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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677548/combination-of-curcumin-and-vagus-nerve-stimulation-attenuates-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-induced-behavioral-deficits
#1
Jian Xu, Xinjuan Kong, Hong Xiu, Yihe Dou, Zeyu Wu, Peng Sun
AIM: Previous studies indicated that cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (CI/RI) could induce behavioral deficits. Single treatment of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) or curcumin is reported to restore CI/RI-induced behavioral deficits. However, the synergic effect remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were divided into 6 groups: sham, CI/RI, VNS, CI/RI + VNS, VNS + curcumin and CI/RI + VNS + curcumin groups. Each group was further divided into three or four subgroups for further assessments...
April 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677475/molecular-and-functional-neuroscience-in-immunity
#2
Valentin A Pavlov, Sangeeta S Chavan, Kevin J Tracey
The nervous system regulates immunity and inflammation. The molecular detection of pathogen fragments, cytokines, and other immune molecules by sensory neurons generates immunoregulatory responses through efferent autonomic neuron signaling. The functional organization of this neural control is based on principles of reflex regulation. Reflexes involving the vagus nerve and other nerves have been therapeutically explored in models of inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, and recently in clinical settings...
April 26, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675810/neurostimulation-for-memory-enhancement-in-epilepsy
#3
REVIEW
Stephen Meisenhelter, Barbara C Jobst
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Memory is one of the top concerns of epilepsy patients, but there are no known treatments to directly alleviate the memory deficits associated with epilepsy. Neurostimulation may provide new therapeutic tools to enhance memory in epilepsy patients. Here, we critically review recent investigations of memory enhancement using transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), chronic intracranial stimulation, and acute intracranial stimulation...
April 19, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674268/frequency-dependent-functional-connectivity-of-the-nucleus-accumbens-during-continuous-transcutaneous-vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-major-depressive-disorder
#4
Zengjian Wang, Jiliang Fang, Jun Liu, Peijing Rong, Kristen Jorgenson, Joel Park, Courtney Lang, Yang Hong, Bing Zhu, Jian Kong
Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) may be a promising treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). In this exploratory study, fMRI scans were acquired during continuous real or sham tVNS from 41 MDD patients. Then, all patients received real or sham tVNS treatment for four weeks. We investigated the functional connectivity (FC) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) at different frequency bands during real and sham tVNS and explored their associations with depressive symptom changes after one month of treatment...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673816/technical-nuances-of-exposing-rat-common-carotid-arteries-for-practicing-microsurgical-anastomosis
#5
Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Joseph Aklinski, Sirin Gandhi, Mark C Preul, Michael T Lawton
BACKGROUND: Animal models are commonly used in training protocols for microsurgical vascular anastomosis. Rat common carotid arteries (CCA) are frequently used for this purpose. Much attention has been paid to the technical details of various anastomosis configurations using these arteries. However, technical nuances of exposing rat CCA have been understudied. The purpose of this study is to describe nuances of technique for safely and efficiently exposing rat CCA in preparation for a vascular anastomosis METHODS: Bilateral CCAs were exposed and prepared for anastomosis in 10 anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats through a midline cervical incision...
April 16, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664415/model-based-optimal-multipolar-stimulation-without-a-priori-knowledge-of-nerve-structure-application-to-vagus-nerve-stimulation
#6
Melissa Dali, Olivier Rossel, David Andreu, Laure Laporte, Alfredo Hernandez, Jeremy Laforet, Eloi Marijon, Albert Hagège, Maureen Clerc, Christine Henry, David Guiraud
OBJECTIVE: Multipolar cuff electrode can selectively stimulate areas of peripheral nerves and therefore enable to control independent functions. However, the branching and fascicularization are known for a limited set of nerves and the specific organization remains subject-dependent. This paper presents a general modeling and optimization methods in the context of multipolar stimulation using a cuff electrode without a priori knowledge of the nerve structure. Vagus nerve stimulation experiments based on the optimization results were then investigated...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659159/spinal-accessory-motor-neurons-in-the-mouse-a-special-type-of-branchial-motor-neuron
#7
Charles Watson, Petr Tvrdik
