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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765528/pdx1-cre-driven-conditional-gene-depletion-suggests-pak4-as-dispensable-for-mouse-pancreas-development
#1
Miao Zhao, Parisa Rabieifar, Tânia D F Costa, Ting Zhuang, Audrey Minden, Matthias Löhr, Rainer Heuchel, Staffan Strömblad
Constitutive depletion of p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) in the mouse causes embryonic lethality associated with heart and brain defects. Given that conventional gene depletion of PAK1 or PAK3 caused functional deficits in the mouse pancreas, while gene depletion of PAK5 or PAK6 did not, we asked if PAK4 might have a functional role in pancreas development. We therefore introduced conditional, Pdx1-Cre-mediated, pancreatic PAK4 gene depletion in the mouse, verified by loss of PAK4 protein expression in the pancreas...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736155/integrin-linked-kinase-regulates-the-transcription-of-aqp2-by-nfatc3
#2
Marco Hatem-Vaquero, Mercedes Griera, Wieslawa Giermakowska, Alicia Luengo, Laura Calleros, Laura V Gonzalez Bosc, Diego Rodríguez-Puyol, Manuel Rodríguez-Puyol, Sergio De Frutos
Two processes are associated with progressive loss of renal function: 1) decreased aquaporin-2 (AQP2) expression and urinary concentrating capacity (Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus, NDI); and 2) changes in extracellular matrix (ECM) composition, e.g. increased collagen I (Col I) deposition, characteristic of tubule-interstitial fibrosis. AQP2 expression is regulated by both the ECM-to-intracellular scaffold protein integrin-linked kinase (ILK) by NFATc/AP1 and other transcription factors. In the present work, we used in vivo and in vitro approaches to examine ILK participation in NFATc3/AP-1-mediated increases in AQP2 gene expression...
July 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731532/formate-and-nitrate-utilization-in-enterobacter-aerogenes-for-semi-anaerobic-production-of-isobutanol
#3
Hwi-Min Jung, Yong Hwan Kim, Min-Kyu Oh
Anaerobic bioprocessing is preferred because of its economic advantages. However, low productivity and decreased growth of the host strain have limited the use of the anaerobic process. Anaerobic respiration can be applied to anoxic processing using formate and nitrate metabolism to improve the productivity of value-added metabolites. We constructed isobutanol-producing strains using Enterobacter aerogenes as a host strain by metabolic engineering approaches. The byproduct pathway (ldhA, budA, and pflB) was knocked out, and heterologous keto-acid decarboxylase (kivD) and alcohol dehydrogenase (adhA) were expressed along with the L-valine synthesis pathway (ilvCD and budB)...
July 21, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717590/construction-of-a-fur-null-mutant-and-rna-sequencing-provide-deeper-global-understanding-of-the-aliivibrio-salmonicida-fur-regulon
#4
Sunniva Katharina Thode, Cecilie Bækkedal, Jenny Johansson Söderberg, Erik Hjerde, Hilde Hansen, Peik Haugen
BACKGROUND: The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) is a transcription factor and the main regulator of iron acquisition in prokaryotes. When bound to ferric iron, Fur recognizes its DNA binding site and generally executes its function by repressing transcription of its target genes. Due to its importance in virulence, the Fur regulon is well studied for several model bacteria. In our previous work, we used computational predictions and microarray to gain insights into Fur-regulation in Aliivibrio salmonicida, and have identified a number of genes and operons that appear to be under direct control of Fur...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715454/reduction-of-cav1-3-channels-in-dorsal-hippocampus-impairs-the-development-of-dentate-gyrus-newborn-neurons-and-hippocampal-dependent-memory-tasks
#5
Su-Hyun Kim, Ye-Ryoung Park, Boyoung Lee, Byungil Choi, Hyun Kim, Chong-Hyun Kim
Cav1.3 has been suggested to mediate hippocampal neurogenesis of adult mice and contribute to hippocampal-dependent learning and memory processes. However, the mechanism of Cav1.3 contribution in these processes is unclear. Here, roles of Cav1.3 of mouse dorsal hippocampus during newborn cell development were examined. We find that knock-out (KO) of Cav1.3 resulted in the reduction of survival of newborn neurons at 28 days old after mitosis. The retroviral eGFP expression showed that both dendritic complexity and the number and length of mossy fiber bouton (MFB) filopodia of newborn neurons at ≥ 14 days old were significantly reduced in KO mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710587/characterization-of-the-sulfur-formation-suf-genes-in-synechocystis-sp-pcc-6803-under-photoautotrophic-and-heterotrophic-growth-conditions
#6
Sha-Sha Zang, Hai-Bo Jiang, Wei-Yu Song, Min Chen, Bao-Sheng Qiu
The sulfur-formation ( suf ) genes play important roles in both photosynthesis and respiration of cyanobacteria, but the organism prioritizes Fe-S clusters for respiration at the expense of photosynthesis. Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are important to all living organisms, but their assembly mechanism is poorly understood in photosynthetic organisms. Unlike non-photosynthetic bacteria that rely on the iron-sulfur cluster system, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 uses the Sulfur-Formation (SUF) system as its major Fe-S cluster assembly pathway...
