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Anaplasmosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227140/range-expansion-of-the-economically-important-asiatic-blue-tick-i-rhipicephalus-microplus-i-in-south-africa
#1
Nkululeko Nyangiwe, Ivan G Horak, Luther Van der Mescht, Sonja Matthee
The Asiatic blue tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, a known vector of bovine babesiosis and bovine anaplasmosis, is of great concern in the cattle industry. For this reason, detailed knowledge of the distribution of R. microplus is vital. Currently, R. microplus is believed to be associated mainly with the northern and eastern Savanna and Grassland vegetation in South Africa. The objective of the study was to record the distribution of R. microplus, and the related endemic Rhipicephalus decoloratus, in the central-western region of South Africa that comprises Albany Thicket, Fynbos and Savanna vegetation...
December 8, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202672/sensitivity-and-specificity-levels-of-two-rapid-assays-for-antibodies-to-anaplasma-spp-in-dogs
#2
Jiayou Liu, Matthew Eberts, Hannah Bewsey, Thomas P O'Connor, Ramaswamy Chandrashekar, Edward B Breitschwerdt
Canine anaplasmosis is a tick-borne disease of dogs that results following infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum or Anaplasma platys. The SNAP 4Dx Plus test (IDEXX Laboratories) and the VetScan Canine Anaplasma Rapid test (Abaxis) are commercial in-house rapid tests for the detection of antibody to these 2 antigenically related Anaplasma species. We evaluated 2 tests using serum and whole blood samples obtained from reference laboratories and veterinary hospitals. Samples were obtained from regions of the country known to be habitats of the primary tick vectors...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202206/ehrlichia-and-anaplasma-infections-serological-evidence-and-tick-surveillance-in-peninsular-malaysia
#3
Fui Xian Koh, Kai Ling Kho, Masoumeh Ghane Kisomi, Li Ping Wong, Awang Bulgiba, Poai Ean Tan, Yvonne Ai Lian Lim, Quaza Nizamuddin Hassan Nizam, Chandrawathani Panchadcharam, Sun Tee Tay
Little information is available on human anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis in Southeast Asia despite increasing reports of the detection of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in the ticks. We report herein the serological findings against the tick-borne pathogens in a group of animal farm workers (n = 87) and indigenous people (n = 102) in Peninsular Malaysia. IgG antibodies against Ehrlichia chaffeensis were detected from 29.9% and 34.3% of farm workers and indigenous people, respectively, using commercial indirect immunofluorescence assays...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176601/emergence-of-tick-borne-diseases-at-northern-latitudes-in-europe-a-comparative-approach
#4
Atle Mysterud, Solveig Jore, Olav Østerås, Hildegunn Viljugrein
The factors that drive the emergence of vector-borne diseases are difficult to identify due to the complexity of the pathogen-vector-host triad. We used a novel comparative approach to analyse four long-term datasets (1995-2015) on the incidence of tick-borne diseases in humans and livestock (Lyme disease, anaplasmosis and babesiosis) over a geographic area that covered the whole of Norway. This approach allowed us to separate general (shared vector) and specific (pathogen reservoir host) limiting factors of tick-borne diseases, as well as the role of exposure (shared and non-shared pathogens in different hosts)...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173127/integrated-control-of-nymphal-ixodes-scapularis-effectiveness-of-white-tailed-deer-reduction-the-entomopathogenic-fungus-metarhizium-anisopliae-and-fipronil-based-rodent-bait-boxes
#5
Scott C Williams, Kirby C Stafford, Goudarz Molaei, Megan A Linske
Pathogens transmitted by ticks are the leading cause of arthropod-associated human diseases in the United States and managing the risk of exposure to potentially infected ticks is of vital public health importance. A 3-year integrated tick management program to control blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, the primary vector for the pathogenic agents of Lyme disease, human anaplasmosis, and babesiosis, was implemented in the town of Redding in southwestern Connecticut beginning in 2013. Combinations of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, reduction, area application of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, and fipronil-based rodent bait boxes were evaluated for their ability to reduce nymphal I...
November 27, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171663/granulocytic-anaplasmosis-in-63-dogs-clinical-signs-laboratory-results-therapy-and-course-of-disease
#6
A Chirek, C Silaghi, K Pfister, B Kohn
OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical signs, laboratory results, therapy and course of disease in dogs with canine granulocytic anaplasmosis in which co-infections had been excluded. METHODS: Medical records of dogs naturally infected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were retrospectively evaluated with regard to clinical signs and laboratory abnormalities at the time of presentation, therapy and course of disease. RESULTS: Nine hundred and seventy-four dogs with clinical signs suspicious for canine granulocytic anaplasmosis were tested for A...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141715/clinical-isolation-of-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-in-south-korea
#7
Seung Hun Lee, Se Yoon Park, Mi Jin Jang, Ki Ju Choi, Hae Kyung Lee, Young-Uk Cho, Yeong Seon Lee, Sung-Han Kim, Seon Do Hwang
We report the first isolation of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in South Korea. A 61-year-old woman presented with a 6-day history of fever, headache, and myalgia. Initial investigation showed neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. We diagnosed human granulocytic anaplasmosis by microscopic examination and serologic testing. The patient recovered fully without antibiotic therapy. The isolate was obtained from the patient's blood by cell culture and mouse inoculation. Its identity was confirmed by an immunofluorescence assay, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, msp2 (p44), and ankA genes, and staining and electron microscopy of morulae of A...