The spinal accessory nerve arises from motor neurons in the upper cervical spinal cord. The axons of these motor neurons exit dorsal to the ligamentum denticulatum and form the spinal accessory nerve. The nerve ascends in the spinal subarachnoid space to enter the posterior cranial fossa through the foramen magnum. The spinal accessory nerve then turns caudally to exit through the jugular foramen alongside the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves, and then travels to supply the sternomastoid and trapezius muscles in the neck...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656427/exercise-training-abrogates-age-dependent-loss-of-hypothalamic-oxytocinergic-circuitry-and-maintains-high-parasympathetic-activity
#8
Carla R Santos, Adriana Ruggeri, Alexandre Ceroni, Lisete C Michelini
Neuroanatomical studies associating neuronal tract tracing and immunohistochemistry identified reciprocal (ascending noradrenergic/descending oxytocinergic, OTergic) connections between brainstem cardiovascular nuclei and the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN). Previous functional studies indicated that exercise training (T) augmented the expression/activity of OTergic pathway and improve the autonomic control of the heart. Knowing that ageing is associated with autonomic dysfunction and sinoaortic denervation blocked T-induced beneficial effects, we hypothesized that T was able to reduce age-dependent impairment by improving the afferent signaling to PVN and augmenting OTergic modulation of cardiovascular control...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652036/clinical-effects-of-selective-drug-regulating-vagus-nerve-signal-pathway-in-vagally-mediated-atrial-fibrillation
#9
Xue Lou, Yanmei Lu, Baopeng Tang, Xianhui Zhou
BACKGROUND The cardiac autonomic nervous system plays a crucial role in genesis and development of atrial fibrillation (AF) through the G protein signal transduction pathway. Therefore, intervening in the G protein signal transduction pathway may be a new "selective drug" method to regulate autonomic nerve activity to prevent vagally-mediated AF. MATERIAL AND METHODS Seventeen adult beagles were randomized into 3 groups: shame-operation control group (group A, n=5), empty vector gene control group (group B, n=6), and Gαi2ctp gene experimental group (group C, n=6)...
April 13, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651891/use-of-vagus-nerve-stimulator-on-children-with-primary-generalized-epilepsy
#10
William P Welch, Bilal Sitwat, Yoshimi Sogawa
OBJECTIVE: To describe the response to vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) in otherwise neurotypical children with medically intractable primary generalized epilepsy. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of patients who underwent vagus nerve stimulator surgery between January 2011 and December 2015. RESULTS: Eleven patients were identified. Median follow-up duration was 2.5 years (1.2-8.4 years). Prior to vagus nerve stimulator surgery, all patients had at least 1 seizure per week, and 7/11 (64%) had daily seizures...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649467/monosodium-glutamate-ingestion-during-the-development-period-reduces-aggression-mediated-by-the-vagus-nerve-in-a-rat-model-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#11
Ruriko Nishigaki, Yoshihiro Yokoyama, Yuko Shimizu, Ryosuke Marumoto, Sachiyo Misumi, Yoshitomo Ueda, Akimasa Ishida, Yasuyuki Shibuya, Hideki Hida
We used an umami substance, monosodium glutamate (MSG), as a simple stimulant to clarify the mechanism of the formation of emotional behavior. A 60 mM MSG solution was fed to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), used as a model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, from postnatal day 25 for 5 weeks kept in isolation. Emotional behaviors (anxiety and aggression) were then assessed by the open-field test, cylinder test and social interaction test. MSG ingestion during the developmental period resulted in a significant reduction in aggressive behavior but had few effects on anxiety-like behavior...
April 9, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627871/autonomic-regulation-and-ventricular-arrhythmias
#12
REVIEW
Lingjin Meng, Kalyanam Shivkumar, Olujimi Ajijola
Autonomic nervous system (ANS) has a crucial role of regulating cardiac function in the physiological state and contributes to the pathogenesis of arrhythmias in the diseased state. The cardiac neuraxis consists of multiple feedback loops consisting of efferent and afferent limbs, mediating neurotransmission to and from the heart. Efferent parasympathetic neurotransmission is mediated by the vagus nerve, while paravertebral sympathetic ganglia relay efferent sympathetic neurotransmission to the heart. The association between autonomic activity and ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) has been studied extensively in both experimental models and humans...
April 7, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621768/protective-role-of-the-hepatic-vagus-nerve-against-liver-metastasis-in-mice
#13
Tetsuya Hiramoto, Kazufumi Yoshihara, Yasunari Asano, Nobuyuki Sudo
OBJECTIVE(S): Although accumulating evidence has shown that the autonomic nervous system is involved in liver pathology, its role in regulating cancer development remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to elucidate its detailed mechanisms. METHODS: A mouse model of liver metastasis of colorectal cancer was used. To elucidate the potential mechanisms involved, we examined the effect of selective hepatic vagotomy on the survival rate and liver-to-body weight...
