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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781085/effect-of-hypothermia-treatment-on-gentamicin-pharmacokinetics-in-neonates-with-hypoxic-ischaemic-encephalopathy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
D W Choi, J H Park, S Y Lee, S H An
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Hypothermia is the current standard therapy for asphyxiated neonates with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). Gentamicin is used for the empirical treatment of early-onset neonatal sepsis. We investigated the influence of hypothermia treatment on gentamicin pharmacokinetics and suggested the appropriate dosing recommendations for gentamicin in neonates with HIE receiving hypothermia treatment. METHODS: We searched studies published until February 2017 in MEDLINE using PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780413/experience-with-renal-autotransplantation-typical-and-atypical-indications
#2
Ali Bourgi, Rana Aoun, Elias Ayoub, Maroun Moukarzel
Introduction and Objectives: Renal autotransplantation is a kidney-saving surgical procedure used in selected patients. The purpose of this report is to review nine typical and atypical indications for kidney autotransplantation and evaluate its effectiveness in maintaining kidney function and avoiding cancer recurrence. Materials and Methods: From 1999 till 2014, nine renal autotransplantations were performed in our center. A retrospective case review was done...
2018: Advances in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779023/parathyroid-hormone-fibroblast-growth-factor-23-and-parameters-of-phosphate-reabsorption
#3
Kenneth R Phelps, Darius L Mason
BACKGROUND: The serum phosphorus concentration ([P]s) is the sum of EP/Ccr and TRP/Ccr, where Ccr is creatinine clearance and EP and TRP are rates of excretion and reabsorption of phosphate. In chronic kidney disease (CKD), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) mediate reduction of TRP/Ccr, and [PTH] and [FGF23] are linear functions of EP/Ccr. If controls and patients with CKD are considered together, TRP/Ccr is a hyperbolic function of EP/Ccr. Given these observations, we hypothesized that hyperbolas would describe relationships of phosphate reabsorption to [PTH] and [FGF23]...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778909/n-acetylcysteine-protects-against-diabetic-nephropathy-through-control-of-oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-by-recovery-of-nitric-oxide-in-rats
#4
Guilherme B Nogueira, Giovana R Punaro, Clemerson S Oliveira, Fabiane R Maciel, Thamires O Fernandes, Deyse Y Lima, Adelson M Rodrigues, Margaret G Mouro, Sergio R R Araujo, Elisa M S Higa
The diabetes mellitus (DM) induces several changes, with substantial increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS cause damage to systemic and renal microvasculature, which could be one of the mechanisms involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). The ROS modulate other substances like the nitric oxide (NO), a vasodilator with important role in the renal function. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is an antioxidant that acts replenishing intracellular cysteine levels, which is essential for glutathione formation...
May 17, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776017/pharmacokinetics-and-c-reactive-protein-modelling-of-anti-il-6-antibody-pf-04236921-in-healthy-volunteers-and-patients-with-autoimmune-disease
#5
Cheryl Li, Satoshi Shoji, Jean Beebe
AIMS: The purpose of this study was to characterize pharmacokinetics (PK) of PF-04236921, a novel anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibody, and its pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) relationship on serum C-Reactive Protein (CRP) in healthy volunteers and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and Crohn's disease (CD) METHODS: Population modelling analyses were conducted using nonlinear mixed effects modelling. Data from 2 phase 1 healthy volunteer studies, a phase 1 RA study, a Phase 2 CD study, and a Phase 2 SLE study were included...
May 18, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774462/combining-gfr-estimates-from-cystatin-c-and-creatinine-what-is-the-optimal-mix
#6
Emil den Bakker, Reinoud Gemke, Joanna A E van Wijk, Isabelle Hubeek, Birgit Stoffel-Wagner, Arend Bökenkamp
BACKGROUND: Combining estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) equations based on creatinine and cystatin C has been shown to improve the accuracy of GFR estimation. This study aims to optimize this strategy for height-independent GFR estimation in children. METHODS: Retrospective study of 408 inulin clearance tests with simultaneous International Federation of Clinical Chemistry-calibrated measurements of creatinine, cystatin C, and urea in children (mean age 12...
May 17, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773500/an-analysis-on-distribution-and-inter-relationships-of-biomarkers-under-rivaroxaban-in-japanese-patients-with-non-valvular-atrial-fibrillation-cvi-aro-1
#7
Shinya Suzuki, Takeshi Yamashita, Hidefumi Kasai, Takayuki Otsuka, Koichi Sagara
Prothrombin time (PT) has been widely used for measuring anticoagulation intensity under rivaroxaban therapy, but precise information has not been well established yet. Consecutive 96 non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) under rivaroxaban between Jan/June, 2015 were recruited. Serum concentration (SC) and PT with 5 representative reagents available in Japan (Neoplastin Plus®, Thromborel S®, Thrombocheck PT®, Thrombocheck PT Plus®, and Recombiplastin®) at 2-4 hours after (peak) and before intake of rivaroxaban (trough) were measured at outpatient clinic in the cardiovascular institute (CVI ARO study 1)...
