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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213914/novel-method-to-assess-intrinsic-heart-rate-recovery-in-ambulatory-ecg-recordings-tracks-cardioprotective-effects-of-chronic-autonomic-regulation-therapy-in-patients-enrolled-in-the-anthem-hf-study
#1
Gerrard M Carlson, Imad Libbus, Badri Amurthur, Bruce H KenKnight, Richard L Verrier
BACKGROUND: Postexercise heart rate recovery (HRR) is a powerful and independent predictor of mortality. Autonomic regulation therapy (ART) with chronic vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has been shown to improve ventricular function in patients with chronic heart failure. However, the effect of ART on HRR in patients with heart failure remains unknown. METHODS: A new measure involving quantification of intrinsic HRR was developed for 24-hr ambulatory ECG (AECG) recordings based on spontaneous heart rate changes observed during daily activity in patients with symptomatic heart failure and reduced ejection fraction...
February 17, 2017: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213131/nerp-2-regulates-gastric-acid-secretion-and-gastric-emptying-via-the-orexin-pathway
#2
Cherl Namkoong, Koji Toshinai, T M Zaved Waise, Hideyuki Sakoda, Kazuki Sasaki, Yoichi Ueta, Min-Seon Kim, Naoto Minamino, Masamitsu Nakazato
Neuroendocrine regulatory peptide (NERP)-2 is derived from a distinct region of VGF, a neurosecretory protein originally identified as a product of a nerve growth factor-responsive gene in rat PC12 cells. Colocalization of NERP-2 with orexin-A in the lateral hypothalamus increases orexin-A-induced feeding and energy expenditure in both rats and mice. Orexigenic and anorectic peptides in the hypothalamus modulate gastric function. In this study, we investigated the effect of NERP-2 on gastric function in rats...
February 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211554/psychiatric-illnesses-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-psychiatric-comorbidity-and-biological-underpinnings
#3
REVIEW
Jarosław Nowakowski, Adrian Andrzej Chrobak, Dominika Dudek
Inflammatory bowel disease is a group of chronic medical conditions comprising Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis that involves increased frequency of mental disorders. The most common psychiatric disorders in inflammatory bowel disease are depression and anxiety, however, some epidemiologic and biological evidence suggest that other disorders like bipolar disorder occur more often. Biological mechanisms concerning both inflammatory bowel disease and depression or anxiety explain susceptibility to developing mental disorders in inflammatory bowel disease...
December 23, 2016: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197844/effects-of-non-invasive-vagus-nerve-stimulation-on-attack-frequency-over-time-and-expanded-response-rates-in-patients-with-chronic-cluster-headache-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-the-randomised-controlled-preva-study
#4
Charly Gaul, Delphine Magis, Eric Liebler, Andreas Straube
BACKGROUND: In the PREVention and Acute treatment of chronic cluster headache (PREVA) study, attack frequency reductions from baseline were significantly more pronounced with non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation plus standard of care (nVNS + SoC) than with SoC alone. Given the intensely painful and frequent nature of chronic cluster headache attacks, additional patient-centric outcomes, including the time to and level of therapeutic response, were evaluated in a post hoc analysis of the PREVA study...
December 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197102/right-cervical-vagotomy-aggravates-viral-myocarditis-in-mice-via-the-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway
#5
Ge Li-Sha, Chen Xing-Xing, Wu Lian-Pin, Zhou De-Pu, Li Xiao-Wei, Lin Jia-Feng, Li Yue-Chun
The autonomic nervous system dysfunction with increased sympathetic activity and withdrawal of vagal activity may play an important role in the pathogenesis of viral myocarditis. The vagus nerve can modulate the immune response and control inflammation through a 'cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway' dependent on the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR). Although the role of β-adrenergic stimulation on viral myocarditis has been investigated in our pervious studies, the direct effect of vagal tone in this setting has not been yet studied...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194649/numerical-modeling-of-percutaneous-auricular-vagus-nerve-stimulation-a-realistic-3d-model-to-evaluate-sensitivity-of-neural-activation-to-electrode-position
#6
Amine M Samoudi, Stefan Kampusch, Emmeric Tanghe, Jozsef C Széles, Luc Martens, Eugenijus Kaniusas, Wout Joseph
OBJECTIVE: Percutaneous stimulation of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (pVNS) by miniaturized needle electrodes in the auricle gained importance as a treatment for acute and chronic pain. The objective is to establish a realistic numerical model of pVNS and investigate the effects of stimulation waveform, electrodes' depth, and electrodes' position on nerve excitation threshold and the percentage of stimulated nerves. METHODS: Simulations were performed with Sim4Life...
February 13, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194509/fetal-facial-nerve-course-in-the-ear-region-revisited
#7
Zhe Wu Jin, Kwang Ho Cho, Hiroshi Abe, Yukio Katori, Gen Murakami, Jose Francisco Rodríguez-Vázquez
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to re-examine the structures that determine course of the facial nerve (FN) in the fetal ear region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used sagittal or horizontal sections of 28 human fetuses at 7-8, 12-16, and 25-37 weeks. RESULTS: The FN and the chorda tympani nerve ran almost parallel until 7 weeks. The greater petrosal nerve (GPN) ran vertical to the distal FN course due to the trigeminal nerve ganglion being medial to the geniculate ganglion at 7 weeks...
