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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912247/molecular-evolution-in-insect-societies-an-eco-evo-devo-synthesis
#1
Amy L Toth, Sandra M Rehan
The evolution of eusociality is a perennial issue in evolutionary biology, and genomic advances have fueled steadily growing interest in the genetic changes underlying social evolution. Along with a recent flurry of research on comparative and evolutionary genomics in different eusocial insect groups (bees, ants, wasps, and termites), several mechanistic explanations have emerged to describe the molecular evolution of eusociality from solitary behavior. These include solitary physiological ground plans, genetic toolkits of deeply conserved genes, evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes, cis regulation, and the structure of gene networks, epigenetics, and novel genes...
November 28, 2016: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875998/transcriptome-profiling-and-comparison-of-maize-ear-heterosis-during-the-spikelet-and-floret-differentiation-stages
#2
Xiaojiao Hu, Hongwu Wang, Xizhou Diao, Zhifang Liu, Kun Li, Yujin Wu, Qianjin Liang, Hui Wang, Changling Huang
BACKGROUND: Hybridization is a prominent process in the evolution of crop plants that can give rise to gene expression variation, phenotypic novelty and heterosis. Maize is the most successful crop in utilizing heterosis. The development of hybrid maize ears exhibits strong heterotic vigor and greatly affects maize yield. However, a comprehensive perspective on transcriptional variation and its correlation with heterosis during maize ear development is not available. RESULTS: Using RNA sequencing technology, we investigated the transcriptome profiles of maize ears in the spikelet and floret differentiation stages of hybrid ZD808 and its parents CL11 and NG5...
November 22, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866169/competitive-binding-by-transcription-factors-a-new-mechanism-for-mendelian-dominance-in-regulatory-genetic-pathways
#3
Adam H Porter, Norman A Johnson, Alexander Y Tulchinsky
We report a new mechanism for allelic dominance in regulatory genetic interactions that we call binding dominance. We investigated a biophysical model of gene regulation, where the fractional occupancy of a transcription factor (TF) on the cis-regulated promoter site it binds to is determined by binding energy (-ΔG) and TF dosage. Transcription and gene expression proceed when the TF is bound to the promoter. In diploids, individuals may be heterozygous at the cis-site, at the TF's coding region, or at the TF's own promoter, which determines allele-specific dosage...
November 18, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831498/a-systematic-comparison-reveals-substantial-differences-in-chromosomal-versus-episomal-encoding-of-enhancer-activity
#4
Fumitaka Inoue, Martin Kircher, Beth Martin, Gregory M Cooper, Daniela M Witten, Michael T McManus, Nadav Ahituv, Jay Shendure
Candidate enhancers can be identified on the basis of chromatin modifications, the binding of chromatin modifiers and transcription factors and cofactors, or chromatin accessibility. However, validating such candidates as bona fide enhancers requires functional characterization, typically achieved through reporter assays that test whether a sequence can increase expression of a transcriptional reporter via a minimal promoter. A longstanding concern is that reporter assays are mainly implemented on episomes, which are thought to lack physiological chromatin...
November 9, 2016: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729396/leaf-growth-response-to-mild-drought-natural-variation-in-arabidopsis-sheds-light-on-trait-architecture
#5
Pieter Clauw, Frederik Coppens, Arthur Korte, Dorota Herman, Bram Slabbinck, Stijn Dhondt, Twiggy Van Daele, Liesbeth De Milde, Mattias Vermeersch, Katrien Maleux, Steven Maere, Nathalie Gonzalez, Dirk Inzé
Plant growth and crop yield are negatively affected by a reduction in water availability. However, a clear understanding of how growth is regulated under nonlethal drought conditions is lacking. Recent advances in genomics, phenomics, and transcriptomics allow in-depth analysis of natural variation. In this study, we conducted a detailed screening of leaf growth responses to mild drought in a worldwide collection of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. The genetic architecture of the growth responses upon mild drought was investigated by subjecting the different leaf growth phenotypes to genome-wide association mapping and by characterizing the transcriptome of young developing leaves...
