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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081119/sclerostin-promotes-bone-remodeling-in-the-process-of-tooth-movement
#1
Rui Shu, Ding Bai, Tzongjen Sheu, Yao He, Xianrui Yang, Chaoran Xue, Yiruo He, Mengyuan Zhao, Xianglong Han
Tooth movement is a biological process of bone remodeling induced by mechanical force. Sclerostin secreted by osteocytes is mechanosensory and important in bone remodeling. However, little is known regarding the role of sclerostin in tooth movement. In this study, models of experimental tooth movement were established in rats and mice. Sclerostin expression was investigated with immunohistochemistry staining, and osteoclastic activity was analyzed with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells underwent uniaxial compression and tension stress or were cultured in hypoxia conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077706/connexin-mediated-signaling-in-nonsensory-cells-is-crucial-for-the-development-of-sensory-inner-hair-cells-in-the-mouse-cochlea
#2
Stuart L Johnson, Federico Ceriani, Oliver Houston, Roman Polishchuk, Elena Polishchuk, Giulia Crispino, Veronica Zorzi, Fabio Mammano, Walter Marcotti
: Mutations in the genes encoding for gap junction proteins connexin 26 (Cx26) and connexin 30 (Cx30) have been linked to syndromic and nonsyndromic hearing loss in mice and humans. The release of ATP from connexin hemichannels in cochlear nonsensory cells has been proposed to be the main trigger for action potential activity in immature sensory inner hair cells (IHCs), which is crucial for the refinement of the developing auditory circuitry. Using connexin knock-out mice, we show that IHCs fire spontaneous action potentials even in the absence of ATP-dependent intercellular Ca(2+) signaling in the nonsensory cells...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077655/expression-of-ifnlr1-on-intestinal-epithelial-cells-is-critical-to-the-antiviral-effects-of-ifn-lambda-against-norovirus-and-reovirus
#3
Megan T Baldridge, Sanghyun Lee, Judy J Brown, Nicole McAllister, Kelly Urbanek, Terence S Dermody, Timothy J Nice, Herbert W Virgin
: Interferon-lambda (IFN-λ) has potent antiviral effects against multiple enteric viral pathogens, including norovirus and rotavirus, in both preventing and curing infection. Because the intestine includes a diverse array of cell types, however, the cell(s) upon which IFN-λ acts to exert its antiviral effects are unclear. Here, we sought to identify IFN-λ responsive cells by generation of mice with lineage-specific deletion of the receptor for IFN-λ, Ifnlr1 We found that expression of IFNLR1 on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in the small intestine and colon is required for enteric IFN-λ antiviral activity...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077422/antxr2-knock-out-does-not-result-in-the-development-of-hypertension-in-rats
#4
Xiaoyan Liu, Wen Yuan, Jing Li, Lei Yang, Jun Cai
BACKGROUND: Our recent genetic study as well as robust evidences reported by previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have indicated that the single nucleotide polymorphism rs16998073, located near gene anthrax toxin receptor 2 (ANTXR2), was significantly associated with hypertension in Asians and Europeans. The aim of the present study was to determine whether ANTXR2 is the causal gene of hypertension at the 4q21 locus using an ANTXR2 knock-out model. METHODS: Relative expression of ANTXR2 in Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis...
February 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065270/functional-study-of-the-vitamin-k-cycle-enzymes-in-live-cells
#5
J-K Tie, D W Stafford
Vitamin K-dependent carboxylation, an essential posttranslational modification catalyzed by gamma-glutamyl carboxylase, is required for the biological functions of proteins that control blood coagulation, vascular calcification, bone metabolism, and other important physiological processes. Concomitant with carboxylation, reduced vitamin K (KH2) is oxidized to vitamin K epoxide (KO). KO must be recycled back to KH2 by the enzymes vitamin K epoxide reductase and vitamin K reductase in a pathway known as the vitamin K cycle...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063167/conditional-knockout-of-tog-results-in-cns-hypomyelination
#6
Michael J Maggipinto, Joshay Ford, Kristine H Le, Jessica W Tutolo, Miki Furusho, John W Wizeman, Rashmi Bansal, Elisa Barbarese
The tumor overexpressed gene (TOG) protein is present in RNA granules that transport myelin basic protein (MBP) mRNA in oligodendrocyte processes to the myelin compartment. Its role was investigated by conditionally knocking it out (KO) in myelinating glia in vivo. TOG KO mice have severe motor deficits that are already apparent at the time of weaning. This phenotype correlates with a paucity of myelin in several CNS regions, the most severe being in the spinal cord. In the TOG KO optic nerve <30% of axons are myelinated...