February 14, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188852/the-k%C3%A3-lliker-fuse-nucleus-acts-as-a-timekeeper-for-late-expiratory-abdominal-activity
#8
Sarah E M Jenkin, William K Milsom, Daniel B Zoccal
While the transition from the inspiratory to the post-inspiratory (post-I) phase is dependent on the pons, little attention has been paid to understanding the role of the pontine respiratory nuclei, specifically the Kölliker-Fuse nucleus (KF), in transitioning from post-I to the late expiratory (late-E) activity seen with elevated respiratory drive. To elucidate this, we used the in situ working heart-brainstem preparation of juvenile male Holtzman rats and recorded from the vagus (cVN), phrenic (PN) and abdominal nerves (AbN) during baseline conditions and during chemoreflex activation [with potassium cyanide (KCN; n=13) or hypercapnia (8% CO2; n=10)] to recruit active expiration...
February 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188025/vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-children-a-focus-on-intellectual-disability
#9
REVIEW
Jo Sourbron, Sylvia Klinkenberg, Alfons Kessels, Helenius Jurgen Schelhaas, Lieven Lagae, Marian Majoie
INTRODUCTION: Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) can be an efficacious add-on treatment in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, who are not eligible for surgery. Evidence of VNS efficacy in children with intellectual disability (ID) is scarce. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to review all available VNS data in the pediatric population (≤18 years old) and focus on the subpopulation with ID since appropriate treatment of these children is often challenging and complex...
January 30, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181355/measures-of-and-changes-in-heart-rate-variability-in-pediatric-heart-transplant-recipients
#10
T Williams, X Tang, G Gilmore, J Gossett, K R Knecht
Heart rate variability is primarily regulated by the autonomic nervous system. Heart transplant recipients undergo surgical denervation of the graft, which results in interruption of autonomic innervation with resultant diminished heart rate variability although some degree of autonomic control may return. This study aimed to characterize heart rate variability in this population. We report a retrospective review of Holter monitor data from transplanted patients between 2005 and 2013. Studies with significant atrial or ventricular arrhythmias were excluded...
February 8, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180068/early-cortical-biomarkers-of-longitudinal-transcutaneous-vagus-nerve-stimulation-treatment-success-in-depression
#11
Jiliang Fang, Natalia Egorova, Peijing Rong, Jun Liu, Yang Hong, Yangyang Fan, Xiaoling Wang, Honghong Wang, Yutian Yu, Yunyao Ma, Chunhua Xu, Shaoyuan Li, Jingjun Zhao, Man Luo, Bing Zhu, Jian Kong
Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS), a non-invasive method of brain stimulation through the auricular branch of the vagus nerve, has shown promising results in treating major depressive disorder (MDD) in several pilot studies. However, the neural mechanism by which the effect on depression might be achieved has not been fully investigated, with only a few neuroimaging studies demonstrating tVNS-induced changes in the brains of healthy volunteers. Identifying specific neural pathways, which are influenced by tVNS compared with sham in depressed individuals, as well as determining neurobiomarkers of tVNS treatment success are needed to advance the application of tVNS for MDD...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178853/clinical-vagus-nerve-stimulation-paradigms-induce-pronounced-brain-and-body-hypothermia-in-rats
#12
Lars Emil Larsen, Wouter Van Lysebettens, Charlotte Germonpré, Sofie Carrette, Sofie Daelemans, Mathieu Sprengers, Lisa Thyrion, Wytse Jan Wadman, Evelien Carrette, Jean Delbeke, Paul Boon, Kristl Vonck, Robrecht Raedt
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a widely used neuromodulation technique that is currently used or being investigated as therapy for a wide array of human diseases such as epilepsy, depression, Alzheimer's disease, tinnitus, inflammatory diseases, pain, heart failure and many others. Here, we report a pronounced decrease in brain and core temperature during VNS in freely moving rats. Two hours of rapid cycle VNS (7s on/18s off) decreased brain temperature by around [Formula: see text]C, while standard cycle VNS (30[Formula: see text]s on/300[Formula: see text]s off) was associated with a decrease of around [Formula: see text]C...
December 22, 2016: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166944/recover-of-peripheral-nerve-function-after-prolong-hypothermic-cardiac-arrest-in-a-porcine-model-with-extra-corporeal-life-support
#13
Benedict Kjaergaard, Cristian Sevcencu, Sigridur Olga Magnusdottir, Henrik Bygum Krarup, Thomas Nørgaard Nielsen
OBJECTIVES: Surviving long lasting cardiac arrest following accidental hypothermia has been reported after treatment with extra corporeal life support (ECLS), but there is a risk of neurologic injury. Most surviving hypothermia patients have a prolonged stay in the intensive care unit, where most patients experience polyneuropathy. Theoretically, accidental hypothermic cardiac arrest may in itself contribute to polyneuropathy. This study was designed to examine the impact of three hours of cardiac arrest at a core temperature of 20°C followed by reanimation of peripheral nerve function...