October 2016: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725110/expression-profile-of-long-noncoding-rnas-and-mrnas-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-from-myasthenia-gravis-patients
#6
Fang Zhang, Guiyou Liu, Yali Bu, Xiaofeng Ma, Junwei Hao
For the epigenetic characterization of myasthenia gravis (MG), we determined whether long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are expressed differentially in subjects with and without MG. Compared with healthy control subjects, the MG patients had 1561 upregulated lncRNAs, 1034 downregulated lncRNAs, 921 upregulated mRNAs, and 806 downregulated mRNAs (fold change>2.0). Several GO terms including nucleic acid transcription factor activity, inflammatory response, regulation of leukocyte activation, lymphocyte proliferation and regulation of B cell proliferation were enriched in gene lists, suggesting a potential correlation with MG...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685983/consensus-analysis-of-whole-transcriptome-profiles-from-two-breast-cancer-patient-cohorts-reveals-long-non-coding-rnas-associated-with-intrinsic-subtype-and-the-tumour-microenvironment
#7
James R Bradford, Angela Cox, Philip Bernard, Nicola J Camp
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as crucial regulators of cellular processes and diseases such as cancer; however, their functions remain poorly characterised. Several studies have demonstrated that lncRNAs are typically disease and tumour subtype specific, particularly in breast cancer where lncRNA expression alone is sufficient to discriminate samples based on hormone status and molecular intrinsic subtype. However, little attempt has been made to assess the reproducibility of lncRNA signatures across more than one dataset...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670347/twister-ribozymes-as-highly-versatile-expression-platforms-for-artificial-riboswitches
#8
Michele Felletti, Julia Stifel, Lena A Wurmthaler, Sophie Geiger, Jörg S Hartig
The utilization of ribozyme-based synthetic switches in biotechnology has many advantages such as an increased robustness due to in cis regulation, small coding space and a high degree of modularity. The report of small endonucleolytic twister ribozymes provides new opportunities for the development of advanced tools for engineering synthetic genetic switches. Here we show that the twister ribozyme is distinguished as an outstandingly flexible expression platform, which in conjugation with three different aptamer domains, enables the construction of many different one- and two-input regulators of gene expression in both bacteria and yeast...
2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646706/transcriptome-profiling-in-rat-inbred-strains-and-experimental-cross-reveals-discrepant-genetic-architecture-of-genome-wide-gene-expression
#9
Pamela J Kaisaki, Georg W Otto, Karène Argoud, Stephan C Collins, Robert H Wallis, Steven P Wilder, Anthony C Y Yau, Christophe Hue, Sophie Calderari, Marie-Thérèse Bihoreau, Jean-Baptiste Cazier, Richard Mott, Dominique Gauguier
To test the impact of genetic heterogeneity on cis- and trans-mediated mechanisms of gene expression regulation, we profiled the transcriptome of adipose tissue in 20 inbred congenic strains derived from diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats and Brown-Norway (BN) controls, which contain well-defined blocks (1Mb-183Mb) of genetic polymorphisms, and in 123 genetically heterogeneous rats of an (GKxBN)F2 offspring. Within each congenic we identified 73 to 1,351 differentially expressed genes (DEG), only 7.7% of which mapped within the congenic blocks, and which may be regulated in cis The remainder localised outside the blocks, and therefore must be regulated in trans Most trans-regulated genes exhibited approximately two-fold expression changes, consistent with mono-allelic expression...
September 19, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633960/genome-wide-profiling-of-long-non-coding-rna-expression-patterns-in-anthracycline-resistant-breast-cancer-cells
#10
Dong-Xu He, Guang-Yuan Zhang, Xiao-Ting Gu, Ai-Qin Mao, Chun-Xiao Lu, Jian Jin, De-Quan Liu, Xin Ma
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in cancer progression. In the present study, we analyzed the lncRNA profiles in adriamycin-resistant and -sensitive breast cancer cells and found a group of dysregulated lncRNAs in the adriamycin-resistant cells. Expression of the dysregulated lncRNAs was correlated with dysregulated mRNAs, and these were enriched in GO and KEGG pathways associated with cancer progression and chemoresistance development. Among these lncRNA-mRNA interactions, some lncRNAs may cis‑regulate neighboring protein-coding genes and be involved in chemoresistance...