January 7, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057866/evidence-for-opposing-roles-of-celsr3-and-vangl2-in-glutamatergic-synapse-formation
#7
Sonal Thakar, Liqing Wang, Ting Yu, Mao Ye, Keisuke Onishi, John Scott, Jiaxuan Qi, Catarina Fernandes, Xuemei Han, John R Yates, Darwin K Berg, Yimin Zou
The signaling mechanisms that choreograph the assembly of the highly asymmetric pre- and postsynaptic structures are still poorly defined. Using synaptosome fractionation, immunostaining, and coimmunoprecipitation, we found that Celsr3 and Vangl2, core components of the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, are localized at developing glutamatergic synapses and interact with key synaptic proteins. Pyramidal neurons from the hippocampus of Celsr3 knockout mice exhibit loss of ∼50% of glutamatergic synapses, but not inhibitory synapses, in culture...
January 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057767/nano-random-forests-to-mine-protein-complexes-and-their-relationships-in-quantitative-proteomics-data
#8
Luis F Montaño-Gutierrez, Shinya Ohta, Georg Kustatscher, William C Earnshaw, Juri Rappsilber
Ever-increasing numbers of quantitative proteomics datasets constitute a currently underexploited resource for investigating protein function. Multi-protein complexes often follow consistent trends in these experiments, which could provide insights about their biology. Yet, as more experiments are considered, a complex's signature may become conditional and less identifiable. Previously, we successfully distinguished the general proteomic signature of genuine chromosomal proteins from hitchhikers using the Random Forests (RFs) machine learning algorithm...
January 5, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057617/molecular-basis-applications-and-challenges-of-crispr-cas9-a-continuously-evolving-tool-for-genome-editing
#9
REVIEW
Ylenia D'Agostino, Salvatore D'Aniello
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/Cas9) system is a recently discovered tool for genome editing that has quickly revolutionized the ability to generate site-specific mutations in a wide range of animal models, including nonhuman primates. Indeed, a significant number of scientific reports describing single or multiplex guide RNA microinjection, double-nicking strategies, site-specific knock-in and conditional knock-out have been published in less than three years. However, despite the great potential of this new technology, there are some limitations because of the presence of off-target genomic sites, which must be taken into consideration...
January 5, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035185/mildly-increased-mechanical-nociceptive-sensitivity-in-rev-erb%C3%AE-knock-out-mice
#10
Jaehyun Lee, Hyoung-Gon Ko, Kyungjin Kim, Bong-Kiun Kaang
Nociception is one of the most complex senses that is affected not only by external stimulation but also internal conditions. Previous studies have suggested that circadian rhythm is important in modulating nociception. REV-ERBα knock-out (KO) mice have disrupted circadian rhythm and altered mood-related phenotypes. In this study, we examined the role of REV-ERBα in inflammatory nociception. We found that the nociceptive sensitivity of KO mice was partially enhanced in mechanical nociception. However, this partial alteration was independent of the circadian rhythm...
December 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011153/wnt-signaling-promotes-axonal-regeneration-following-optic-nerve-injury-in-the-mouse
#11
Amit K Patel, Kevin K Park, Abigail S Hackam
Adult mammalian CNS axons generally do not regenerate, creating an obstacle to effective repair and recovery after neuronal injury. The canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is an essential signal transduction cascade that regulates axon growth and neurite extension in the developing mammalian embryo. In this study, we investigated whether a Wnt/β-catenin signaling activator could be repurposed to induce regeneration in the adult CNS after axonal injury. We used a retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon crush injury model in a transgenic Wnt reporter mouse, and intravitreal injections were used to deliver Wnt3a or saline to the RGC cell bodies within the retina...
