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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927801/vagus-nerve-stimulation-a-treatment-in-evolution
#1
Venkat Bhat, Sidney H Kennedy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925717/hypertrophic-neuritis-causing-tetraparesis-in-a-cat
#2
Yui Kobatake, Hiroki Sakai, Hidetaka Nishida, Yosuke Uematsu, Sadatoshi Maeda, Hiroaki Kamishina
An 8-year-old castrated male cat presented with acute ataxia and paresis in all four limbs. The cat also exhibited signs of autonomic nervous system impairment. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed swelling of the brachial plexuses bilaterally. Despite treatment, the cat died after 10 days of treatment. A postmortem examination revealed swollen radial nerves and cervical nerve roots in which infiltration of inflammatory cells was histologically confirmed. Additionally, lymphocytic infiltration was found around the blood vessels of the sciatic nerve bundle and the vagus nerve...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921169/-express-auricular-vagus-nerve-stimulation-enhances-central-serotonergic-function-and-inhibits-diabetic-neuropathy-development-in-zucker-fatty-rats
#3
Shayuan Li, Chunli Sun, Peijing Rong, Xu Zhai, Jinling Zhang, Max Baker, Shuxing Wang
Painful neuropathy is a frequent comorbidity in diabetes. Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF, fa/fa) rats develop type 2 diabetes spontaneously with ageing and show nociceptive hypersensitivity by age of 13wk. In preclinical and clinical studies, the treatment of diabetic neuropathy is challenging but complementary medicine like transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) appears beneficial to the relief of neuropathic pain. However, the mechanism behind the effectiveness of taVNS remains unclear. In this study we show that daily 30min taVNS (2/15Hz, 2mA) for consecutive 27 days effectively inhibited the development of nociceptive hypersensitivity in ZDF rats as detected by thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in hindpaw...
January 1, 2018: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920821/the-influence-of-sex-and-neonatal-stress-on-medullary-microglia-in-rat-pups
#4
Cécile Baldy, Stéphanie Fournier, Samuel Boisjoly-Villeneuve, Marie-Ève Tremblay, Richard Kinkead
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of the study? Does neonatal stress, in the form of neonatal maternal separation, influence the maturation of microglial density, morphology, and neuronal signalling in medullary regions regulating cardio-respiratory function in rat pups? What is the main finding and its importance? Using Iba-1 immunohistochemistry, we show that neonatal maternal separation augments microglial density and the proportion of cells with an amoeboid morphology in the medulla...
June 19, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910746/brain-stimulation-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
Chun-Hung Chang, Hsien-Yuan Lane, Chieh-Hsin Lin
Brain stimulation techniques can modulate cognitive functions in many neuropsychiatric diseases. Pilot studies have shown promising effects of brain stimulations on Alzheimer's disease (AD). Brain stimulations can be categorized into non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) and invasive brain stimulation (IBS). IBS includes deep brain stimulation (DBS), and invasive vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), whereas NIBS includes transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), electroconvulsive treatment (ECT), magnetic seizure therapy (MST), cranial electrostimulation (CES), and non-invasive VNS...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908719/inter-capsular-resection-of-cervical-vagus-nerve-schwannoma
#6
Masafumi Kuroiwa, Takehiro Yako, Tetsuya Goto, Kayoko Higuchi, Kazuo Kitazawa, Tetsuyoshi Horiuchi, Shigeaki Kobayashi
Cervical vagus nerve schwannoma is rare and its surgical procedure is controversial. The tumor is in general benign and slowly growing without causing symptoms, and therefore it should be advised to remove the tumor while preserving neural function. We operated on two patients with cervical vagus nerve schwannoma with the inter-capsular resection technique proposed by Hashimoto et al. without causing neurological deficits. It is the first time that the plane between the tumor-complex capsule layer (epineurium and perineurium) and true tumor capsule layer was histopathologically proved in this paper...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908450/cervical-sympathetic-chain-schwannoma-masquerading-as-a-vagus-nerve-schwannoma-complicated-by-postoperative-horner-s-syndrome-and-facial-pain-a-case-report
#7
Austin T Baker, Tyler J Homewood, Terry R Baker
INTRODUCTION: Cervical Sympathetic Chain Schwannomas (CSCS) of the carotid sheath are rare neoplasms that can be misdiagnosed on imaging. The following case documents a rare incident of a misdiagnosed CSCS with unusual outcomes of permanent Horner's syndrome and facial pain. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 36-year-old female presented with a slow-growing neck mass. CT and MRI led to a preoperative diagnosis of vagus nerve schwannoma (VNS). However, surgical treatment revealed the mass to be involved with the cervical sympathetic chain rather than the vagus nerve...