August 22, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579475/cadherin-13-human-cis-regulation-and-selectively-altered-addiction-phenotypes-and-cerebral-cortical-dopamine-in-knockout-mice
#11
Jana Drgonova, Donna Walther, G Luke Hartstein, Mohammad O Bukhari, Michael H Baumann, Jonathan Katz, Frank Scott Hall, Elizabeth R Arnold, Shaun Flax, Anthony Riley, Olga Rivero-Martin, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Juan Troncoso, Barbara Ranscht, George R Uhl
The cadherin 13 (CDH13) gene encodes a cell adhesion molecule likely to influence development and connections of brain circuits that modulate addiction, locomotion and cognition, including those that involve midbrain dopamine neurons. Human CDH13 mRNA expression differs by more than 80% in postmortem cerebral cortical samples from individuals with different CDH13 genotypes, supporting examination of mice with altered Cdh13 expression as models for common human variation at this locus. Constitutive cdh13 knockout mice display evidence for changed cocaine reward: shifted dose response relationship in tests of cocaine-conditioned place preference using doses that do not alter cocaine conditioned taste aversion...
August 18, 2016: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466232/modeling-cis-regulation-with-a-compendium-of-genome-wide-histone-h3k27ac-profiles
#12
Su Wang, Chongzhi Zang, Tengfei Xiao, Jingyu Fan, Shenglin Mei, Qian Qin, Qiu Wu, Xujuan Li, Kexin Xu, Housheng Hansen He, Myles Brown, Clifford A Meyer, X Shirley Liu
Model-based analysis of regulation of gene expression (MARGE) is a framework for interpreting the relationship between the H3K27ac chromatin environment and differentially expressed gene sets. The framework has three main functions: MARGE-potential, MARGE-express, and MARGE-cistrome. MARGE-potential defines a regulatory potential (RP) for each gene as the sum of H3K27ac ChIP-seq signals weighted by a function of genomic distance from the transcription start site. The MARGE framework includes a compendium of RPs derived from 365 human and 267 mouse H3K27ac ChIP-seq data sets...
October 2016: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418400/the-loss-of-vernalization-requirement-in-narrow-leafed-lupin-is-associated-with-a-deletion-in-the-promoter-and-de-repressed-expression-of-a-flowering-locus-t-ft-homologue
#13
Matthew N Nelson, Michał Książkiewicz, Sandra Rychel, Naghmeh Besharat, Candy M Taylor, Katarzyna Wyrwa, Ricarda Jost, William Erskine, Wallace A Cowling, Jens D Berger, Jacqueline Batley, James L Weller, Barbara Naganowska, Bogdan Wolko
Adaptation of Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin) to cropping in southern Australian and northern Europe was transformed by a dominant mutation (Ku) that removed vernalization requirement for flowering. The Ku mutation is now widely used in lupin breeding to confer early flowering and maturity. We report here the identity of the Ku mutation. We used a range of genetic, genomic and gene expression approaches to determine whether Flowering Locus T (FT) homologues are associated with the Ku locus. One of four FT homologues present in the narrow-leafed lupin genome, LanFTc1, perfectly co-segregated with the Ku locus in a reference mapping population...
July 15, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412088/cisase-a-likelihood-based-method-for-detecting-putative-cis-regulated-allele-specific-expression-in-rna-sequencing-data
#14
Zhi Liu, Tuantuan Gui, Zhen Wang, Hong Li, Yunhe Fu, Xiao Dong, Yixue Li
MOTIVATION: Allele-specific expression (ASE) is a useful way to identify cis-acting regulatory variation, which provides opportunities to develop new therapeutic strategies that activate beneficial alleles or silence mutated alleles at specific loci. However, multiple problems hinder the identification of ASE in next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. RESULTS: We developed cisASE, a likelihood-based method for detecting ASE on single nucleotide variant (SNV), exon and gene levels from sequencing data without requiring phasing or parental information...
July 13, 2016: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27380029/allele-specific-transcriptome-and-methylome-analysis-reveals-stable-inheritance-and-cis-regulation-of-dna-methylation-in-nasonia
#15
Xu Wang, John H Werren, Andrew G Clark
Gene expression divergence between closely related species could be attributed to both cis- and trans- DNA sequence changes during evolution, but it is unclear how the evolutionary dynamics of epigenetic marks are regulated. In eutherian mammals, biparental DNA methylation marks are erased and reset during gametogenesis, resulting in paternal or maternal imprints, which lead to genomic imprinting. Whether DNA methylation reprogramming exists in insects is not known. Wasps of the genus Nasonia are non-social parasitoids that are emerging as a model for studies of epigenetic processes in insects...