December 21, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979828/conditional-genetic-deletion-of-ano1-in-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-impairs-ca2-transients-and-slow-waves-in-adult-mouse-small-intestine
#12
John Malysz, Simon J Gibbons, Siva A Saravanaperumal, Peng Du, Seth T Eisenman, Chike Cao, Uhtaek Oh, Dieter Saur, Sabine Klein, Tamas Ordog, Gianrico Farrugia
Myenteric plexus interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC-MY) in the small intestine are Kit(+) electrical pacemakers that express the Ano1/TMEM16A Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel, whose functions in the GI tract remain incompletely understood. In this study, an inducible Cre-LoxP-based approach was used to advance the understanding of Ano1 in ICC-MY of adult mouse small intestine. Kit(CreERT2/+);Ano1(Fl/Fl) mice were treated with tamoxifen or vehicle, and small intestines (mucosa-free) examined. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated ~50% reduction in Ano1 mRNA in intestines of conditional knock-outs (cKOs) compared to vehicle-treated controls...
December 15, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976675/cyst-wall-protein-1-is-fundamental-for-golgi-like-organelle-neogenesis-and-cyst-wall-biosynthesis-in-giardia-lamblia
#13
Jacqueline A Ebneter, Sally D Heusser, Elisabeth M Schraner, Adrian B Hehl, Carmen Faso
The genome of the protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia is organized in two diploid nuclei, which has so far precluded complete analysis of gene function. Here we use a previously developed Cre/loxP-based knock-out and selection marker salvage strategy in the human-derived isolate WB-C6 to eliminate all four copies of the Cyst-Wall-Protein-1 locus (CWP1). Because these loci are silenced in proliferating trophozoites and highly expressed only in encysting cells, CWP1 ablation allows functional characterization of a conditional phenotype in parasites induced to encyst...
December 15, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957527/deletion-of-the-mouse-homolog-of-cacna1c-disrupts-discrete-forms-of-hippocampal-dependent-memory-and-neurogenesis-within-the-dentate-gyrus
#14
Stephanie J Temme, Ryan Z Bell, Grace L Fisher, Geoffrey G Murphy
L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (LVGCCs) have been implicated in various forms of learning, memory, and synaptic plasticity. Within the hippocampus, the LVGCC subtype, CaV1.2 is prominently expressed throughout the dentate gyrus. Despite the apparent high levels of CaV1.2 expression in the dentate gyrus, the role of CaV1.2 in hippocampal- and dentate gyrus-associated forms of learning remain unknown. To address this question, we examined alternate forms of hippocampal-dependent associative and spatial memory in mice lacking the mouse ortholog of CACNA1C (Cacna1c), which encodes CaV1...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956549/loss-of-glyoxalase-1-induces-compensatory-mechanism-to-achieve-dicarbonyl-detoxification-in-mammalian-schwann-cells
#15
Jakob Morgenstern, Thomas Fleming, Dagmar Schumacher, Volker Eckstein, Marc Freichel, Stephan Herzig, Peter Nawroth
The glyoxalase system is a highly specific enzyme system existing in all mammalian cells which is responsible for the detoxification of dicarbonyl species, primarily methylglyoxal (MG). It has been implicated to play an essential role in preventing the increased formation of advanced glycation endproducts under certain pathological conditions. We have established the first glyoxalase 1 knock-out model (GLO1-/-) in mammalian Schwann cells using CRISPR/Cas9 technique to investigate compensatory mechanisms. Neither elevated concentrations of MG nor associated protein modifications were observed in GLO1-/- cells...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942437/metabolic-engineering-of-serratia-marcescens-mg1-for-enhanced-production-of-3r-acetoin
#16
Xin Lv, Lu Dai, Fangmin Bai, Zhanqing Wang, Liaoyuan Zhang, Yaling Shen
BACKGROUND: Optically pure acetoin (AC) is an important platform chemical which has been widely used to synthesize novel optically active α-hydroxyketone derivatives and liquid crystal composites. RESULTS: In this study, slaC and gldA encoding meso-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase (meso-2,3-BDH) and glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH), respectively, in S. marcescens MG1 were knocked out to block the conversion from AC to 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD). The resulting strain MG14 was found to produce a large amount of optically pure (3R)-AC with a little 2,3-BD, indicating that another enzyme responsible for 2,3-BD formation except meso-2,3-BDH and GDH existed in the strain MG1...