July 14, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704482/proteomic-identification-of-proteins-differentially-expressed-following-overexpression-of-htert-human-telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-in-cancer-cells
#7
Rishi Kumar Jaiswal, Pramod Kumar, Amod Sharma, Deepak Kumar Mishra, Pramod Kumar Yadava
Reverse transcriptase activity of telomerase adds telomeric repeat sequences at extreme ends of the newly replicated chromosome in actively dividing cells. Telomerase expression is not detected in terminally differentiated cells but is noticeable in 90% of the cancer cells. hTERT (human telomerase reverse transcriptase) expression seems to promote invasiveness of cancer cells. We here present proteomic profiles of cells overexpressing or knocked down for hTERT. This study also attempts to find out the potential interacting partners of hTERT in cancer cell lines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701711/amplification-mode-differs-along-the-length-of-the-mouse-cochlea-as-revealed-by-connexin-26-deletion-from-specific-gap-junctions
#8
Victoria A Lukashkina, Tetsuji Yamashita, Jian Zuo, Andrei N Lukashkin, Ian J Russell
The sharp frequency tuning and exquisite sensitivity of the mammalian cochlea is due to active forces delivered by outer hair cells (OHCs) to the cochlear partition. Force transmission is mediated and modulated by specialized cells, including Deiters' cells (DCs) and pillar cells (PCs), coupled by gap-junctions composed of connexin 26 (Cx26) and Cx30. We created a mouse with conditional Cx26 knock-out (Cx26 cKO) in DCs and PCs that did not influence sensory transduction, receptor-current-driving-voltage, low-mid-frequency distortion-product-otoacoustic-emissions (DPOAEs), and passive basilar membrane (BM) responses...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680667/the-impact-of-induced-anxiety-on-affective-response-inhibition
#9
Jessica Aylward, Vincent Valton, Franziska Goer, Anahit Mkrtchian, Níall Lally, Sarah Peters, Tarun Limbachya, Oliver J Robinson
Studying the effects of experimentally induced anxiety in healthy volunteers may increase our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning anxiety disorders. Experimentally induced stress (via threat of unpredictable shock) improves accuracy at withholding a response on the sustained attention to response task (SART), and in separate studies improves accuracy to classify fearful faces, creating an affective bias. Integrating these findings, participants at two public science engagement events (n = 46, n = 55) were recruited to explore the effects of experimentally induced stress on an affective version of the SART...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678890/platinum-sensitive-2-like-impacts-growth-root-morphology-seed-set-and-stress-responses
#10
Amr R A Kataya, Maria T Creighton, Toga P Napitupulu, Christine Sætre, Behzad Heidari, Peter Ruoff, Cathrine Lillo
Eukaryotic protein phosphatase 4 (PP4) is a PP2A-type protein phosphatase that is part of a conserved complex with regulatory factors PSY2 and PP4R2. Various lines of Arabidopsis thaliana with mutated PP4 subunit genes were constructed to study the so far completely unknown functions of PP4 in plants. Mutants with knocked out putative functional homolog of the PSY2 LIKE (PSY2L) gene were dwarf and bushy, while plants with knocked out PP4R2 LIKE (PP4R2L) looked very similar to WT. The psy2l seedlings had short roots with disorganized morphology and impaired meristem...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673740/forebrain-knock-out-of-torsina-reduces-striatal-free-water-and-impairs-whole-brain-functional-connectivity-in-a-symptomatic-mouse-model-of-dyt1-dystonia
#11
Jesse C DeSimone, Samuel S Pappas, Marcelo Febo, Roxana G Burciu, Priyank Shukla, Luis M Colon-Perez, William T Dauer, David E Vaillancourt
Multiple lines of evidence implicate striatal dysfunction in the pathogenesis of dystonia, including in DYT1, a common inherited form of the disease. The impact of striatal dysfunction on connected motor circuits and their interaction with other brain regions is poorly understood. Conditional knock-out (cKO) of the DYT1 protein torsinA from forebrain cholinergic and GABAergic neurons creates a symptomatic model that recapitulates many characteristics of DYT1 dystonia, including the developmental onset of overt twisting movements that are responsive to antimuscarinic drugs...