March 15, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773193/boron-intake-osteocalcin-polymorphism-and-serum-level-in-postmenopausal-osteoporosis
#8
Olcay Boyacioglu, Seda Orenay-Boyacioglu, Hatice Yildirim, Mehmet Korkmaz
The relationship between daily boron intake and osteocalcin-mediated osteoporosis was studied in boron-exposed postmenopausal women. It is known that boron and osteocalcin are important in bone metabolism, however the effect of boron in bone metabolism has not been fully discovered. The study was performed on 53 postmenopausal women aged 55-60 living in parts of Balikesir, Turkey, where the subjects are naturally exposed to high (≥1 mg/L) or low (<1 mg/L) boron concentration in drinking water. 24-h urine samples were collected from all participants and creatinine clearance was detected...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770219/determinants-and-prognosis-of-high-sensitivity-cardiac-troponin-t-peak-plasma-concentration-in-patients-hospitalized-for-non-cardiogenic-shock
#9
Marie Caujolle, Jerome Allyn, Caroline Brulliard, Dorothée Valance, David Vandroux, Olivier Martinet, Nicolas Allou
Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the determinants and prognostic value of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T peak plasma concentration in intensive care unit patients with non-cardiogenic shock. Material and methods: A prospective observational cohort study was conducted in a single intensive care unit between November 2014 and December 2015. Results: During the study period, 206 patients were hospitalized in the intensive care unit for non-cardiogenic shock and the median peak high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T was 55...
2018: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768260/carboplatin-dosing-accuracy-by-estimation-of-glomerular-filtration-versus-creatinuria-in-cancer-patients
#10
Noiver Graciano Vera, Luis Pino Villarreal, Jenny Ureña Vargas
BACKGROUND: The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is essential for calculating the dose and the monitoring of carboplatin. Although GFR measurement (mGFR) by external markers is ideal, in most cases these are not employed; the most used method is GFR estimation (eGFR) by formulae, hence the need to identify the formula with the best performance. METHODS: Patients admitted between 2011 and 2017 and diagnosed with ovarian, endometrial, lung, esophageal, or testicular cancer were assessed retrospectively...
May 16, 2018: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767223/evaluation-of-renal-function-estimation-formulas-specific-to-dynamic-renal-function-for-drug-dosing-in-critically-ill-patients
#11
Lianjie Xiong, Z Kevin Lu, April Miller Quidley, Bebbyn S Alford, P Brandon Bookstaver
OBJECTIVES: The study compared estimated creatinine clearance (eCrCl) between the Cockcroft-Gault (CG) equation and the Jelliffe, Chiou, and Brater equations designed for estimation in dynamic renal function and resulting antimicrobial dosing concordance of five antimicrobials (cefepime, meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam, vancomycin, and fluconazole) commonly used in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: Electronic medical records were used to identify the target patient population...
May 2018: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765932/fluid-overload-and-renal-angina-index-at-admission-are-associated-with-worse-outcomes-in-critically-ill-children
#12
Sidharth K Sethi, Veena Raghunathan, Shilpi Shah, Maninder Dhaliwal, Pranaw Jha, Maneesh Kumar, Sravanthi Paluri, Shyam Bansal, Maroun J Mhanna, Rupesh Raina
Objectives: We investigated the association of fluid overload and oxygenation in critically sick children, and their correlation with various outcomes (duration of ventilation, ICU stay, and mortality). We also assessed whether renal angina index (RAI) at admission can predict mortality or acute kidney injury (AKI) on day 3 after admission. Design and setting: Prospective study, pediatric intensive care in a tertiary hospital. Duration: June 2013-June 2014. Patients: Patients were included if they needed invasive mechanical ventilation for >24 h and had an indwelling arterial catheter...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764549/-clinical-verification-of-vancomycin-population-pharmacokinetics-in-patients-with-augmented-renal-clearance
#13
Haodi Lu, Lian Tang, Shengmin Xue, Zhiwei Zhuang, Jie Fang, Fuli Zhao, Erning Shang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the predictive value and to verify the clinical effect of JPKD-vancomycin for the trough concentration of vancomycin in patients with augmented renal clearance (ARC), and to provide a reference for clinical individualized drug therapy. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted. The clinical data of 48 adult patients with ARC using vancomycin and monitoring steady-state trough concentration of vancomycin admitted to Suzhou Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University from July 2013 to July 2017 were collected...