July 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375590/herpesvirus-late-gene-expression-a-viral-specific-pre-initiation-complex-is-key
#16
REVIEW
Henri Gruffat, Roberta Marchione, Evelyne Manet
During their productive cycle, herpesviruses exhibit a strictly regulated temporal cascade of gene expression that can be divided into three general stages: immediate-early (IE), early (E), and late (L). This expression program is the result of a complex interplay between viral and cellular factors at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, as well as structural differences within the promoter architecture for each of the three gene classes. Since the cellular enzyme RNA polymerase II (RNAP-II) is responsible for the transcription of herpesvirus genes, most viral promoters contain DNA motifs that are common with those of cellular genes, although promoter complexity decreases from immediate-early to late genes...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27363013/comprehensive-analysis-of-differentially-expressed-profiles-of-lncrnas-and-circrnas-with-associated-co-expression-and-cerna-networks-in-bladder-carcinoma
#17
Mengge Huang, Zhenyu Zhong, Mengxin Lv, Jing Shu, Qiang Tian, Junxia Chen
Accumulating evidences indicate that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and circular RNAs (circRNAs) play important roles in tumorigenesis. However, the mechanisms remain largely unknown. To explore lncRNAs and circRNAs expression profiling and their biological functions in bladder cancer, we surveyed the lncRNA/circRNA and mRNA expression profiles of bladder cancer and para-cancer tissues using microarray for four patients. Thousands of significantly changed lncRNAs and mRNAs as well as hundreds of circRNAs were identified...
May 30, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27300003/folate-receptor-alpha-upregulates-oct4-sox2-and-klf4-and-downregulates-mir-138-and-mir-let-7-in-cranial-neural-crest-cells
#18
Vineet Mohanty, Amar Shah, Elise Allender, M Rizwan Siddiqui, Sarah Monick, Shunsuke Ichi, Barbara Mania-Farnell, David G McLone, Tadanori Tomita, Chandra Shekhar Mayanil
Prenatal folic acid (FA) supplementation prevents neural tube defects. Folate receptor alpha (FRα) is critical for embryonic development, including neural crest (NC) development. Previously we showed that FRα translocates to the nucleus in response to FA, where it acts as a transcription factor. In this study we examined if FA through interaction with FRα regulates stem cell characteristics of cranial neural crest cells (CNCCs)-critical for normal development. We hypothesized that FRα up-regulates coding genes and simultaneously down-regulates non-coding miRNA which targets coding genes in CNCCs...
June 14, 2016: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27235448/haplotype-and-diplotype-analyses-of-variation-in-ercc5-transcription-cis-regulation-in-normal-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#19
Xiaolu Zhang, Erin L Crawford, Thomas M Blomquist, Sadik A Khuder, Jiyoun Yeo, Albert M Levin, James C Willey
Excision repair cross-complementation group 5 (ERCC5) gene plays an important role in nucleotide excision repair, and dysregulation of ERCC5 is associated with increased lung cancer risk. Haplotype and diplotype analyses were conducted in normal bronchial epithelial cells (NBEC) to better understand mechanisms responsible for interindividual variation in transcript abundance regulation of ERCC5 We determined genotypes at putative ERCC5 cis-regulatory SNPs (cis-rSNP) rs751402 and rs2296147, and marker SNPs rs1047768 and rs17655...
July 1, 2016: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27224245/von-willebrand-factor-gene-variants-associate-with-herpes-simplex-encephalitis
#20
Nada Abdelmagid, Biborka Bereczky-Veress, Santosh Atanur, Alena Musilová, Václav Zídek, Laura Saba, Andreas Warnecke, Mohsen Khademi, Marie Studahl, Elisabeth Aurelius, Anders Hjalmarsson, Ana Garcia-Diaz, Cécile V Denis, Tomas Bergström, Birgit Sköldenberg, Ingrid Kockum, Timothy Aitman, Norbert Hübner, Tomas Olsson, Michal Pravenec, Margarita Diez
Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare complication of Herpes simplex virus type-1 infection. It results in severe parenchymal damage in the brain. Although viral latency in neurons is very common in the population, it remains unclear why certain individuals develop HSE. Here we explore potential host genetic variants predisposing to HSE. In order to investigate this we used a rat HSE model comparing the HSE susceptible SHR (Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats) with the asymptomatic infection of BN (Brown Norway)...
2016: PloS One
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