2016: Bioresources and Bioprocessing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935942/inhibition-of-bdnf-as-provides-neuroprotection-for-retinal-ganglion-cells-against-ischemic-injury
#17
Lifang Xu, Ziyin Zhang, Tianhua Xie, Xiaoyang Zhang, Tu Dai
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protects retinal ganglion cells against ischemia in ocular degenerative diseases. We aimed to determine the effect of BDNF-AS on the ischemic injury of retinal ganglion cells. METHODS: The levels of BDNF and BDNF-AS were measured in retinal ganglion cells subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation. The lentiviral vectors were constructed to either overexpress or knock out BDNF-AS. The luciferase reporter gene assay was used to determine whether BDNF-AS could target its seed sequence on BDNF mRNA...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932441/trophoblast-cells-inhibit-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-and-enhance-apoptosis-through-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-mediated-pathways
#18
Guillermina Calo, Florencia Sabbione, Daiana Vota, Daniel Paparini, Rosanna Ramhorst, Analía Trevani, Claudia Pérez Leirós
STUDY QUESTION: Do human trophoblast cells modulate neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) synthesis and neutrophil apoptosis through mechanisms involving vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Trophoblast cells inhibited NET formation and ROS synthesis and enhanced neutrophil apoptosis through VIP-mediated pathways in a model of maternal-placental interaction. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Immune homeostasis maintenance at the maternal-placental interface is mostly coordinated by trophoblast cells...
January 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919444/mechanistic-genomic-and-proteomic-study-on-the-effects-of-bisgma-derived-biodegradation-product-on-cariogenic-bacteria
#19
Lida Sadeghinejad, Dennis G Cvitkovitch, Walter L Siqueira, Justin Merritt, J Paul Santerre, Yoav Finer
OBJECTIVES: Investigate the effects of a Bis-phenyl-glycidyl-dimethacrylate (BisGMA) biodegradation product, bishydroxypropoxyphenyl-propane (BisHPPP), on gene expression and protein synthesis of cariogenic bacteria. METHODS: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to investigate the effects of BisHPPP on the expression of specific virulence-associated genes, i.e. gtfB, gtfC, gbpB, comC, comD, comE and atpH in Streptococcus mutans UA159. Possible mechanisms for bacterial response to BisHPPP were explored using gene knock-out and associated complemented strains of the signal peptide encoding gene, comC...
December 2, 2016: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917181/nitric-oxide-responsive-heavy-metal-associated-gene-athmad1-contributes-to-development-and-disease-resistance-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#20
Q Muhammad Imran, Noreen Falak, Adil Hussain, Bong-Gyu Mun, Arti Sharma, Sang-Uk Lee, Kyung-Min Kim, Byung-Wook Yun
Exposure of plants to different biotic and abiotic stress condition instigates significant change in the cellular redox status; resulting in the elevation of reactive nitrogen species that play signaling role in mediating defense responses. Heavy metal associated (HMA) domain containing genes are required for spatio-temporal transportation of metal ions that bind with various enzymes and co-factors within the cell. To uncover the underlying mechanisms mediated by AtHMA genes, we identified 14 Arabidopsis HMA genes that were differentially expressed in response to nitrosative stress through RNA-seq analysis...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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