May 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762865/population-pharmacokinetics-of-vancomycin-in-patients-undergoing-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#14
Akira Okada, Misato Kariya, Kei Irie, Yutaka Okada, Nobuhiro Hiramoto, Hisako Hashimoto, Ryosuke Kajioka, Chika Maruyama, Hidefumi Kasai, Mami Hamori, Asako Nishimura, Nobuhito Shibata, Keizo Fukushima, Nobuyuki Sugioka
Vancomycin is a commonly used antimicrobial agent for patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Vancomycin has large inter- and intraindividual pharmacokinetic variability, which is mainly described by renal function; various studies have indicated that vancomycin pharmacokinetics are altered in special populations. However, little is known regarding vancomycin pharmacokinetics in patients undergoing allo-HSCT. Therefore, we aimed to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) model of vancomycin in patients undergoing allo-HSCT for effective and safe antimicrobial therapy and to develop a vancomycin dosing nomogram for a vancomycin optimal-dosing strategy...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761900/fenofibrate-improves-renal-function-by-amelioration-of-nox-4-il-18-and-p53-expression-in-an-experimental-model-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#15
Habib Yaribeygi, Mohammad T Mohammadi, Ramin Rezaee, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Among several pathological mechanisms involved in diabetic nephropathy, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis play a prominent role. Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) agonist, has markedly improved oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, but there is no evidence about its effects on interleukin-18 (IL-18), NADPH oxidase type 4 (NOX-4), and p53 expression in diabetic kidneys. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible effects of fenofibrate on improving the underlying mechanisms of diabetic nephropathy...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761371/tolerability-and-efficacy-of-deferasirox-in-patients-with-transfusional-iron-overload-results-from-a-german-2-year-non-interventional-study
#16
Florian Nolte, Holger Nückel, Burkhard Schmidt, Thomas Geer, Oleg Rubanov, Holger Hebart, Andrea Jarisch, Stefan Albrecht, Christiane Johr, Christiane Schumann, Wolf-Karsten Hofmann
BACKGROUND: Iron overload (IOL) due to repetitive transfusions of packed red blood cells (pRBC) has a major impact on morbidity and mortality in patients with inherited bone marrow failure syndromes and hemoglobinopathies such as thalassemia and sickle cell disease. However, whether IOL influences the outcome of elderly patients with myeloid malignancies is not yet clear. Moreover, clinical trials have reported high drop-out rates during treatment with the oral iron chelator deferasirox (DFX)...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755998/application-of-a-pharmacokinetic-model-of-metformin-clearance-in-a-population-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#17
Alice C Ceacareanu, Geoffrey W Brown, Hoda A Moussa, Zachary A P Wintrob
Objective: We aimed to estimate the metformin-associated lactic acidosis (MALA) risk by assessing retrospectively the renal clearance variability and applying a pharmacokinetic (PK) model of metformin clearance in a population diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: All adults with preexisting DM and newly diagnosed AML at Roswell Park Cancer Institute were reviewed (January 2003-December 2010, n = 78). Creatinine clearance (CrCl) and total body weight distributions were used in a two-compartment PK model adapted for multiple dosing and modified to account for actual intra- and inter-individual variability...
January 2018: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754505/1-formula-see-text-2-formula-see-text-3-formula-see-text-4-formula-see-text-6-penta-o-galloyl-%C3%AE-d-glucose-from-galla-rhois-ameliorates-renal-tubular-injury-and-microvascular-inflammation-in-acute-kidney-injury-rats
#18
Ji Hun Park, Min Chol Kho, Hyun Cheol Oh, Youn Chul Kim, Jung Joo Yoon, Yun Jung Lee, Dae Gill Kang, Ho Sub Lee
Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), an important cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), causes increased renal tubular injury and microvascular inflammation. 1,[Formula: see text]2,[Formula: see text]3,[Formula: see text]4,[Formula: see text]6-penta-O-galloyl-[Formula: see text]-D-glucose (PGG) from Galla rhois has anticancer, anti-oxidation and angiogenesis effects. We examined protective effects of PGG on IRI-induced acute AKI. Clamping both renal arteries for 45[Formula: see text]min induced isechemia and then reperfusion...
May 13, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738035/prior-intake-of-brazil-nuts-attenuates-renal-injury-induced-by-ischemia-and-reperfusion
#19
Natassia Alberici Anselmo, Leticia Colombo Paskakulis, Renata Correia Garcias, Fernanda Fortuci Resende Botelho, Giovana Queda Toledo, Maria Fernanda Ribeiro Cury, Natiele Zanardo Carvalho, Glória Elisa Florido Mendes, Tatiane Iembo, Thaís Santana Gastardelo Bizotto, Patricia Maluf Cury, Agnaldo Bruno Chies, Carla Patrícia Carlos
INTRODUCTION: Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury results from inflammation and oxidative stress, among other factors. Because of its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, the Brazil nut (BN) might attenuate IR renal injury. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the intake of BN prevents or reduces IR kidney injury and inflammation, improving renal function and decreasing oxidative stress. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were distributed into six groups (N=6/group): SHAM (control), SHAM treated with 75 or 150 mg of BN, IR, and IR treated with 75 or 150 mg of BN...
April 19, 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737520/na-restriction-activates-enac-in-rat-kidney-through-two-mechanisms-and-decreases-distal-na-delivery
#20
Gustavo Frindt, Lei Yang, Krister Bamberg, Lawrence G Palmer
KEY POINTS: Dietary Na restriction, through the mineralocorticoid aldosterone, acts on epithelial Na channels (ENaC) through both fast (24 hrs) and slow (5 to 7 days) mechanisms in the kidney. The fast effect entails increased proteolytic processing and trafficking of channel protein to the apical membrane. It is rapidly reversible by the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist eplerenone and is largely lost when tubules are studied ex vivo. The slow effect does not require increased processing or surface expression, is refractory to acute eplerenone treatment, and is preserved ex vivo...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Physiology
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