October 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671257/haplotypes-and-polymorphism-in-the-ccr5-gene-in-sickle-cell-disease
#12
A F Nascimento, J S Oliveira, J C Silva Junior, A A L Barbosa
Sickle cell disease shows several clinical manifestations in distinct levels of severity. This heterogeneity is due to the haplotype variability associated with the HbS gene, levels of fetal hemoglobin and environmental conditions, which modify the disease expression. Science community believes that the presence of a polymorphism in the CCR5 gene, which is related to chronic inflammatory state, could confer a higher survival rate and a lower number of inflammatory events to these patients since the deletion in CCR5Δ32 would knock out the CCR5 gene...
June 29, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665997/independent-regulation-of-gene-expression-level-and-noise-by-histone-modifications
#13
Shaohuan Wu, Ke Li, Yingshu Li, Tong Zhao, Ting Li, Yu-Fei Yang, Wenfeng Qian
The inherent stochasticity generates substantial gene expression variation among isogenic cells under identical conditions, which is frequently referred to as gene expression noise or cell-to-cell expression variability. Similar to (average) expression level, expression noise is also subject to natural selection. Yet it has been observed that noise is negatively correlated with expression level, which manifests as a potential constraint for simultaneous optimization of both. Here, we studied expression noise in human embryonic cells with computational analysis on single-cell RNA-seq data and in yeast with flow cytometry experiments...
June 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663588/the-nep1-like-protein-family-of-magnaporthe-oryzae-is-dispensable-for-the-infection-of-rice-plants
#14
Ya-Li Fang, You-Liang Peng, Jun Fan
The necrosis- and ethylene-inducing protein 1 (Nep1)-like proteins (NLPs) are a class of microbe-associated molecular patterns widely distributed across diverse groups of plant-associated microorganisms. In spite of the cytotoxic activity in dicot plants, the role of most NLPs in the virulence of plant pathogens is still largely unknown. We showed that the MoNLP family of rice blast fungus varied very little in amino acid sequence, transient expression of three MoNLPs induced cell death and the production of reactive oxygen species in Nicotiana benthamiana, and the expression of MoNLPs was induced during infection of susceptible rice plants...
June 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663564/no-cancer-predisposition-or-increased-spontaneous-mutation-frequencies-in-neil-dna-glycosylases-deficient-mice
#15
Veslemøy Rolseth, Luisa Luna, Ann Karin Olsen, Rajikala Suganthan, Katja Scheffler, Christine G Neurauter, Ying Esbensen, Anna Kuśnierczyk, Gunn A Hildrestrand, Anne Graupner, Jill M Andersen, Geir Slupphaug, Arne Klungland, Hilde Nilsen, Magnar Bjørås
Base excision repair (BER) is a major pathway for removal of DNA base lesions and maintenance of genomic stability, which is essential in cancer prevention. DNA glycosylases recognize and remove specific lesions in the first step of BER. The existence of a number of these enzymes with overlapping substrate specificities has been thought to be the reason why single knock-out models of individual DNA glycosylases are not cancer prone. In this work we have characterized DNA glycosylases NEIL1 and NEIL2 (Neil1 (-/-) /Neil2 (-/-)) double and NEIL1, NEIL2 and NEIL3 (Neil1 (-/-) /Neil2 (-/-) /Neil3 (-/-)) triple knock-out mouse models...
