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Chiao-Ling Lo, Lawrence Lumeng, Richard L Bell, Tiebing Liang, Amy C Lossie, Williams M Muir, Feng C Zhou
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are influenced by complex interactions between the genetics of the individual and their environment. We have previously identified hundreds of polygenic genetic variants between the selectively bred high and low alcohol drinking (HAD and LAD) rat lines. Here we report allele specific expression (ASE) differences, between the HAD2 and LAD2 rat lines. METHODS: The HAD2 and LAD2 rats which have been sequenced were reciprocally crossed to generate 10 litters of F1 progeny...
May 22, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Jiankai Wei, Bo Dong
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in diverse developmental and pathological processes through chromatin reprogramming, cis regulation and posttranscriptional modification. They have been extensively studied in both vertebrates and invertebrates. However, the information of lncRNAs in urochordate is still lacking. In this study, we used the RNA-Seq data from three developmental stages (18, 21 and 42 hours post fertilization, hpf) of embryos and larvae in Ciona savignyi to identify candidate lncRNAs and analyze their expression profiles...
May 10, 2018: Marine Genomics
S Chen, M Lu, N Zhang, X Zou, M Mo, S Zheng
Detoxication enzymes play an important role in insect resistance to xenobiotics such as insecticides and phytochemicals. We studied the pathway for activating the expression of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) in response to selected xenobiotics. An assay of the promoter activity of GST epsilon 1 (Slgste1) of Spodoptera litura led to the discovery of a cis-regulating element. An antioxidant response element was activated in response to indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) and was able to bind with the xenobiotic sensor protein nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (SlNrf2)...
May 10, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
Fengchang Qiao, Pihai Gong, Yunwei Song, Xiaohui Shen, Xianwei Su, Yiping Li, Huazhang Wu, Zhujiang Zhao, Hong Fan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: PITX1 has been identified as a potential tumor-suppressor gene in several malignant tumors. The molecular mechanism underlying PITX1, particularly its function as a transcription factor regulating gene expression during tumorigenesis, is still poorly understood. METHODS: The expression level and location of PITX1 were determined by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemical staining in gastric cancer (GC). The effect of PITX1 on the GC cell proliferation and tumorigenesis was analyzed in vitro and in vivo...
May 3, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
A Afek, L Tagliafierro, O C Glenn, D B Lukatsky, R Gordan, O Chiba-Falek
Short structural variants-variants other than single nucleotide polymorphisms-are hypothesized to contribute to many complex diseases, possibly by modulating gene expression. However, the molecular mechanisms by which noncoding short structural variants exert their effects on gene regulation have not been discovered. Here, we study simple sequence repeats (SSRs), a common class of short structural variants. Previously, we showed that repetitive sequences can directly influence the binding of transcription factors to their proximate recognition sites, a mechanism we termed non-consensus binding...
May 5, 2018: Neurogenetics
David Z Pan, Kristina M Garske, Marcus Alvarez, Yash V Bhagat, James Boocock, Elina Nikkola, Zong Miao, Chelsea K Raulerson, Rita M Cantor, Mete Civelek, Craig A Glastonbury, Kerrin S Small, Michael Boehnke, Aldons J Lusis, Janet S Sinsheimer, Karen L Mohlke, Markku Laakso, Päivi Pajukanta, Arthur Ko
Increased adiposity is a hallmark of obesity and overweight, which affect 2.2 billion people world-wide. Understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms that underlie obesity-related phenotypes can help to improve treatment options and drug development. Here we perform promoter Capture Hi-C in human adipocytes to investigate interactions between gene promoters and distal elements as a transcription-regulating mechanism contributing to these phenotypes. We find that promoter-interacting elements in human adipocytes are enriched for adipose-related transcription factor motifs, such as PPARG and CEBPB, and contribute to heritability of cis-regulated gene expression...
April 17, 2018: Nature Communications
Swaraj Basu, Erik Larsson
Antisense transcripts and other long non-coding RNAs are pervasive in mammalian cells, and some of these molecules have been proposed to regulate proximal protein-coding genes in cis For example, non-coding transcription can contribute to inactivation of tumor suppressor genes in cancer, and antisense transcripts have been implicated in the epigenetic inactivation of imprinted genes. However, our knowledge is still limited and more such regulatory interactions likely await discovery. Here, we make use of available gene expression data from a large compendium of human tumors to generate hypotheses regarding non-coding-to-coding cis -regulatory relationships with emphasis on negative associations, as these are less likely to arise for reasons other than cis -regulation...
