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Babesiosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722598/risk-factors-for-severe-infection-hospitalization-and-prolonged-antimicrobial-therapy-in-patients-with-babesiosis
#1
Neeharik Mareedu, Anna M Schotthoefer, Jason Tompkins, Matthew C Hall, Thomas R Fritsche, Holly M Frost
Babesiosis is an emerging tick-borne disease transmitted by the hard tick Ixodes scapularis, which also transmits Lyme disease. Better gradation of prognostic indicators are needed to determine which patients may develop serious complications requiring hospitalization, and to provide early guidance on appropriate therapy. In this study, we evaluated 128 patients with smear or real time polymerase chain reaction-confirmed Babesia microti infections over a period of 16 years. Patients with asplenia or immunocompromising conditions were more likely to have severe infection (P < 0...
July 10, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683059/babesiosis-surveillance-wisconsin-2001-2015
#2
Elizabeth Stein, Lina I Elbadawi, James Kazmierczak, Jeffrey P Davis
Babesiosis is an emerging zoonotic disease caused primarily by Babesia microti, an intraerythocytic protozoan. Babesia microti, like the causal agents for Lyme disease and anaplasmosis, is endemic to the northeastern and upper midwestern United States where it is usually transmitted by the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis. Although babesiosis is usually a mild to moderate illness, older or immunocompromised persons can develop a serious malaria-like illness that can be fatal without prompt treatment. The most common initial clinical signs and symptoms of babesiosis (fever, fatigue, chills, and diaphoresis) are nonspecific and present diagnostic challenges that can contribute to delays in diagnosis and effective treatment with atovaquone and azithromycin (1)...
July 7, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655583/evaluation-of-the-inhibitory-effect-of-n-acetyl-l-cysteine-on-babesia-and-theileria-parasites
#3
Mohamed Abdo Rizk, Shimaa Abd El-Salam El-Sayed, Mahmoud AbouLaila, Naoaki Yokoyama, Ikuo Igarashi
N-acetyl-L-cysteine is known to have antibacterial, antiviral, antimalarial, and antioxidant activities. Therefore, the in vitro inhibitory effect of this hit was evaluated in the present study on the growth of Babesia and Theileria parasites. The in vitro growth of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Babesia divergens, Theileria equi, and Babesia caballi that were tested was significantly inhibited (P < 0.05) by micromolar concentrations of N-acetyl-L-cysteine. The inhibitory effect of N-acetyl-L-cysteine was synergistically potentiated when used in combination with diminazene aceturate on B...
June 24, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648772/clinical-outbreak-of-babesiosis-caused-by-babesia-capreoli-in-captive-reindeer-rangifer-tarandus-tarandus-in-the-netherlands
#4
Jan H Bos, Fokko C Klip, Hein Sprong, Els M Broens, Marja J L Kik
From a herd of captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) consisting of two males and seven females with five calves, three calves were diagnosed on post mortem examination with a Babesia capreoli infection. The diagnosis was indicated by PCR and when the other reindeer were examined two adult females and a one-year-old male were Babesia-positive. Molecular characterization of the 18S rDNA of the parasite showed complete identity with known B. capreoli sequences. Ixodes ricinus has been demonstrated to be a competent vector for B...
August 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638376/first-molecular-detection-of-piroplasm-infection-in-pet-dogs-from-gansu-china
#5
Qingli Niu, Jifei Yang, Zhijie Liu, Shandian Gao, Yuping Pan, Guiquan Guan, Yuefeng Chu, Guangyuan Liu, Jianxun Luo, Hong Yin
Babesiosis, the hemolytic disease caused by Babesia, which is a tick-transmitted obligate intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite. This disease is responsible for significant mortality and morbidity rates and enormous economic losses to the livestock industry in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. In this study, blood samples were collected from 141 pet dogs from Gansu, China, and analyzed for Babesia or Theileria spp. infection using specific PCR and sequencing based on 18S rRNA gene fragments. The results indicated that 18S rRNA gene sequences from 11 samples were similar to the 18S rRNA gene sequences in Babesia canis vogeli (2) and Theileria sinensis (9)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636757/babesiosis-an-unusual-cause-of-sepsis-after-kidney-transplantation-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
Imtiaz Ather, Negiin Pourafshar, Denise Schain, Asmita Gupte, Michael J Casey
We report a unique case of babesiosis presenting as sepsis after kidney transplantation. A 70-year-old female kidney transplant recipient presented with fever, hemolytic anemia, and acute kidney injury, and met three of four systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria. Serology was positive for Babesia microti, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. The patient was treated with atovaquone and azithromycin and made a full recovery. Reports of babesiosis after solid organ transplantation are rare, with only four prior cases reported in the literature...