February 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166752/a-rare-case-of-bilateral-cervical-vagal-neurofibromas-role-of-high-resolution-ultrasound
#14
Bin Liu, Yuanding Zhang, Lili Zhang, Fan Zhang, Hongyu Li, Shuang Li, Yafang Liu, Jie Du, Lirong Zhao
BACKGROUND: Neurofibromas originating from vagus nerves are rarely reported in the literature. In particular, plexiform neurofibromas of the bilateral cervical vagus nerve are extremely rare. CASE PRESENTATION: A 21-year-old female presented with a 2-year history of swelling on the right side of her neck. Physical examination revealed a soft-tissue mass on the right side of her neck. Ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed a tumor centered in the right carotid sheath between the internal jugular vein and the common carotid artery...
February 6, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162639/-395-brainstem-activity-and-connectivity-is-modulated-by-respiratory-gated-auricular-vagus-afferent-nerve-stimulation-ravans-in-migraine-patients-an-fmri-study
#15
R Garcia, R Lin, J Lee, M Loggia, J Kim, H Kim, A Wasan, R Edwards, N Hadjikhani, V Napadow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160574/subdiaphragmatic-vagotomy-promotes-tumor-growth-and-reduces-survival-via-tnf%C3%AE-in-a-murine-pancreatic-cancer-model
#16
Lars Ivo Partecke, André Käding, Dung Nguyen Trung, Stephan Diedrich, Matthias Sendler, Frank Weiss, Jens-Peter Kühn, Julia Mayerle, Katharina Beyer, Wolfram von Bernstorff, Claus-Dieter Heidecke, Wolfram Keßler
This study analyses the effects of vagotomy on tumor growth and survival in a murine, pancreatic cancer model in wild-type and TNFα-knockout (-/-) mice.Throughout many operative procedures in the upper gastrointestinal tract the partial or complete transection of the vagus nerve or its local nerve fibers is unavoidable. Thereby its anti-inflammatory effects in residual tumor tissue may get lost. This effect may be mediated by tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) secreting TNFα.In an orthotopic murine pancreatic cancer model subdiaphragmatic vagotomy versus sham surgery was performed...
February 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155595/cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-and-stroke
#17
Kamil Duris, Jolana Lipkova, Michal Jurajda
Stroke is devastating cerebrovascular event which is responsible for 6.7 million deaths each year worldwide. Inflammation plays an important role in the pathophysiology of stroke. Targeting inflammation after stroke is highly actual topic for both experimental and clinical research. Cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CHAIP) is a physiological mechanism by which central nervous system regulates immune response and controls inflammation. Vagus nerve, spleen and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) are the main components of CHAIP...
February 1, 2017: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152451/can-natural-ways-to-stimulate-the-vagus-nerve-improve-seizure-control
#18
REVIEW
Alan W C Yuen, Josemir W Sander
The vagus nerve (VN) is the longest cranial nerve, innervating the neck, thorax and abdomen, with afferent fibers transmitting a range of interoceptive stimuli and efferent fibres to somatic structures and autonomic preganglions. Over the last few decades, electrical stimulation of the VN using implanted devices (VNS) has been developed leading to its approval for the treatment of epilepsy and depression. More recently, non-invasive devices to stimulation the VN have been developed. The VN has many functions and the activity that is most amenable to assessment is its effect in controlling the cardiac rhythm...
January 30, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145065/positional-relations-of-the-cervical-vagus-nerve-revisited
#19
Uwe Planitzer, Niels Hammer, Ingo Bechmann, Juliane Glätzner, Sabine Löffler, Robert Möbius, Bernhard N Tillmann, David Weise, Dirk Winkler
OBJECTIVES: The cervical part of the vagus nerve (CVN) has become an important target for stimulation therapy to treat epilepsy and psychiatric conditions. For this purpose, the CVN is visualized in the carotid sheath, assuming it to be localized dorsomedially between the carotid artery (CA) and the internal jugular vein (JV). The aim of our morphological study was therefore to revisit the CVN relationships to the CA and JV, hypothesizing it to have common variations to this classical textbook anatomy...
February 1, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144954/monitoring-of-the-posterior-cricoarytenoid-muscle-represents-another-option-for-neural-monitoring-during-thyroid-surgery-normative-vagal-and-recurrent-laryngeal-nerve-posterior-cricoarytenoid-muscle-electromyographic-data
#20
Whitney Liddy, Samuel R Barber, Brian M Lin, Dipti Kamani, Natalia Kyriazidis, Bradley Lawson, Gregory W Randolph
OBJECTIVE: Intraoperative neural monitoring (IONM) of laryngeal nerves using electromyography (EMG) is routinely performed using endotracheal tube surface electrodes adjacent to the vocalis muscles. Other laryngeal muscles such as the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle (PCA) are indirectly monitored. The PCA may be directly and reliably monitored through an electrode placed in the postcricoid region. Herein, we describe the method and normative data for IONM using PCA EMG. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review...
January 31, 2017: Laryngoscope
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