June 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659616/a-novel-humanized-mouse-lacking-murine-p450-oxidoreductase-for-studying-human-drug-metabolism
#16
Mercedes Barzi, Francis P Pankowicz, Barry Zorman, Xing Liu, Xavier Legras, Diane Yang, Malgorzata Borowiak, Beatrice Bissig-Choisat, Pavel Sumazin, Feng Li, Karl-Dimiter Bissig
Only one out of 10 drugs in development passes clinical trials. Many fail because experimental animal models poorly predict human xenobiotic metabolism. Human liver chimeric mice are a step forward in this regard, as the human hepatocytes in chimeric livers generate human metabolites, but the remaining murine hepatocytes contain an expanded set of P450 cytochromes that form the major class of drug-metabolizing enzymes. We therefore generated a conditional knock-out of the NADPH-P450 oxidoreductase (Por) gene combined with Il2rg (- /-) /Rag2 (- /-) /Fah (- /-) (PIRF) mice...
June 28, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655872/ca-2-ionophores-are-not-suitable-for-inducing-mptp-opening-in-murine-isolated-adult-cardiac-myocytes
#17
Mathieu Panel, Bijan Ghaleh, Didier Morin
Opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) plays a major role in cell death during cardiac ischaemia-reperfusion. Adult isolated rodent cardiomyocytes are valuable cells to study the effect of drugs targeting mPTP. This study investigated whether the use of Ca(2+) ionophores (A23187, ionomycin and ETH129) represent a reliable model to study inhibition of mPTP opening in cardiomyocytes. We monitored mPTP opening using the calcein/cobalt fluorescence technique in adult rat and wild type or cyclophilin D (CypD) knock-out mice cardiomyocytes...
June 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655332/conditional-knock-out-of-lipoic-acid-protein-ligase-1-reveals-redundancy-pathway-for-lipoic-acid-metabolism-in-plasmodium-berghei-malaria-parasite
#18
Min Wang, Qiong Wang, Xiang Gao, Zhong Su
BACKGROUND: Lipoic acid is a cofactor for α-keto acid dehydrogenase system that is involved in the central energy metabolism. In the apicomplexan parasite, Plasmodium, lipoic acid protein ligase 1 (LplA1) and LplA2 catalyse the ligation of acquired lipoic acid to the dehydrogenase complexes in the mitochondrion. The enzymes LipB and LipA mediate lipoic acid synthesis and ligation to the enzymes in the apicoplast. These enzymes in the lipoic acid metabolism machinery have been shown to play important roles in the biology of Plasmodium parasites, but the relationship between the enzymes is not fully elucidated...
June 27, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651420/-effects-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-on-p311-and-its-influence-on-the-migration-of-murine-epidermal-stem-cells
#19
Z D Xu, H S Li, S Wang, W F He, J Wu, G X Luo
Objective: To explore the effects of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) on P311 and its influence on the migration of murine epidermal stem cells (ESCs) under hypoxia in vitro. Methods: Two kinds of murine ESCs were isolated and obtained from 15 neonatal wild-type C57BL/6J mice and 5 congeneric source P311 gene knock-out mice, respectively. The first passage of cells were used in the following experiments after morphologic observation and detection of expression of cell surface markers CD71 and CD49f with flow cytometer...
May 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629365/evaluation-and-improvement-of-the-regulatory-inference-for-large-co-expression-networks-with-limited-sample-size
#20
Wenbin Guo, Cristiane P G Calixto, Nikoleta Tzioutziou, Ping Lin, Robbie Waugh, John W S Brown, Runxuan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Co-expression has been widely used to identify novel regulatory relationships using high throughput measurements, such as microarray and RNA-seq data. Evaluation studies on co-expression network analysis methods mostly focus on networks of small or medium size of up to a few hundred nodes. For large networks, simulated expression data usually consist of hundreds or thousands of profiles with different perturbations or knock-outs, which is uncommon in real experiments due to their cost and the amount of work required...
June 19, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
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