June 21, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634526/concurrent-babesiosis-and-serological-evidence-of-lyme-disease-in-a-young-patient
#7
Mark Adler, Thein Swe, Akari Thein Naing
Human babesiosis co-infected with Lyme disease in a young patient is an important condition. Here, we describe a case of a 39-year-old male patient with concurrent babesiosis and Lyme disease. Co-infections of tick borne diseases are often difficult to diagnose and underreported, and resulting in significant morbidity and mortality to patients. While co-infections have been infrequently described, it is of paramount importance that clinicians should be able to diagnose early and treat them effectively according to the patient geographical area and history of tick bite...
January 2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632488/vector-borne-pathogens-in-stray-dogs-in-northeastern-turkey
#8
Esin Guven, Hamza Avcioglu, Seyda Cengiz, Armagan Hayirli
This experiment was carried out to attain prevalence and molecular characterization of pathogens causing canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) including babesiosis, hepatozoonosis, leishmaniasis, filariosis (Dirofilaria immitis, Dirofilaria repens, and Acanthocheilonema reconditum), ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis), and anaplasmosis (Anaplasma platys) in stray dogs. The study material consisted of 133 asymptomatic female (n = 96) and male (n = 37) stray dogs (≤1 year old, n = 16 and 1-6 years old, n = 117) housed in the Animal Care and Rehabilitation Center, Erzurum, Northeastern Turkey...
June 20, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615859/molecular-identification-of-babesia-spp-in-naturally-infected-dogs-of-kerala-south-india
#9
Sneha Augustine, Lucy Sabu, Bindu Lakshmanan
Canine babesiosis is a tick borne haemoprotozoan disease caused by large and small intraerythrocytic apicomplexan piroplasms of the genus Babesia spp. The clinical manifestations of the disease vary from inapparent subclinical form to hyperacute shock related haemolytic crisis. Microscopic examination of blood smears from suspected dogs revealed Babesia canis and B. gibsoni in 3.45 and 25.86 % of samples respectively. A seminested PCR based on previously published species specific primers targeting the 18S rRNA gene was utilized to identify the Babesia species infecting dogs of Kerala at the sub species level...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611446/genome-wide-analysis-of-gene-expression-and-protein-secretion-of-babesia-canis-during-virulent-infection-identifies-potential-pathogenicity-factors
#10
Ramon M Eichenberger, Chandra Ramakrishnan, Giancarlo Russo, Peter Deplazes, Adrian B Hehl
Infections of dogs with virulent strains of Babesia canis are characterized by rapid onset and high mortality, comparable to complicated human malaria. As in other apicomplexan parasites, most Babesia virulence factors responsible for survival and pathogenicity are secreted to the host cell surface and beyond where they remodel and biochemically modify the infected cell interacting with host proteins in a very specific manner. Here, we investigated factors secreted by B. canis during acute infections in dogs and report on in silico predictions and experimental analysis of the parasite's exportome...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607116/elimination-of-babesia-microti-is-dependent-on-intraerythrocytic-killing-and-cd4-t-cells
#11
Sini Skariah, Paul Arnaboldi, Raymond J Dattwyler, Ali A Sultan, Corey Gaylets, Odaelys Walwyn, Hannah Mulhall, Xia Wu, Soha R Dargham, Dana G Mordue
Babesiosis is a tick-borne zoonosis caused by protozoans of the genus Babesia, apicomplexan parasites that replicate within erythrocytes. However, unlike related Plasmodium species, the pathogenesis of Babesia infection remains poorly understood. The primary etiological agent of babesiosis in the United States is B. microti. In healthy individuals, tick-transmitted infection with Babesia causes no specific clinical manifestations, with many having no symptoms at all. However, even in asymptomatic people, a Babesia carriage state can be established that can last up to a year or more...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602279/an-elisa-immunoassay-employing-a-conserved-leishmania-hypothetical-protein-for-the-serodiagnosis-of-visceral-and-tegumentary-leishmaniasis-in-dogs-and-humans