June 9, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907608/noninvasive-vagus-nerve-stimulation-as-acute-therapy-for-migraine-the-randomized-presto-study
#8
Cristina Tassorelli, Licia Grazzi, Marina de Tommaso, Giulia Pierangeli, Paolo Martelletti, Innocenzo Rainero, Stefanie Dorlas, Pierangelo Geppetti, Anna Ambrosini, Paola Sarchielli, Eric Liebler, Piero Barbanti
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of noninvasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS; gammaCore; electroCore, LLC, Basking Ridge, NJ) for the acute treatment of migraine in a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled trial. METHODS: A total of 248 participants with episodic migraine with/without aura were randomized to receive nVNS or sham within 20 minutes from pain onset. Participants were to repeat treatment if pain had not improved in 15 minutes...
June 15, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905938/evolution-over-time-of-sudep-incidence-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study
#9
Torbjörn Tomson, Olafur Sveinsson, Sofia Carlsson, Tomas Andersson
Prompted by a recent report on declining incidence of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) following implantation of a vagus nerve stimulator (VNS), we analyzed SUDEP risk over 6 years in a population-based cohort of 60 952 epilepsy patients in Sweden. All deaths from July 1, 2006 through December 31, 2011, were identified. Those with epilepsy mentioned on the death certificate were adjudicated for SUDEP using medical records and autopsy reports. In all, 292 SUDEP cases were identified. Comparing the first years (2006-2007) with the subsequent 4 years (2008-2011), the crude and standardized (to the US 2000 population) incidence of SUDEP (whether or not possible SUDEP was included) was significantly lower during the second time period; Incidence rate ratios based on standardized rates was estimated at 0...
June 15, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903617/roles-for-gut-vagal-sensory-signals-in-determining-energy-availability-and-energy-expenditure
#10
REVIEW
Gary J Schwartz
The gut sensory vagus transmits a wide range of meal-related mechanical, chemical and gut peptide signals from gastrointestinal and hepatic tissues to the central nervous system at the level of the caudal brainstem. Results from studies using neurophysiological, behavioral physiological and metabolic approaches that challenge the integrity of this gut-brain axis support an important role for these gut signals in the negative feedback control of energy availability by limiting food intake during a meal. These experimental approaches have now been applied to identify important and unanticipated contributions of the vagal sensory gut-brain axis to the control of two additional effectors of overall energy balance: the feedback control of endogenous energy availability through hepatic glucose production and metabolism, and the control of energy expenditure through brown adipose tissue thermogenesis...
August 15, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903616/mechanisms-of-vagal-plasticity-influencing-feeding-behavior
#11
REVIEW
Guillaume de Lartigue, Chelsea Xu
Sensory neurons of the vagus nerve receive many different peripheral signals that can change rapidly and frequently throughout the day. The ability of these neurons to convey the vast array of nuanced information to the brain requires neuronal adaptability. In this review we discuss evidence for neural plasticity in vagal afferent neurons as a mechanism for conveying nuanced information to the brain important for the control of feeding behavior. We provide evidence that synaptic plasticity, changes in membrane conductance, and neuropeptide specification are mechanisms that allow flexibility in response to metabolic cues that can be disrupted by chronic intake of energy dense diets...
August 15, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903615/neurotransmitter-modulation-by-the-gut-microbiota
#12
Philip Strandwitz
The gut microbiota - the trillions of bacteria that reside within the gastrointestinal tract - has been found to not only be an essential component immune and metabolic health, but also seems to influence development and diseases of the enteric and central nervous system, including motility disorders, behavioral disorders, neurodegenerative disease, cerebrovascular accidents, and neuroimmune-mediated disorders. By leveraging animal models, several different pathways of communication have been identified along the "gut-brain-axis" including those driven by the immune system, the vagus nerve, or by modulation of neuroactive compounds by the microbiota...
August 15, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897267/efficacy-and-mode-of-action-of-external-trigeminal-neurostimulation-in-migraine
#13
Jean Schoenen, Gianluca Coppola
Available preventive drug treatments for migraine lack complete efficacy and often have unpleasant adverse effects. Hence their clinical utility and therapeutic adherence are limited. Hence, non-invasive neurostimulation methods applied over various peripheral sites (forehead, mastoid, upper arm, cervical vagus nerve) have raised great interest because of their excellent efficacy/tolerance profile. Amongst them external trigeminal nerve stimulation (eTNS) was first to obtain FDA approval for migraine therapy...