April 17, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Peter L Freddolino, Jamie Yang, Amir Momen-Roknabadi, Saeed Tavazoie
Cells adapt to familiar changes in their environment by activating predefined regulatory programs that establish adaptive gene expression states. These hard-wired pathways, however, may be inadequate for adaptation to environments never encountered before. Here, we reveal evidence for an alternative mode of gene regulation that enables adaptation to adverse conditions without relying on external sensory information or genetically predetermined cis -regulation. Instead, individual genes achieve optimal expression levels through a stochastic search for improved fitness...
April 5, 2018: ELife
Chao Liu, Di Wu, Lingli Wang, Jiangbo Dang, Qiao He, Qigao Guo, Guolu Liang
Triploid loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.) has greater vigor than their respective diploid and tetraploid parents, but the molecular basis of this triploid heterosis remains unclear. Recent studies have suggested that DNA methylation is involved in heterosis, which is a recognized method of suppressing gene expression. However, our previous studies revealed a trend of increased DNA methylation in triploid loquat hybrids compared to their parents. To elucidate the mechanism of triploid loquat heterosis, we investigated the levels and regulation of relative gene expression between hybrid and parental lines using RNA-Seq technology...
April 2, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Daniel Kummer, Klaus Ebnet
Junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs) are cell surface adhesion receptors of the immunoglobulin superfamily. JAMs are involved in a variety of biological processes both in the adult organism but also during development. These include processes such as inflammation, angiogenesis, hemostasis, or epithelial barrier formation, but also developmental processes such as hematopoiesis, germ cell development, and development of the nervous system. Several of these functions of JAMs depend on a physical and functional interaction with integrins...
March 26, 2018: Cells
Zhaobin Dong, Juan Yu, Hui Li, Wei Huang, Ling Xu, Yue Zhao, Tao Zhang, Wenying Xu, Jiming Jiang, Zhen Su, Weiwei Jin
By putting heterologous genomic regulatory systems into contact, chromosome addition lines derived from interspecific or intergeneric crosses allow the investigation of transcriptional regulation in new genomic environments. Here, we report the transcriptional and epigenetic adaptation of stably inherited alien maize chromosomes in two oat-maize addition (OMA) lines. We found that the majority of maize genes displayed maize-specific transcription in the oat genomic environment. Nevertheless, a quarter of the expressed genes encoded by the two maize chromosomes were differentially expressed genes (DEGs)...
March 20, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Hirofumi Chiba, Yoichi Kakuta, Yoshitaka Kinouchi, Yosuke Kawai, Kazuhiro Watanabe, Munenori Nagao, Takeo Naito, Motoyuki Onodera, Rintaro Moroi, Masatake Kuroha, Yoshitake Kanazawa, Tomoya Kimura, Hisashi Shiga, Katsuya Endo, Kenichi Negoro, Masao Nagasaki, Michiaki Unno, Tooru Shimosegawa
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has an unknown etiology; however, accumulating evidence suggests that IBD is a multifactorial disease influenced by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The influence of genetic variants on DNA methylation in cis and cis effects on expression have been demonstrated. We hypothesized that IBD susceptibility single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) regulate susceptibility gene expressions in cis by regulating DNA methylation around SNPs...
2018: PloS One
Moran Brenner, Lior Lobel, Ilya Borovok, Nadejda Sigal, Anat A Herskovits
Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a saprophyte and intracellular pathogen. Transition to the pathogenic state relies on sensing of host-derived metabolites, yet it remains unclear how these are recognized and how they mediate virulence gene regulation. We previously found that low availability of isoleucine signals Lm to activate the virulent state. This response is dependent on CodY, a global regulator and isoleucine sensor. Isoleucine-bound CodY represses metabolic pathways including branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) biosynthesis, however under BCAA depletion, as occurs during infection, BCAA biosynthesis is upregulated and isoleucine-unbound CodY activates virulence genes...
