive, H Laparra-Escareno, A Torres-Machorro, R Lizola
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Takayasu's arteritis (TA) is rare inflammatory large vessel form of vasculitis. The objective of this study was to evaluate experience in the management of TA patients and to identify the influence of inflammatory markers and clinical variables associated with disease progression, worsening ischaemic symptoms, and the need for interventions. METHODS: Demographics, and laboratory and clinical variables in patients that required revascularisation procedures were compared with those who had adequate symptomatic control with medical management...
July 11, 2017: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708951/control-of-a-community-outbreak-of-hepatitis-a-in-an-area-of-low-endemicity-wales-2016
#15
J Vaz, C Floyd, B Mason, A G Shankar, H Lewis
Incidence of hepatitis A in Wales is low (average of 0.48/100,000 inhabitants from 2004-2015). We describe a community outbreak of hepatitis A involving 3 schools (primary and secondary) in South Wales between March and June 2016 and reflect on the adequacy of the control measures used. Anyone in South Wales epidemiologically linked to a serological and/or RNA positive confirmed case of hepatitis A during the 15-50 days before onset of symptoms (diarrhoea, vomiting, fever, nausea, AND jaundice, or jaundice-associated symptom) was defined as a case...
July 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707992/transitional-care-services-a-quality-and-safety-process-improvement-program-in-neurosurgery
#16
Faith C Robertson, Jessica L Logsdon, Hormuzdiyar H Dasenbrock, Sandra C Yan, Siobhan M Raftery, Timothy R Smith, William B Gormley
OBJECTIVE Readmissions increasingly serve as a metric of hospital performance, inviting quality improvement initiatives in both medicine and surgery. However, few readmission reduction programs have targeted surgical patient populations. The objective of this study was to establish a transitional care program (TCP) with the goal of decreasing length of stay (LOS), improving discharge efficiency, and reducing readmissions of neurosurgical patients by optimizing patient education and postdischarge surveillance...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707808/cytotoxic-necrotizing-factor-1-promotes-prostate-cancer-progression-through-activating-the-cdc42-pak1-axis
#17
Yaxiu Guo, Zhisong Zhang, Huiting Wei, Jingyu Wang, Junqiang Lv, Kai Zhang, Evan T Keller, Zhi Yao, Quan Wang
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the leading cause of urinary tract infections and plays a role in prostatic carcinogenesis and prostate cancer (PCa) progression. However, the mechanisms through which UPEC promotes PCa development and progression are unclear. Cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1) is one of the most important UPEC toxins and its role in PCa progression has never been studied. We found that UPEC-secreted CNF1 promoted the migration and invasion of PCa cells and PCa metastasis. In vitro studies showed that CNF1 promotes pro-migratory and pro-invasive activity through entering PCa cells and activating Cdc42, which subsequently induced PAK1 phosphorylation and upregulation of MMP-9 expression...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707199/radiation-induced-inflammatory-cascade-and-its-reverberating-crosstalks-as-potential-cause-of-post-radiotherapy-second-malignancies
#18
REVIEW
Sonia Gandhi, Sudhir Chandna
The disease-free survival following radiotherapy is often limited by the development of second/secondary cancers. This significant impediment to effective cancer treatment implicated even in the modern-day radiotherapy needs to be countered effectively. Critical analysis reveals that besides achieving effective tumor control, radiotherapy elicits certain cellular and systemic inflammatory events in tumor infiltrate, which remain relatively stable and tend to facilitate "in-field" or "out of field" oncogenesis in due course of time...
July 13, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706091/predict-cp-study-protocol-of-implementation-of-comprehensive-surveillance-to-predict-outcomes-for-school-aged-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#19
Roslyn N Boyd, Peter Sw Davies, Jenny Ziviani, Stewart Trost, Lee Barber, Robert Ware, Stephen Rose, Koa Whittingham, Leanne Sakzewski, Kristie Bell, Christopher Carty, Steven Obst, Katherine Benfer, Sarah Reedman, Priya Edwards, Megan Kentish, Lisa Copeland, Kelly Weir, Camilla Davenport, Denise Brooks, Alan Coulthard, Rebecca Pelekanos, Andrea Guzzetta, Simona Fiori, Meredith Wynter, Christine Finn, Andrea Burgess, Kym Morris, John Walsh, Owen Lloyd, Jennifer A Whitty, Paul A Scuffham
OBJECTIVES: Cerebral palsy (CP) remains the world's most common childhood physical disability with total annual costs of care and lost well-being of $A3.87b. The PREDICT-CP (NHMRC 1077257 Partnership Project: Comprehensive surveillance to PREDICT outcomes for school age children with CP) study will investigate the influence of brain structure, body composition, dietary intake, oropharyngeal function, habitual physical activity, musculoskeletal development (hip status, bone health) and muscle performance on motor attainment, cognition, executive function, communication, participation, quality of life and related health resource use costs...
July 12, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705769/the-plasmid-mediated-fosfomycin-resistance-determinants-and-synergy-of-fosfomycin-and-meropenem-in-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-in-taiwan
#20
Sung-Pin Tseng, Sheng-Fan Wang, Ling Ma, Ting-Yin Wang, Tsung-Ying Yang, L Kristopher Siu, Yin-Ching Chuang, Pei-Shan Lee, Jann-Tay Wang, Tsu-Lan Wu, Jung-Chung Lin, Po-Liang Lu
BACKGROUND: Epidemiology of fosfomycin susceptibility and the plasmid-mediated fosfomycinase genes of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) isolates in Taiwan remain unclear. METHODS: 642 CRKP clinical isolates were collected from a nation-wide surveillance study (16 hospitals) in Taiwan in 2012-2013. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined. PFGE and MLST determined the clonal relatedness. Carbapenemases and fosfomycinases genes were detected by PCR, and their flanking regions were determined by PCR and sequencing...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
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