June 13, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895444/tragus-or-cymba-conchae-investigating-the-anatomical-foundation-of-transcutaneous-auricular-vagus-nerve-stimulation-tavns
#14
Bashar W Badran, Joshua C Brown, Logan T Dowdle, Oliver J Mithoefer, Nicholas T LaBate, James Coatsworth, William H DeVries, Christopher W Austelle, Lisa M McTeague, Alfred Yu, Marom Bikson, Dorothea D Jenkins, Mark S George
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 6, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889110/intraoperative-neural-monitoring-in-endoscopic-thyroidectomy-via-bilateral-areola-approach
#15
Daqi Zhang, Qingfeng Fu, Gianlorenzo Dionigi, Tie Wang, Jingwei Xin, Jiao Zhang, Gaofeng Xue, Hongbo Li, Hui Sun
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this report was dual: (a) to describe the step by step standardized intraoperative neural monitoring (IONM) procedure for recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) and external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve focusing on percutaneous IONM method, and (b) evaluation and outcomes of intermittent IONM in 237 endoscopic thyroidectomy via bilateral areolar approach cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 10-mm curved incision is made along the margin of the right areola at the 2 to 4 o'clock position for the 30-degree endoscope...
June 7, 2018: Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883598/vagal-afferent-activation-suppresses-systemic-inflammation-via-the-splanchnic-anti-inflammatory-pathway
#16
Evilin Naname Komegae, David George Stephen Farmer, Virginia Leah Brooks, Michael Joseph McKinley, Robin Michael McAllen, Davide Martelli
Electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve (VNS) is a novel strategy used to treat inflammatory conditions. Therapeutic VNS activates both efferent and afferent fibers; however, the effects attributable to vagal afferent stimulation are unclear. Here, we tested if selective activation of afferent fibers in the abdominal vagus suppresses systemic inflammation. In urethane-anesthetized rats challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 60 µg/kg, i.v.), abdominal afferent VNS (2 Hz for 20 min) reduced plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) levels 90 min later by 88% compared with unmanipulated animals...
June 5, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872139/gut-vagal-sensory-signaling-regulates-hippocampus-function-through-multi-order-pathways
#17
Andrea N Suarez, Ted M Hsu, Clarissa M Liu, Emily E Noble, Alyssa M Cortella, Emily M Nakamoto, Joel D Hahn, Guillaume de Lartigue, Scott E Kanoski
The vagus nerve is the primary means of neural communication between the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the brain. Vagally mediated GI signals activate the hippocampus (HPC), a brain region classically linked with memory function. However, the endogenous relevance of GI-derived vagal HPC communication is unknown. Here we utilize a saporin (SAP)-based lesioning procedure to reveal that selective GI vagal sensory/afferent ablation in rats impairs HPC-dependent episodic and spatial memory, effects associated with reduced HPC neurotrophic and neurogenesis markers...
June 5, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870432/long-term-sustained-cognitive-benefits-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-refractory-depression
#18
Véronique Desbeaumes Jodoin, François Richer, Jean-Philippe Miron, Marie-Pierre Fournier-Gosselin, Paul Lespérance
BACKGROUND: Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is a serious chronic condition disabling patients functionally and cognitively. Chronic vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is recognized for the management of TRD, but few studies have examined its long-term effects on cognitive dysfunction in unipolar and bipolar resistant depression. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the course of cognitive functions and clinical symptoms in a cohort of patients treated with VNS for TRD...
June 4, 2018: Journal of ECT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867590/exercise-obesity-and-cns-control-of-metabolic-homeostasis-a-review
#19
REVIEW
John K Smith
This review details the manner in which the central nervous system regulates metabolic homeostasis in normal weight and obese rodents and humans. It includes a review of the homeostatic contributions of neurons located in the hypothalamus, the midbrain and limbic structures, the pons and the medullary area postrema, nucleus tractus solitarius, and vagus nucleus, and details how these brain regions respond to circulating levels of orexigenic hormones, such as ghrelin, and anorexigenic hormones, such as glucagon-like peptide 1 and leptin...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867575/dorsal-vagal-complex-modulates-neurogenic-airway-inflammation-in-a-guinea-pig-model-with-esophageal-perfusion-of-hcl
#20
Zhe Chen, Lejia Sun, Hui Chen, Dachuan Gu, Weitao Zhang, Zifeng Yang, Tao Peng, Rong Dong, Kefang Lai
Neurogenic airway inflammation in chronic cough and bronchial asthma related to gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is involved in the esophageal-bronchial reflex, but it is unclear whether this reflex is mediated by central neurons. This study aimed to investigate the regulatory effects of the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) on airway inflammation induced by the esophageal perfusion of hydrochloric acid (HCl) following the microinjection of nuclei in the DVC in guinea pigs. Airway inflammation was evaluated by measuring the extravasation of Evans blue dye (EBD) and substance P (SP) expression in the airway...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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