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Neurological disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636935/the-sensory-striatum-is-permanently-impaired-by-transient-developmental-deprivation
#1
Todd M Mowery, Kristina B Penikis, Stephen K Young, Christopher E Ferrer, Vibhakar C Kotak, Dan H Sanes
Corticostriatal circuits play a fundamental role in regulating many behaviors, and their dysfunction is associated with many neurological disorders. In contrast, sensory disorders, like hearing loss (HL), are commonly linked with processing deficits at or below the level of the auditory cortex (ACx). However, HL can be accompanied by non-sensory deficits, such as learning delays, suggesting the involvement of regions downstream of ACx. Here, we show that transient developmental HL differentially affected the ACx and its downstream target, the sensory striatum...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635542/gene-expression-study-of-mitochondrial-complex-i-in-schizophrenia-and-paranoid-personality-disorder
#2
Arvin Haghighatfard, Sarah Andalib, Mozhdeh Amini Faskhodi, Soha Sadeghi, Amir Hossein Ghaderi, Shadi Moradkhani, Jalal Rostampour, Zeinab Tabrizi, Ali Mahmoodi, Talie Karimi, Zakieh Ghadimi
OBJECTIVES: The aetiology and molecular mechanisms of schizophrenia (SCZ) and paranoid personality disorder (PPD) are not yet clarified. The present study aimed to assess the role of mitochondrial complex I and cell bioenergetic pathways in the aetiology and characteristics of SCZ and PPD. METHODS: mRNA levels of all genomic and mitochondrial genes which encode mitochondrial complex I subunits (44 genes) were assessed in blood in 634 SCZ, 340 PPD patients and 528 non-psychiatric subjects using quantitative real-time PCR, and associated comprehensive psychiatric, neurological and biochemical assessments...
February 20, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635538/clomipramine-trial-for-treatment-resistant-persistent-genital-arousal-disorder-a-case-series
#3
Ejder Akgun Yildirim, Munevver Hacioglu Yildirim, Elif Carpar, Irmak Sarac
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD), as a chronic and disabling condition, implicates substantial compelling complexities. METHODS: In this case series, seven women diagnosed with PGAD who were referred to the Sexual Dysfunction Unit of Psychotherapy Outpatient Clinic of Bakirkoy Research and Training Hospital for Psychiatry, Neurology, and Neurosurgery, Istanbul, Turkey between 2006 and 2009 were included. All patients were previously resistant to other antidepressants, antipsychotics and antiepileptics...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635494/urea-cycle-disorder-misdiagnosed-as-multiple-sclerosis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#4
Hussein Algahtani, Seham Alameer, Yousef Marzouk, Bader Shirah
Urea cycle disorders are a group of inborn errors of metabolism caused by dysfunction of any of the six enzymes or two transport proteins involved in urea biosynthesis. In this paper, we report a patient who presented with neurological dysfunction and coma in the immediate postpartum period. She was misdiagnosed for many years as a case of multiple sclerosis. The importance of reporting this case is to illustrate that the wrong diagnosis of patients as being affected with multiple sclerosis for many years due to magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities rather than the classic relapsing-remitting nature of the disease may lead to catastrophic consequences...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635482/diagnosis-and-management-of-myasthenia-gravis
#5
Christopher Barber
Myasthenia gravis is a rare long-term neurological condition that is characterised by fluctuating skeletal muscle weakness and fatigue, as well as respiratory difficulties. It is both an acquired autoimmune disease and a chronic neuromuscular disorder. Because of its rarity, myasthenia gravis is relatively unknown and may be unfamiliar to many nurses. While there are various types of myasthenia, this article focuses on myasthenia gravis, exploring its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment, and examining the nurse's role in managing the condition...
June 21, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634503/monitoring-the-diagnostic-process-on-an-inpatient-neurology-service
#6
Amar Dhand, Robert Bucelli, Arun Varadhachary, Michael Tsiaklides, Gabriela de Bruin, Gurpreet Dhaliwal
The Institute of Medicine report Improving Diagnosis in Health Care called for tools to monitor physicians' diagnostic process. We addressed this need by developing a tool for clinicians to record and analyze their diagnostic process. The tool was a secure web application in which clinicians used a structured grading system to assess the relative impact of clinical, laboratory, and neuroimaging data for every new diagnosis. Four neurohospitalists used the tool for 6.5 months on a general neurology ward service at a single tertiary-level teaching hospital...
July 2017: Neurohospitalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634323/intestinal-microbial-dysbiosis-aggravates-the-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-drosophila
#7
Shih-Cheng Wu, Zih-Syuan Cao, Kuo-Ming Chang, Jyh-Lyh Juang
Neuroinflammation caused by local deposits of Aβ42 in the brain is key for the pathogenesis and progression of Alzheimer's disease. However, inflammation in the brain is not always a response to local primary insults. Gut microbiota dysbiosis, which is recently emerging as a risk factor for psychiatric disorders, can also initiate a brain inflammatory response. It still remains unclear however, whether enteric dysbiosis also contributes to Alzheimer's disease. Here we show that in a Drosophila Alzheimer's disease model, enterobacteria infection exacerbated progression of Alzheimer's disease by promoting immune hemocyte recruitment to the brain, thereby provoking TNF-JNK mediated neurodegeneration...