October 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114125/prevalence-of-amblyomma-gervaisi-ticks-on-captive-snakes-in-tamil-nadu
#8
B R Catherine, M G Jayathangaraj, C Soundararajan, C Bala Guru, D Yogaraj
Ticks are the important ectoparasites that occur on snakes and transmit rickettsiosis, anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis. A total of 62 snakes (Reticulated python, Indian Rock Python, Rat snakes and Spectacled cobra) were examined for tick infestation at Chennai Snake Park Trust (Guindy), Arignar Anna Zoological Park (Vandalur) and Rescue centre (Velachery) in Tamil Nadu from September, 2015 to June, 2016. Ticks from infested snakes were collected and were identified as Amblyomma gervaisi (previously known as Aponomma gervaisi)...
December 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050793/anaplasmosis-in-pediatric-patients-case-report-and-review
#9
Vaka K Sigurjonsdottir, Henry M Feder, Gary P Wormser
Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a tick-borne infection, characterized as an acute and sometimes severe febrile illness which may be associated with leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. Most case reports of HGA have been in adults, with only 8 case reports of HGA in children. We add a ninth case of HGA, which occurred in a 5-year-old. The paucity of pediatric HGA case reports maybe because publication bias, or HGA in children is a mild illness and children with HGA are less likely than adults to seek medical care, or the diagnosis of HGA requires a blood draw and adults (versus children) are more likely to get diagnostic testing...
November 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040182/variable-clinical-presentations-of-babesiosis-a-case-series
#10
Pamela Paparone, Philip W Paparone
Human babesiosis continues to spread in multiple regions of the United States. It is transmitted by Ixodes species ticks, as are Lyme disease and anaplasmosis. Its variable clinical presentations, together with serologic detection limitations, require that a high index of clinical suspicion be present for prompt diagnosis. This article discusses case presentations showing the wide range of symptoms and presentations that are possible with babesiosis.
November 16, 2017: Nurse Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038575/human-rickettsial-pathogen-modulates-arthropod-organic-anion-transporting-polypeptide-and-tryptophan-pathway-for-its-survival-in-ticks
#11
Vikas Taank, Shovan Dutta, Amrita Dasgupta, Tanner K Steeves, Durland Fish, John F Anderson, Hameeda Sultana, Girish Neelakanta
The black-legged tick Ixodes scapularis transmits the human anaplasmosis agent, Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In this study, we show that A. phagocytophilum specifically up-regulates I. scapularis organic anion transporting polypeptide, isoatp4056 and kynurenine amino transferase (kat), a gene involved in the production of tryptophan metabolite xanthurenic acid (XA), for its survival in ticks. RNAi analysis revealed that knockdown of isoatp4056 expression had no effect on A. phagocytophilum acquisition from the murine host but affected the bacterial survival in tick cells...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037863/outer-membrane-protein-ompb-methylation-may-mediate-bacterial-virulence
#12
REVIEW
David C H Yang, Amila H Abeykoon, Bok-Eum Choi, Wei-Mei Ching, P Boon Chock
Methylation of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) has been implicated in bacterial virulence. Lysine methylation in rickettsial OmpB is correlated with rickettsial virulence, and N- and O-methylations are also observed in virulence-relevant OMPs from several pathogenic bacteria that cause typhus, leptospirosis, tuberculosis, and anaplasmosis. We summarize recent findings on the structure of methylated OmpB, biochemical characterization, and crystal structures of OmpB methyltransferases. Native rickettsial OmpB purified from highly virulent strains contains multiple clusters of trimethyllysine, in contrast with mostly monomethyllysine, and no trimethyllysine is found in an avirulent strain...
October 13, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034616/molecular-survey-and-genetic-characterization-of-anaplasma-centrale-a-marginale-and-a-bovis-in-cattle-from-algeria
#13
M R Rjeibi, O Ayadi, M Rekik, M Gharbi
Bovine anaplasmosis could be caused by several Anaplasma species. The causative agents are transmitted by ticks and haematophagous arthropods with a high impact on both human and animal health. This study was conducted to estimate the infection rate and to characterize Anaplasma spp. in cattle from Algeria. A molecular survey was performed in Setif district (Northeast Algeria) where a total number of 180 cattle blood samples were collected and tested for the presence of Anaplasma spp. by PCR. Positive samples were genetically characterized based on the 16S rRNA and msp4 genes...
October 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939494/prevalence-risk-factors-and-vectors-identification-of-bovine-anaplasmosis-and-babesiosis-in-and-around-jimma-town-southwestern-ethiopia
#14
Nejash Abdela, Nuraddis Ibrahim, Feyissa Begna
Among tick-borne diseases, bovine anaplasmosis and babesiosis are considered to be one of the most important in ruminants worldwide, causing significant economic losses in tropical and subtropical areas. This cross-sectional study was therefore undertaken from November 2016 to April 2017 with the objectives to assess the prevalence and potential risk factors associated with bovine anaplasmosis and babesiosis and also to identify the vectors involved in transmission of these diseases in and around Jimma town, south western Ethiopia...