March 2018: PLoS Genetics
Romain Madelaine, James H Notwell, Gemini Skariah, Caroline Halluin, Charles C Chen, Gill Bejerano, Philippe Mourrain
Thousands of human disease-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) lie in the non-coding genome, but only a handful have been demonstrated to affect gene expression and human biology. We computationally identified risk-associated SNPs in deeply conserved non-exonic elements (CNEs) potentially contributing to 45 human diseases. We further demonstrated that human CNE1/rs17421627 associated with retinal vasculature defects showed transcriptional activity in the zebrafish retina, while introducing the risk-associated allele completely abolished CNE1 enhancer activity...
March 6, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Wei-Hong Sun, Ying-Zheng Wang, Yan Xu, Xiao-Wei Yu
Long non-coding RNAs play significant roles in many biological processes. The roles of lncRNAs in Pichia pastoris remain unclear. In this work, we focused on the identification of lncRNAs in P. pastoris and exploration of their potential roles in stress response to PLA2 overexpression and methanol induction. By strand specific RNA sequencing, 208 novel long non-coding RNAs were identified and analyzed. Bioinformatic analysis showed potential trans-target genes and cis-regulated genes of 39 differential lncRNAs...
February 26, 2018: Genomics
Min-Yan Chen, Guang-Dong Liao, Bin Zhou, Le-Ni Kang, Yan-Mei He, Shang-Wei Li
OBJECTIVES: To compare long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels in endometrium between patients with repeated implantation failure (RIF) following in vitro fertilization (IVF)-embryo transfer and control women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and alignments were performed to identify lncRNAs and mRNAs using endometrial samples collected from 3 patients and 3 control women. A subset of 10 differentially expressed lncRNAs and 6 mRNAs were validated in all participants using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Ye Lu, Diana Zhou, Rebecca King, Shuang Zhu, Claire L Simpson, Byron C Jones, Wenbo Zhang, Eldon E Geisert, Lu Lu
Purpose: Usher syndrome (US) is characterized by a loss of vision due to retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and deafness. US has three clinical subtypes, but even within each subtype, the severity varies. Myosin VIIA, coded by Myo7a , has been identified as one of the causal genes of US. This study aims to identify pathways and other genes through which Myo7a interacts to affect the presentation of US symptoms. Methods: In this study, we used the retinal tissue of BXD recombinant inbred (RI) mice to examine the expression of Myo7a and perform genetic mapping...
2018: Molecular Vision
Julia Seyfarth, Heinz Ahlert, Joachim Rosenbauer, Christina Baechle, Michael Roden, Reinhard W Holl, Ertan Mayatepek, Thomas Meissner, Marc Jacobsen
BACKGROUND: Impaired regulatory T cell immunity plays a central role in the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) signaling is essential for regulatory T cells (TREG ), and cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein (CIS) regulates IL-2R signaling as a feedback inhibitor. Previous studies identified association of CISH promoter region single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with susceptibility to infectious diseases. METHODS: Here we analyzed allele frequencies of three CISH SNPs (i...
February 6, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
Shuquan Rao, Mahdi Ghani, Zhiyun Guo, Yuetiva Deming, Kesheng Wang, Rebecca Sims, Canquan Mao, Yao Yao, Carlos Cruchaga, Dietrich A Stephan, Ekaterina Rogaeva
Although multiple susceptibility loci for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) have been identified, a large portion of the genetic risk for this disease remains unexplained. LOAD risk may be associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms responsible for changes in gene expression (eSNPs). To detect eSNPs associated with LOAD, we integrated data from LOAD genome-wide association studies and expression quantitative trait loci using Sherlock (a Bayesian statistical method). We identified a cis-regulatory eSNP (rs2927438) located on chromosome 19q13...
January 3, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Fang Zhang, Guiyou Liu, Daojing Li, Changjuan Wei, Junwei Hao
Inflammation that complicates many autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), has been correlated to abnormal differentiation of Th17 cells. However, the reasons that promote Th17 cell-driven autoimmunity are yet to be discovered. In this study, we sought evidence that DNA-damage-inducible transcript 4 (DDIT4) and its associated long noncoding RNA DDIT4 (lncDDIT4) inhibit Th17 cell differentiation. We recruited 36 patients. Six MS patients and five healthy volunteers (controls) contributed PBMCs as material for microarray analysis...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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