June 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634151/speech-and-swallowing-abnormalities-in-adults-with-polg-associated-ataxia-polg-a
#8
Adam P Vogel, Natalie Rommel, Andreas Oettinger, Marius Horger, Patrick Krumm, Eva-Maria Kraus, Ludger Schöls, Matthis Synofzik
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma (POLG) can result in a wide spectrum of neurological deficits. A common presentation is progressive ataxia (POLG-A) which includes impaired speech and swallowing. The nature, severity and impact of these deficits in POLG-A is not known. A comprehensive quantitative and qualitative characterization of dysarthria and dysphagia in this recurrent ataxia disorder will assist in diagnostics, provide insights into the underlying pathology, and establish the foundation for future therapy trials...
June 17, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633545/late-recovery-of-awareness-in-prolonged-disorders-of-consciousness-a-cross-sectional-cohort-study
#9
Kudret Yelden, Sophie Duport, Leon M James, Agnieszka Kempny, Simon F Farmer, Alex P Leff, E Diane Playford
PURPOSE: To detect any improvement of awareness in prolonged disorders of consciousness in the long term. METHODS: A total of 34 patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (27 vegetative state and seven minimally conscious state; 16 males; aged 21-73) were included in the study. All patients were initially diagnosed with vegetative/minimally conscious state on admission to our specialist neurological rehabilitation unit. Re-assessment was performed 2-16 years later using Coma Recovery Scale-Revised...
June 21, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633539/a-survey-on-chemical-constituents-and-indications-of-aromatic-waters-soft-drinks-hydrosols-used-in-persian-nutrition-culture-and-folk-medicine-for-neurological-disorders-and-mental-health
#10
Azadeh Hamedi, Ardalan Pasdaran, Zahra Zebarjad, Mahmoodreza Moein
In Persian nutrition culture, drinking aromatic waters (hydrosols, distillate) has a long history as functional beverages or therapeutic remedies. The co-distilled water with essential oils, which contains partial amounts of more water-soluble volatile compounds are diluted and used as beverages. Since the solubility of volatile components is different in water, the overall composition, and thus the biological activities of aromatic waters seem to be different from the essential oils they were co-distilled with...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633499/lateralized-basal-ganglia-vulnerability-to-pesticide-exposure-in-asymptomatic-agricultural-workers
#11
Mechelle M Lewis, Nicholas W Sterling, Guangwei Du, Eun-Young Lee, Grace Shyu, Michael Goldenberg, Thomas Allen, Christy Stetter, Lan Kong, Shedra Amy Snipes, Byron C Jones, Honglei Chen, Richard B Mailman, Xuemei Huang
Background: Pesticide exposure is linked to Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder marked by dopamine cell loss in the substantia nigra of the basal ganglia (BG) that often presents asymmetrically. We previously reported that pesticide-exposed agricultural workers (AW) have nigral diffusion tensor (DTI) changes. The current study sought to confirm this finding, and explore its hemisphere and regional specificity within BG structures using an independent sample population...
June 19, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632421/novel-urushiol-derivatives-as-hdac8-inhibitors-rational-design-virtual-screening-molecular-docking-and-molecular-dynamics-studies
#12
Hao Zhou, Chengzhang Wang, Tao Deng, Ran Tao, Wenjun Li
Three series of novel urushiol derivatives were designed by introducing a hydroxamic acid moiety into the tail of an alkyl side chain and substituents with differing electronic properties or steric bulk onto the benzene ring and alkyl side chain. The compounds' binding affinity towards HDAC8 was screened by Glide docking. The highest-scoring compounds were processed further with molecular docking, MD simulations and binding free energy studies to analyze the binding modes and mechanisms. Ten compounds had Glide scores of -8...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632413/%C3%AE-synuclein-aggregation-modulation-an-emerging-approach-for-the-treatment-of-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Sushil K Singh, Aloke Dutta, Gyan Modi
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multifactorial progressive neurological disorder. Pathological hallmarks of PD are characterized by the presence of α-synuclein (αSyn) aggregates known as Lewy bodies. αSyn aggregation is one of the leading causes for the neuronal dysfunction and death in PD. It is also associated with neurotransmitter and calcium release. Current therapies of PD are limited to only symptomatic relief without addressing the underlying pathogenic factors of the disease process such as aggregation of αSyn...
June 20, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632021/neuromyelitis-optica-application-of-computer-diagnostics-to-historical-case-reports
#14
Pablo Garcia Reitboeck, Peter Garrard, Timothy Peters
The retrospective diagnosis of illnesses by medical historians can often be difficult and prone to bias, although knowledge of the medical disorders of historical figures is key to the understanding of their behavior and reactions. The recent application of computer diagnostics to historical figures allows an objective differential diagnosis to be accomplished. Taking an example from clinical neurology, we analyzed the earliest reported cases of Devic's disease (neuromyelitis optica) that commonly affects the optic nerve and spinal cord and was previously often confused with multiple sclerosis...