September 19, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929088/microbial-invasion-vs-tick-immune-regulation
#15
REVIEW
Daniel E Sonenshine, Kevin R Macaluso
Ticks transmit a greater variety of pathogenic agents that cause disease in humans and animals than any other haematophagous arthropod, including Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis, tick-borne encephalitis, Crimean Congo haemorhagic fever, and many others (Gulia-Nuss et al., 2016). Although diverse explanations have been proposed to explain their remarkable vectorial capacity, among the most important are their blood feeding habit, their long term off-host survival, the diverse array of bioactive molecules that disrupt the host's natural hemostatic mechanisms, facilitate blood flow, pain inhibitors, and minimize inflammation to prevent immune rejection (Hajdušek et al...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915997/outbreak-of-anaplasmosis-associated-with-novel-genetic-variants-of-anaplasma-marginale-in-a-dairy-cattle
#16
Munir Aktas, Sezayi Özübek
During early lactation, dairy cows may present a transient immunosuppressive state and develop anaplasmosis caused by Anaplasma marginale. In this study, clinical anaplasmosis in dairy cattle in the Thrace region of Turkey was investigated with respect to within-herd prevalence, vertical transmission, and genetic diversity. In March and September 2015, thirty lactating cows showed primary clinical signs of anaplasmosis, including fever, anaemia, decreased milk yield, anorexia, and laboured breathing. Symptoms disappeared in most cows after administration of long-acting oxytetracycline, but nine of them (30%) died...
October 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888642/spatio-temporal-variations-and-genetic-diversity-of-anaplasma-spp-in-cattle-from-the-north-of-tunisia
#17
Hanène Belkahia, Mourad Ben Said, Narjesse El Mabrouk, Mariem Saidani, Chayma Cherni, Mariem Ben Hassen, Ali Bouattour, Lilia Messadi
In cattle, anaplasmosis is a tick-borne rickettsial disease caused by Anaplasma marginale, A. centrale, A. phagocytophilum, and A. bovis. To date, no information concerning the seasonal dynamics of single and/or mixed infections by different Anaplasma species in bovines are available in Tunisia. In this work, a total of 1035 blood bovine samples were collected in spring (n=367), summer (n=248), autumn (n=244) and winter (n=176) from five different governorates belonging to three bioclimatic zones from the North of Tunisia...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861402/ixodes-scapularis-tick-cells-control-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-infection-by-increasing-the-synthesis-of-phosphoenolpyruvate-from-tyrosine
#18
Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Pedro J Espinosa, Dasiel A Obregón, Pilar Alberdi, José de la Fuente
The obligate intracellular pathogen, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is the causative agent of life-threatening diseases in humans and animals. A. phagocytophilum is an emerging tick-borne pathogen in the United States, Europe, Africa and Asia, with increasing numbers of infected people and animals every year. It is increasingly recognized that intracellular pathogens modify host cell metabolic pathways to increase infection and transmission in both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Recent reports have shown that amino acids are central to the host-pathogen metabolic interaction...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859959/first-confirmed-report-of-outbreak-of-theileriosis-anaplasmosis-in-a-cattle-farm-in-henan-china
#19
Yanyan Cui, Xiaoxing Wang, Yan Zhang, Yaqun Yan, Haiju Dong, Fuchun Jian, Ke Shi, Longxian Zhang, Rongjun Wang, Changshen Ning
Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) impose a significant constraint to livestock production world widely. In this paper, we presented a case of TBD in a cattle farm in Henan, China. 35 blood samples (7 samples sent by veterinarian, 28 samples gathered by our colleagues) were collected from ill, surviving and asymptomatic cattle and microscopic observation and PCR assays were conducted to characterize the pathogens. Genus Ixodes feeding on these cattle were collected and identified. Theileria annulata-like and Anaplasma marginale-like pathogens were observed in the blood smears stained with Giemsa staining under microscope...
August 30, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829732/case-report-polymerase-chain-reaction-testing-of-tick-bite-site-samples-for-the-diagnosis-of-human-granulocytic-anaplasmosis
#20
Choon-Mee Kim, Seok Won Kim, Dong-Min Kim, Na-Ra Yoon, Piyush Jha, Sook Jin Jang, Young-Joon Ahn, Donghoon Lim, Seung Hun Lee, Seon Do Hwang, Yeong Seon Lee
Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is a tick-borne infectious disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate intracellular bacterium. Until now, the utility of tick-bite site samples for HGA diagnosis has not been reported. Using a patient's buffy coat and tick-bite site crust samples, we performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing using Ehrlichia- or Anaplasma-specific primers. PCR with buffy coat and crust samples obtained before doxycycline administration was positive. Six days after doxycycline administration, PCR with the buffy coat sample was negative but PCR with a crust tissue sample from the tick-bite site remained positive...
August 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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