#12
Ana Maria R S Carvalho, Lourena E Costa, Beatriz C S Salles, Thaís T O Santos, Fernanda F Ramos, Mariana P Lima, Miguel A Chávez-Fumagalli, Bruna T Silvestre, Áquila S B Portela, Bruno M Roatt, Julia A G Silveira, Denise U Gonçalves, Danielle F Magalhães-Soares, Mariana C Duarte, Daniel Menezes-Souza, Eduardo A F Coelho
In the present study, a conserved Leishmania hypothetical protein, namely LiHypA, was evaluated for the serodiagnosis of visceral and tegumentary leishmaniasis in dogs and humans. This protein showed a high amino acid sequence homology between viscerotropic and cutaneotropic Leishmania species. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using the recombinant antigen (rLiHypA), in addition to the A2 protein and two parasite antigenic preparations, which were used as controls. Regarding human diagnosis, results showed that rLiHypA was more sensitive and specific than ELISA-L...
June 8, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583072/identification-of-candidate-transmission-blocking-antigen-genes-in-theileria-annulata-and-related-vector-borne-apicomplexan-parasites
#13
Laetitia Lempereur, Stephen D Larcombe, Zeeshan Durrani, Tulin Karagenc, Huseyin Bilgin Bilgic, Serkan Bakirci, Selin Hacilarlioglu, Jane Kinnaird, Joanne Thompson, William Weir, Brian Shiels
BACKGROUND: Vector-borne apicomplexan parasites are a major cause of mortality and morbidity to humans and livestock globally. The most important disease syndromes caused by these parasites are malaria, babesiosis and theileriosis. Strategies for control often target parasite stages in the mammalian host that cause disease, but this can result in reservoir infections that promote pathogen transmission and generate economic loss. Optimal control strategies should protect against clinical disease, block transmission and be applicable across related genera of parasites...
June 5, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580297/comparison-of-natural-and-artificial-odor-lures-for-nilgai-boselaphus-tragocamelus-and-white-tailed-deer-odocoileus-virginianus-in-south-texas-developing-treatment-for-cattle-fever-tick-eradication
#14
John A Goolsby, Nirbhay K Singh, Alfonso Ortega-S, David G Hewitt, Tyler A Campbell, David Wester, Adalberto A Pérez de León
Cattle fever ticks (CFT), vectors of bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis, were eradicated from the United States by 1943, but are frequently reintroduced from neighboring border states of Mexico via stray cattle and wildlife hosts including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) (WTD) and nilgai antelope (Boselaphus tragocamelus). Nilgai antelope are exotic bovids from India that are hosts of CFT, have large home ranges as compared to WTD, thus have the potential to spread CFT through the landscape. Currently, there are no methods to control CFT on nilgai...
August 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579026/a-flow-cytometric-assessment-of-the-lymphocyte-immunophenotypes-in-dogs-naturally-infected-with-babesia-rossi
#15
Yolandi Rautenbach, Amelia Goddard, Peter N Thompson, Richard J Mellanby, Andrew L Leisewitz
Immunity to Babesia infection requires both innate and acquired responses, including cell mediated- and humoral responses. The aims of this study were to investigate the variation in selected peripheral blood lymphocyte phenotypes in dogs with virulent babesiosis at presentation and over time after treatment, and to determine whether these were correlated with the severity of clinical signs. Forty-four dogs naturally infected with B. rossi were studied and 5 healthy dogs were included as controls. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein at admission, prior to any treatment, and at 24h and 48-72h...