February 10, 2017: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631601/viral-genes-and-cellular-markers-associated-with-neurological-complications-during-herpesvirus-infections
#15
Carine L Holz, Rahul K Nelli, M Eilidh Wilson, Lila M Zarski, Walid Azab, Rachel Baumgardner, Nikolaus Osterrieder, Anthony Pease, Liangliang Zhang, Sarah Hession, Lutz S Goehring, Stephen B Hussey, Gisela Soboll Hussey
Despite the importance of neurological disorders associated with herpesviruses, the mechanism by which these viruses influence the central nervous system (CNS) has not been definitively established. Owing to the limitations of studying neuropathogenicity of human herpesviruses in their natural host, many aspects of their pathogenicity and immune response are studied in animal models. Here, we present an important model system that enables studying neuropathogenicity of herpesviruses in the natural host. Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes a devastating neurological disease (EHV-1 myeloencephalopathy; EHM) in horses...
June 20, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631008/regulation-of-neural-circuit-formation-by-protocadherins
#16
REVIEW
Stacey L Peek, Kar Men Mah, Joshua A Weiner
The protocadherins (Pcdhs), which make up the most diverse group within the cadherin superfamily, were first discovered in the early 1990s. Data implicating the Pcdhs, including ~60 proteins encoded by the tandem Pcdha, Pcdhb, and Pcdhg gene clusters and another ~10 non-clustered Pcdhs, in the regulation of neural development have continually accumulated, with a significant expansion of the field over the past decade. Here, we review the many roles played by clustered and non-clustered Pcdhs in multiple steps important for the formation and function of neural circuits, including dendrite arborization, axon outgrowth and targeting, synaptogenesis, and synapse elimination...
June 19, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630891/frequency-of-neurological-disorders-in-bullous-pemphigoid-patients-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Sheida Khosravani, Farhad Handjani, Reyhaneh Alimohammadi, Nasrin Saki
BACKGROUND: Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune subepidermal blistering skin disorder which occurs mostly in the elderly. Several studies have reported an association between BP and neurological disorders (ND). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between BP and neurological disorders in Iranian patients. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 87 patients with BP were enrolled. They were compared to 184 controls...
2017: International Scholarly Research Notices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630454/treatment-with-a-non-toxic-self-replicating-anti-prion-delays-or-prevents-prion-disease-in-vivo
#18
R Diaz-Espinoza, R Morales, L Concha-Marambio, I Moreno-Gonzalez, F Moda, C Soto
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurological disorders caused by prions, which are composed of a misfolded protein (PrP(Sc)) that self-propagates in the brain of infected individuals by converting the normal prion protein (PrP(C)) into the pathological isoform. Here, we report a novel experimental strategy for preventing prion disease based on producing a self-replicating, but innocuous PrP(Sc)-like form, termed anti-prion, which can compete with the replication of pathogenic prions...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630259/triacylglycerol-mimetics-regulate-membrane-interactions-of-glycogen-branching-enzyme-implications-for-therapy
#19
Rafael Alvarez, Jesús Casas, David J López, Maitane Ibarguren, Ariadna Suari-Rivera, Silvia Terés, Francisca Guardiola-Serrano, Alexander Lossos, Xavier Busquets, Or Kakhlon, Pablo V Escribá
Adult Polyglucosan Body Disease (APBD) is a neurological disorder characterized by adult-onset neurogenic bladder, spasticity, weakness, and sensory loss. The disease is caused by aberrant glycogen branching enzyme (GBE1-Y329S) yielding less branched, globular and soluble glycogen which tends to aggregate. We explore here whether, despite being a soluble enzyme, GBE1 activity is regulated by protein-membrane interactions. Since soluble proteins can contact a wide variety of cell membranes, we investigated the interactions of purified wild-type and Y329S GBE1 proteins with different types of model membranes (liposomes)...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629944/what-are-the-risk-factors-for-dislocation-in-primary-total-hip-arthroplasty-a-multicenter-case-control-study-of-128-unstable-and-438-stable-hips
#20
M H Fessy, S Putman, A Viste, R Isida, N Ramdane, A Ferreira, A Leglise, B Rubens-Duval, N Bonin, F Bonnomet, A Combes, S Boisgard, D Mainard, S Leclercq, H Migaud
INTRODUCTION: Dislocation after total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a leading reason for surgical revision. The risk factors for dislocation are controversial, particularly those related to the patient and to the surgical procedure itself. The differences in opinion on the impact of these factors stem from the fact they are often evaluated using retrospective studies or in limited patient populations. This led us to carry out a prospective case-control study on a large population to determine: 1) the risk factors for dislocation after THA, 2) the features of these dislocations, and 3) the contribution of patient-related factors and surgery-related factors...
June 16, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
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