April 5, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615199/can-vagus-nerve-stimulation-improve-social-cognition-in-autism
#14
Ashwin Kumaria, Murugan Sitaraman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614774/the-brain-intestinal-mucosa-appendix-microbiome-brain-loop
#15
Luis Vitetta, Gemma Vitetta, Sean Hall
The brain and the gut are connected from early fetal life. The mother's exposure to microbial molecules is thought to exert in utero developmental effects on the fetus. These effects could importantly underpin the groundwork for subsequent pathophysiological mechanisms for achieving immunological tolerance and metabolic equilibrium post birth, events that continue through to 3-4 years of age. Furthermore, it is understood that the microbiome promotes cues that instruct the neonate's mucosal tissues and skin in the language of molecular and cellular biology...
April 1, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609270/-effect-of-%C3%AE-7nachr-mediated-cholinergic-anti-inflammatory-pathway-on-inhibition-of-atrial-fibrillation-by-low-level-vagus-nerve-stimulation
#16
Y S Qian, Q Y Zhao, S J Zhang, Y J Zhang, Y C Wang, H Y Zhao, Z X Dai, Y H Tang, X Wang, T Wang, C X Huang
Objective: To investigate the effect of α7nAChR mediated cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway on inhibition of atrial fibrillation by low-level vagus nerve stimulation(LL-VNS). Methods: Eighteen beagles were randomized into control group ( n =6), LL-VNS group ( n =6) and methyllycaconitine (MLA) + LL-VNS group ( n =6). All the beagles were subjected to rapid atrial pacing at 800 beats/min for 6 hours.And the effective refractory period (ERP) of atriums and pulmonary veins and induced atrial fibrillation (AF) were measured hourly during non-pacing...
March 20, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608227/estimating-long-term-vagus-nerve-stimulation-effectiveness-accounting-for-antiepileptic-drug-treatment-changes
#17
David Révész, Victoria Fröjd, Bertil Rydenhag, Elinor Ben-Menachem
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) in combination with pharmacological therapy in a longitudinal retrospective study at a single center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from 130 consecutive patients implanted with a VNS device between the years 2000 and 2013 was analyzed. Seizure frequency and pharmacological antiepileptic drug (AED) treatments were recorded prior to as well as at one, two, and five years after VNS implantation...
April 2, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605585/diet-gut-microbiota-composition-and-feeding-behavior
#18
Jiyoung S Kim, Claire B de La Serre
Advances in sequencing technologies have allowed for a more complete analysis of the microbiota composition and identification of differences among individuals and/or physiologies. Changes in microbiota composition and associated inflammation have been linked to both metabolic and behavioral disorders, and abnormality in microbiota composition, or dysbiosis, may play a causal role in the etiology and maintenance of these pathologies. There is accumulating evidence showing that the gut microbiota can communicate to the central nervous system to alter host behavior...
March 29, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601817/glp-1-receptor-agonist-liraglutide-exerts-central-action-to-induce-%C3%AE-cell-proliferation-through-medulla-to-vagal-pathway-in-mice
#19
Parmila Kumari, Masanori Nakata, Bo Yang Zhang, Zesemdorj Otgon-Uul, Toshihiko Yada
Endogenous GLP-1 and GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) regulate glucose metabolism via common and distinct mechanisms. Postprandial release of GLP-1 is modest and it is degraded by DPP-4 within 2 min, and hence it cannot enter the brain in substantial amount. In contrast, DPP-4-resistant GLP-1RAs are administered at 10 times higher concentration than endogenous GLP-1 level, which enables them to reach several brain regions including ARC and AP, the areas implicated in glucose metabolism. Hence, some of the effects of GLP-1RAs observed clinically and experimentally, including pancreatic β-cell proliferation, are thought to involve the brain...
March 27, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593576/vagus-nerve-as-modulator-of-the-brain-gut-axis-in-psychiatric-and-inflammatory-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Sigrid Breit, Aleksandra Kupferberg, Gerhard Rogler, Gregor Hasler
The vagus nerve represents the main component of the parasympathetic nervous system, which oversees a vast array of crucial bodily functions, including control of mood, immune response, digestion, and heart rate. It establishes one of the connections between the brain and the gastrointestinal tract and sends information about the state of the inner organs to the brain via afferent fibers. In this review article, we discuss various functions of the vagus nerve which make it an attractive target in treating psychiatric and gastrointestinal disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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