July 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541469/clinical-and-molecular-evidence-of-atovaquone-and-azithromycin-resistance-in-relapsed-babesia-microti-infection-associated-with-rituximab-and-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#16
Matthew S Simon, Lars F Westblade, Alexis Dziedziech, Joseph E Visone, Richard R Furman, Stephen G Jenkins, Audrey N Schuetz, Laura A Kirkman
Babesiosis treatment failures with standard therapy have been reported, but the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. We describe the emergence of atovaquone and azithromycin resistance associated with mutations in the binding regions of the target proteins of both drugs during treatment of an immunosuppressed patient with relapsing babesiosis.
May 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514953/emergence-of-babesia-canis-in-southern-england
#17
Maria Del Mar Fernández de Marco, Luis M Hernández-Triana, L Paul Phipps, Kayleigh Hansford, E Sian Mitchell, Ben Cull, Clive S Swainsbury, Anthony R Fooks, Jolyon M Medlock, Nicholas Johnson
BACKGROUND: The United Kingdom is considered free of autochthonous transmission of canine babesiosis although cases are reported in dogs associated with recent travel abroad. During the winter months of 2015/16, a cluster of cases of disease in dogs with signs suggestive of canine babesiosis were reported in Harlow, Essex. METHODS: Babesia species were detected in dog blood samples by Giemsa staining of blood smears and by pan-piroplasm PCRs. Babesia species were also detected in extracts of tick DNA using pan-piroplasm PCRs...
May 17, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453188/description-of-15-dna-positive-and-antibody-negative-window-period-blood-donations-identified-during-prospective-screening-for-babesia-microti
#18
Erin D Moritz, Laura Tonnetti, Mary Ellen Hewins, Victor P Berardi, Roger Y Dodd, Susan L Stramer
BACKGROUND: Blood donation screening detecting only antibodies fails to identify donors in the earliest stage of infection, before a detectable immunologic response, that is, the "window period" (WP). We present data on WP donations identified during prospective screening for Babesia microti, a transfusion-transmissible parasite of increasing concern in the United States. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Blood donations collected in Connecticut, Massachusetts, Minnesota, and Wisconsin were screened using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and arrayed fluorescence immunoassay (AFIA) to detect B...
April 28, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443086/complete-molecular-and-immunoprotective-characterization-of-babesia-microti-enolase
#19
Xiangye Liu, Chen Zheng, Xiaoge Gao, Jiaxu Chen, Kuiyang Zheng
The apicomplexan Babesia microti is the primary causative agent of human babesiosis, one of the most broadly distributed tick-borne diseases worldwide. B. microti undergoes a complex lifecycle within both the mammalian host and the tick vector, and employs several different specific molecular mechanisms to enter host cells. Enolase, the key glycolytic enzyme in intracellular glucose metabolism, can also be expressed on the parasite's outer surface, binds to human plasminogen, and coordinates apicomplexan parasite invasion of host cells, however, it lacks sorting sequences or lipoprotein anchor sites...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438201/relation-of-antioxidant-status-at-admission-and-disease-severity-and-outcome-in-dogs-naturally-infected-with-babesia-canis-canis
#20
Martina Crnogaj, José Joaquin Cerón, Iva Šmit, Ivana Kiš, Jelena Gotić, Mirna Brkljačić, Vesna Matijatko, Camila Peres Rubio, Nada Kučer, Vladimir Mrljak
BACKGROUND: Canine babesiosis is caused by species of the Babesia genus and has become an emerging disease worldwide. To the authors' knowledge there are no reports in which antioxidants have been analyzed in different presentations of canine babesiosis or in which the prognostic value of antioxidants has been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether oxidative stress could be related to the severity and outcome of canine babesiosis. For this purpose a profile consisting of four antioxidant biomarkers (superoxide dismutase - SOD, glutathione peroxidase - GPx, catalase, total antioxidant status - TAS) and malondialdehyde - MDA as an oxidant biomarker (previously evaluated, here studied for comparative purposes) were evaluated in dogs with canine babesiosis of different clinical severity and outcomes...
April 24, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
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